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    2826 research outputs found

    Improving sustainability of mortar by wood-ash and Nano-SiO2

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    Cement production charges the environment with CO2 pollution and exhausts natural stocks of limestone and clay. Cement was partially replaced with Wood Ash (WA), and nano-SