University of Malaya Students Repository

    Al-Baqillani’s thoughts on selected theological issues of the Qur’an / Much Hasan Darojat

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    This present research discusses al-BÉqillÉnÊ’s thoughts on theological issues related to the Qur’Én. It covers three significant problems; the createdness of the Qur’an, the anthropomorphists’ approach to the Qur’ān, and the authenticity of the Uthmanī muÎÍaf. Al-Bāqillānī categorised these issues into three different theological groups; Mu‘tazilites, antrophomorphists, and Shi‘ites. With the Mu‘tazilites, he rejected the problem of the createdness of the Qur’Én, which involves disscussion on the divine speech of God, meaning of speech, its chacacteristics and divisions, and other related topics. Al-BÉqillÉnÊ also disproved some theological doctrines formulated by the anthropomorphists in dealing with the Qur’ān and Íadīth. His criticisms included the extreme (Gulāt) Shi‘ites as well as the Øufis. Al-BÉqillÉnÊ also defended the authenticity of the Uthmānī muÎÍaf of the Qur’ān againts the Early Twelver Shi‘ites’ claim. He proved the validity of the muÎÍaf right from its compilation until it became the perfect codex employed by the authoritative companions. He also delineated their integrity who directly learnt from the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the seven variant readings of the Qur’ān. These readings are valid and approved by the Prophet (peace be upon him). In this study, the approach that was applied is textual analysis, using descriptive and analytical methods to investigate and analyze primary sources related to the issues. It also adopted the historical method to scrutinize several events on the subject. Al-BÉqillÉnÊ attempted to discuss these issues; the createdness of the Qur’Én, the anthropomorphic doctrines, and the authenticity of the Uthmānī muÎÍaf of the Qur’Én by developing its principles in accordance with the theological position of al-Ash‘arīte’ views. He was one of those who initiated the intellectual initiative to deepen the level of intellectual discourse on some of the principal foundations in the theological thoughts of this school. In his intellectual undertaking in tackling those issues, he also provided a number of relevant arguments againts the Orientalists’ critiques regarding the above related subject

    Synthesis, characterization and testing of zeolite and alumina supported organometallic (Ni, Pd, Pt and Mo) catalyst for the hydrodeoxgenation of oleic acid and stearic acid into N- and iso-paraffin biofuel / Ayodele Olumide Bolarinwa

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    This report provides additional knowledge to bridge the existing gap in the surveyed literature in the aspect of organometallic catalyst synthesis for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and isomerization (ISO) of biomass into high grade biofuel. Prior to catalyst synthesis, a thermodynamic feasibility study was carried out using Aspen Hysys Process Simulator v7.2 to establish the feasibility of HDO reaction of oleic acid (OA). Subsequently, in order to validate the germane ability of organometallic catalyst in HDO process, two Ni supported catalyst were synthesized and tested on the HDO of OA. The first nickel alumina catalyst (Ni/Al2O3) was synthesized via the incorporation of inorganic Ni precursor into Al2O3, while the second (NiOx/Al2O3) was via the incorporation nickel oxalate (NiOx) prepared by functionalization of Ni with oxalic acid (OxA) into Al2O3. Their characterization results showed that Ni species present in Ni/Al2O3 was 8.2% while 9.3% was observed for NiOx/Al2O3 according to the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) result. Consequently, NiOx/Al2O3 has a better HDO activity producing 63% n-C18H38 compared to 41% n-C18H38 produced by Ni/Al2O3. In addition, NiOx/Al2O3 produces 16% iso-C18H38 which is considered biofuel-essential-component. The superiority of NiOx/Al2O3 was ascribed to the OxA functionalization which also increases its acidity and guarantee high Ni dispersion as seen in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) result. In view of this, other synthesized catalysts were functionalized with OxA. Furthermore, two Pd functionalized with OxA and supported on zeolite (PdOx/Zeol) catalysts were synthesized and one was further modified with fluoride ion (FPdOx/Zeol) to enhance its acidity. Their HDO activities results did not show clear distinction, however, FPdOx/Zeol has higher ISO activities producing 24.8% iso-C18H38 compared to 16% produced by PdOx/Zeol. Consequently Mo, Pt and Ni–Mo were equally functionalized as FMoOx/Zeol, FPtOx/Zeol and NiMoFOx/Zeol, respectively, characterized and tested on HDO of OA. Their scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD characterization results showed that all the catalysts loss varying degree of crystallinity which resulted into increase in their Si/Al ratio due to the effect of OxA/fluoride ion functionalization and calcination which removes the extra framework alumina and framework alumina, respectively. The effect of crystallinity loss was of the order FMoOx/Zeol > FPdOx/Zeol > FPtOx/Zeol > NiMo/FOxZeol > PdOx/Zeol > NiOx/Al2O3. The study on the effect of operational variables showed that temperature, pressure, time, catalyst loading and gas flowrate have strong influence on the process. In the optimization study using FPtOx/Zeol, the optimum conditions for the HDO and ISO of OA were 58 min reaction time, 27.8 mg FPtOx/Zeol loading, 18 bar and 364 °C to produce 28.39% iso-C18H38 and 68.93% n-C18H38. A study on the comparison of the economic and technical viability of the organometallic catalysts based on cost of the catalysts precursor with respect to their observed HDO and ISO abilities showed that the catalysts cost effectiveness was of the order NiMoFOx/Zeol, NiOx/Al2O3, FMoOx/Zeol, FPdOx/Zeol, PdOx/Zeol and FPtOx/Zeol. In addition, during the reusability results, NiMoFOx/Zeol also showed superiority to others strictly owing to its preparation procedure that first employed Mo to modify the Zeol support prior to Ni precursor incorporation

    Ecology of waders in the Jeram and Remis mudflats, Selangor Darul Ehsan / Nor Atiqah Norazlimi

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    The objectives of this project were to study the distribution and abundance of waders shorebird and water bird species, to study the factors (i.e. tide, time of the day and disturbance) affecting the distribution and behaviour of waders shorebirds and water birds, and to determine the relationships between morphological characteristics and foraging behaviour of waders shorebirds and water birds. The study was conducted in the mudflat area of Jeram and Remis Beaches (in Selangor, Malaysia) from August 2013 to July 2014 using direct observation technique (aided with binoculars and video recorder). Three plots were set-up in Jeram Beach consisted a total of 27 ha meanwhile two plots were set-up in Remis Beach which cover a total area of 28 ha. For abundance study, the birds were counted in four interval periods (i.e. from 0800-1000 hours, 1000- 1200 hours, 1400-1600 hours and 1600-1800 hours) in all tidal states. For foraging behaviour study, the actively foraging birds were watched and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds up to a maximum of five minutes. A total of 19,041 individuals of waders were recorded during sampling period. No significant differences were found in bird’s abundance between Jeram and Remis Beaches (t = 2.96, p = 0.05). Although no difference exist between the sampling sites, a significant difference were detected between the sampling plots in Jeram Beach (S = 16.67, p < 0.001) and also between the sampling plots in Remis Beach (W = 78, p = 0.003). Two samples t-test shows a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (t = 2.39, p = 0.036). A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p <0.05), bill size and prey size (R = -0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg-length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference in avian abundance between high and low tides (W = 78.0, p < 0.005). A Friedman’s Two-Way ANOVA by rank test proves the significant differences that occurred in bird’s distribution between ebbing, low tide peak and rising tide (S = 17.17, p < 0.0001). χ2 test was used for all behaviours engaged by birds during low tide, and the results show a significant difference between behaviours (χ2 = 1831.9, p < 0.0001). An ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference in the abundance of birds between interval periods (S = 487.0, p = 0.554). Spearman’s rank correlation shows significant relationships between the abundance of bird with the abundance of humans, dogs and vehicles (p < 0.05) in both Jeram and Remis Beaches. Therefore, this study suggests that Jeram and Remis Beaches is important area for waders. Tide and disturbance affect the abundance and behaviours of birds meanwhile time of the day do not affect their abundance and behaviour. The morphological characteristics of bird also influence birds’ foraging behavior

    Bioremediation of leachate from landfills in Selangor using Ganoderma Australe (FR.) pat And Trametes Menziesii (BERK.) ryvarden / Wan Razarinah Binti Wan Abdul Razak

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    The characterization of leachate from ten different landfills (sanitary and non-sanitary) in Selangor have been studied. The general chemical parameters of leachate showed large differences among the landfills. The concentration of total nitrogen, total suspended solids and ammoniacal nitrogen varied from 8.0 to 1700 mg/L, 10 to 3000 mg/L and 0.94 to 3200 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of total organic carbon, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were in the range of 0-45070 mg/L, 56-11360 mg/L and 165-16000 mg/L, respectively. Leachate from closed landfill had lower BOD5 and COD content but higher pH and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) content than leachate from active landfill. Therefore, higher proportion of organic materials that existed in ‘fresh’ leachates makes it biodegradable and can be removed by biological processes. Twelve different local fungal strains were screened for their capability to be used in leachate treatment. Out of twelve fungal species, two white-rot fungal species that are Ganoderma australe, and Trametes menziesii were able to grow on leachate medium. This make them the most potential to be used in bioremediation of leachate. The use of G. australe, and T. menziesii in leachate treatment was carried out using four different methods i.e. free-cell mycelia, immobilized mycelia cultures in flasks, immobilized mycelia cultures in column, and extracellular enzymes. Free-cell mycelia of G. australe and T. menziesii were capable of removing leachate BOD5 at all treatments studied. The highest BOD5 removal (89.33%) was demonstrated using G. australe in 50% unsterilized leachate. In addition, dilution of leachate and sterility of the medium did not significantly affect the percentage removal of leachate. The use of immobilized G. australe in flask displayed the best removal of BOD5 (93.09%) and COD (17.84%) for 100% leachate after 28 days of treatment compared to immobilize T. menziesii and coculture of G. australe and T. iii menziesii. Treatment of leachate by immobilized G. australe in column packing revealed small percentage of BOD5 removal which, only occurred in 100% leachate after cycle 4 (9.02%) and cycle 10 (1.43%). In contrast, COD removal in the range of 1.23-49.38% was achieved at most of the cycles where, the highest percentage (49.38%) was obtained in 50% leachate after 10th cycle. Removal of NH3-N occurred in both 50% and 100% leachate. The highest percentage of NH3-N was obtained after cycle 8 for both leachate concentration with 43.61% in 50% leachate and 38.34% in 100% leachate. Profiling of enzymes produced by G. australe and T. menziesii revealed that both fungi were able to produce ligninolytic enzymes (LiP, MnP and laccase). However, G. australe demonstrated better result in producing ligninolytic enzymes than T. menziesii. Productivity of ligninolytic enzymes by G. australe was 1.39 ± 0.60 U/ml for LiP, 45.83 ± 1.81 U/ml for MnP and 21.93 ± 0.79 U/ml for laccase while, as for T. menziesii was 3.28 ± 1.19 U/ml for LiP, 27.22 ± 0.90 U/ml for MnP and 14.04 ± 0.18 U/ml for laccase. Treatment of 100% leachate by cell-free enzymes (=crude enzymes) of immobilized G. australe at optimum crude enzymes concentration (10 U/ml) demonstrated 0.57%, 74.23% and 65.71% of BOD5, COD and NH3-N removal, respectively. Meanwhile, optimum time of exposure of crude enzymes to leachate was achieved after 4 hours exposure with 81.60% COD removal and 61.37% NH3-N removal. A promising BOD5, COD and NH3-N leachate removal was obtained with the treatment using immobilized G. australe in flask followed by treatment with crude enzymes. The percentage removal of BOD5 in leachate was 58.47% while for COD and NH3-N were 57.02% and 62.17%, respectively. This findings suggested that in order to achieve optimum removal of leachate BOD5, COD and NH3-N, combination treatment of immobilized G. australe in flask and cell-free enzymes (=crude enzymes) should be applied

    Development of an optimal dragonfly-like flapping wing structure for use in biomimetic micro air vehicles / Praveena Nair Sivasankaran

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    Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircrafts that are bioinspired from flying organisms to achieve lift and thrust by flapping their wings. Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) are a relatively new and rapidly growing area of aerospace research. They were first defined by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1997 as unmanned aircraft that are less than 15 cm in any dimension. This allows BMAV to potentially be smaller and more lightweight than the other two types. These characteristics make BMAV ideally suited for flight missions in confined areas (e.g. around power lines, narrow streets, indoors, etc.). Therefore, BMAV structural components must be ultra-lightweight, compact, and flexible. Most past MAV research has focused on fixed wings, which are essentially scaled-down versions of wings on conventional fixed wing aircraft. These wings are unsuitable for BMAV due to their lack of flexibility. So a new type of structural wing design is required for BMAV. In this work, a dragonfly wing structure is mimicked to construct a new BMAV wing design. A dragonfly (Odonata) was selected for biomimicry, because they are highly maneuverable flyers, capable of hovering, rapid forward flight, or reverse flight. Therefore, structurally analyzing these wings could yield results that inspire the design of more effective wings for BMAVs. The overall objective of this research is to develop a simplified wing model for a BMAV, bioinspired from actual dragonfly wings. A simplified model was created using spatial network analysis, a topological optimization method. These simplified wing frame models were then fabricated using seven different types of materials. Stainless steel type 321, balsa wood, red pre-impregnated fiberglass, black graphite carbon fiber, polyvinyl acid, acrylic and acrylo-nitirile butadiene styrene. These wing frame structures were fabricated using laser cutting machine and a 3D printer. These wing frames were then immersed in a chitin-chitosan membrane by a casting method. These wing frames were subjected to iv mechanical testing’s such as bending and tensile to study its suitability for use in a BMAV. A flapping mechanism was also created and used to produce flapping motion on these BMAV wings and an actual dragonfly wing (for comparison). The aero elastic properties of both the BMAV and actual dragonfly wings were examined using two high speed frame camera. The bending angle, displaced distance or deflection, wing tip angle, and the wing tip rotational twist speed were analyzed at the flapping frequencies of 10,20, 30 Hz, 60 Hz and 120 Hz

    The Senkaku/Diaoyu islands dispute and China’s foreign policy options / Balazs Szanto

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    Since 2012 the East China Sea has seen significant escalation in tensions as Sino-Japanese relations turned for the worse following Tokyo’s nationalisation of the disputed Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands. Despite the growing risk of an armed confrontation between the two major regional military powers (intentionally or accidentally), the security aspects have received limited attention within the academic literature dealing with the dispute. Approaching it from a realist perspective, this research seeks to analyse the security implications of the dispute, primarily focusing on analysing China’s potential course of action under the current circumstances. The key questions this research seeks to determine is whether a military confrontation between China and Japan is likely, and whether there are alternate options for foreign policy that could aver such an outcome. The conclusion of this research is that in the short-term China is likely to follow a delaying strategy as none of the other options are attractive from a rational choice perspective. However, in the medium- to long-term this research sees a significant potential for military confrontation. This is facilitated by Japanese policy eliminating the possibility of a peaceful settlement that would be politically acceptable for China

    Studies of antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds derived from Ardisia Crispa / Hassan Mahmood Kzar Jindal

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    In recent times, researches have focused on medicinal plants in order to extract natural and low cost antioxidants that can help protect the human body against oxidative stress, and replace the synthetic additives that might be carcinogenic. In present study, the crude extracts of leaves and fruits from Ardisia crispa were investigated for their chemical constituents and antioxidant activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude extracts via TLC analysis revealed the presence of several secondary compounds mainly, terpenoids and phenolic compounds in addition to alkaloids and saponins. HPLC analysis showed the possibility of presence of gallic acid in the fruits and leaves of Ardisia crispa. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts were evaluated with three different methods DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay, and metal chelating assay. DPPH assay results revealed that the crude extracts from Ardisia crispa exhibited high scavenging activity; the highest capacity was shown by fruits and leaves methanol extracts, 90.16±0.0% and 82.24±0.02% respectively at concentration of 5mg/ml. The IC50 values for them were 0.9mg/ml and 1.5mg/ml respectively. Ferric reducing power assay results confirmed the results obtained by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Fruits and leaves methanol extracts exhibited the highest reducing power toward ferric ion. The metal chelating activity of crude extracts was very low in this study comparing to EDTA standard. All crude extracts showed chelating capacity lower than 50%. Fruit water extract presented the highest chelating activity with 41.94±0.0% at 1mg/ml. iii Total phenolic content results revealed that there is a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of a sample. Fruits and leaves methanol extracts presented the highest phenolic contents 3.14±0.0 mg GAE/ml and 2.57±0.0 mg GAE/ml respectively. The presence of phenolic compounds might be attributed to the antioxidant capacity of crude extracts. The highest flavonoid content was revealed by fruits and leaves chloroform extracts, their total flavonoids contents were 2.73±0.01 mg QE/ml and 2.06±0.0 mg QE/ml respectively. In the present study, there is no correlation between total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of crude extracts. Antioxidant activities results along with total phenols and flavonoids content indicate that this plant may be utilised as a source of health promoting antioxidants. Brine shrimp lethality assay results showed that the majority of crude extracts had low toxic effects on brine shrimp larvae. The highest effect was exhibited by fruits hexane extract with mortality of 50% at 1000 μg/ml and LC50 value of 381.93 μg/ml, all other crude extracts showed toxic effects lower than 50% mortality. Further analyses are needed to confirm that Ardisia crispa has no toxic effects

    Bioremediation of landfill gas using methanotrophic microorganisms / Jayanthi Barasarathi

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    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Landfill is a one of the major contributor to global CH4 emission and is estimated to be 500-800 Mt CO2 eq/year. Previous studies have shown that microbial oxidation of CH4 in landfill cover soil can be enhanced using substrates that are rich in organic matter, such as compost. Methanotrophs are group of bacteria that utilize CH4 as its sole carbon and energy source. Therefore this study is aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of biocover material,while identifying the potential methanotrophic bacteria from landfill cover soil. It is also intended to evaluate a comparative assessment of the CH4 efficiency of the biocover material under controlled conditions for bottle and column experiments with the addition of potential methanotrophic bacteria. Compost has been identified as best biocover material based on the associated physiochemical properties and their ability to oxidize 4% of CH4 within 4 days. Three types of methanotrophic bacteria were isolated from landfill soil and identified as Methylomonas sp, Methylococcus sp 1 and Methylococcus sp 2. Methylococcus sp 1 showed the highest CH4 oxidation capacity when compared to Methylomonas sp and Methylococcus sp 2 which took only 24 hours for complete CH4 oxidation. Batch experiment with addition of individual cultures and mixed cultures to the compost carried out at different parameters indicated higher CH4 oxidation capacity at 35˚C and 40˚C, pH 6 and at 60% v/v moisture level. Addition of Methylococcus sp 1 showed the highest CH4 oxidation activity at the rate of 8.33 X 103 μg g-1h-1 while the CH4 oxidation rate with addition of Methylomonas sp was 4.16 X 103 μg g-1h-1. Addition of Methylococcus sp 2 iii showed 75% lower activity compared to Methylococcus sp 1 and 50% lower activity compared to Methylomonas sp. Bacterial count at end of the experiment showed highest count for Methylomonas sp and Methylococcus sp 1. Statistical analysis (P <0.05) showed significant increase in CH4 oxidation with the addition of Methylomonas sp and Methylococcus sp 1 to the compost at optimum temperature, moisture and pH when compared to the control. Column experiment carried out with addition of potential methanotrophic bacteria to the compost at different column height showed highest CH4 oxidation activity at 60cm with the addition of Methylomonas sp and Methylococcus sp 1 and the comparison with control also showed 50% increase in the CH4 oxidation activity. The experiment carried out at different incubation temperature and moisture content showed highest CH4 oxidation at the temperature of 35˚C to 40˚C and 60% moisture level which are similar to batch experiment. Kinetic studies using Michaelis Menten equation for batch experiment at optimum parameters showed highest potential CH4 oxidation rate with the addition of Methyloccocus sp 1. Addition of methanotrophic bacteria to compost showed an enhancement and significant increase in the CH4 oxidation under optimum parameters which are also similar to tropical conditions. A biocover with 60cm column height is potentially the best height for optimal CH4 oxidation

    Pursuit of excellence by Muslim scientists with a special reference to Ibn Sina / Mohd Hishamuddin A Hamid

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    This dissertation has the objective of studying the pursuit of excellence by Muslim Scientists during the height of Islamic Civilization with a special reference to Ibn Sina. It is hope that through this study we can obtain some information or guidelines which can be used and emulated by present day scientists to achieve the excellence that the Muslims Scientists of that time had attained. Why do we need to achieve that level of excellence? The present day predicament of the Muslim Ummah where we are ostracized, discriminated and looked down upon by friends and foes alike. We have to redeem ourselves in the eyes of the world and especially in the eyes of Allah AlMighty that we are the best Ummah and Islam is the highest way of life and be worthy of the blessing of Islam. The excellence of the Muslim scholars and scientists of yesteryears has to be recapitulated. Why Ibn sina? Ibn Sina is the most famous Muslim scholar of the Islamic civilization and some even cited him as the most excellent with his wide ranging work from medicine, astronomy, philosophy, language, politics and many other various fields. His work and life had been documented and studied since his time until the present time. In this study the author presented the criteria for excellence and put forward the hypothesis of Iman as the special criteria that made the difference between the Muslims and the non-Muslims. The excellence and contributions of Muslim scientists during the height of Islamic civilization between the 7th-14th Ibn Sina’s life from the influence of his parents, his earliest education and his surroundings seems to have molded his character into a dedicated and resilient scholar. He was exposed to knowledge and intellectual discussion various fields at an early age and became a competent practitioner of medicine by the age of 18. Ibn Sina had many special characteristics which can be emulated by later scholars. His dedication, his confidence, his resilience despite the hostile and rough conditions he had to endure, his power of concentration being able to work continuously for hours sometimes under difficult circumstances. Ibn Sina’s work on medicine and philosophy were and until today the most respected and most studied. His Canon of Medicine were used as the primary text for the study of medicine with some institutions in Europe using it even until the 19th century. Ibn Sina from the facts presented was a person with Iman and his early education in religious studies and able to memorize the whole of the Al Quran had made him the renowned scholar that he is although with many eccentricities. centuries were incomparable and undisputed as compared civilizations. This period produced many distinguished Muslim scholars in many varying fields of studies and their work were the basis of the development of western science. Some scholars attributed the advent of western science from the findings and works of Muslim scientists without which western science will not have achieved or attained the present dominance and prominence. The Ummah to recap the excellence of yesteryears, they have to study their history, the sirah of the Prophet Mohamad SAW, the earlier Quranic generation of the sahabahs, the tabiin and the scholars. Many of their efforts and practices that made them knowledgeable and respected had not been sustained thus resulting in the mundane and oppressed Ummah of the period after the 14th century until present. The factors which brought Islamic Civilization to the height of its glory were scrutinized and also that which brought the decline in order to find the remedies. In conclusion the Ummah was blessed with excellence and glory when they have Iman and practiced Islam as a way of life. The lessons from the period of glory of the Islamic Civilization have to be learnt and emulated and pray and be confident that Islam will bring again the glory in this world and the hereafter

    Comparison of spectrophotometer, digital camera and scanner in reproducing facial skin colour Mahmood, Humam Laith.

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    Introduction: The success of a well-fitting and anatomically correct maxillofacial prosthesis is compromised if the colour does not match the adjoining tissues. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the spectrophotometer, digital camera and scanner in reproducing skin colour and to create a system of classifying skin colour in a sample of the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: Two image capturing devices (digital camera and flat-bed scanner) and a colour measuring device (spectrophotometer) were used to characterize the shade of the forehead in 90 adults from 3 ethnic groups in Malaysia – Malays, Chinese and Indians. Their ages ranged from 20-57 years. Readings from the digital camera and scanner were compared to the readings from the spectrophotometer using CIELAB measurements. The skin shade of each subject captured by each of the 3 devices was then printed on matt photographic paper. 4 observers with normal colour vision were allowed 1-2 minutes to match the printed skin shade to the actual shade of each subject’s forehead. They were asked to rate each of the printed colour matches as good, acceptable or poor. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, independent ttest and Chi square test. Results: The digital camera was assessed to obtain good colour matches in 71.1% of the coloured prints assessed. The digital scanner produced acceptable colour matches in 66.7% of the prints assessed, while 84.4% of the spectrophotometer reproductions were rated as poor. In addition, L*a*b values were different among the three ethnic groups and between gender. The Indian ethnic group had significantly lower L* values (darker shade of skin) than the Chinese who had the highest L* values (P < .05) and males had significantly lower L* values than females (P <.05). Four shades of skin colour were differentiated among the subjects. iii Conclusions: Visual assessment showed that the digital camera reproduction of the skin colour was the closest to the skin shade. The skin shade of the sample of Malaysian population studied may be grouped into dark, medium, fair and light
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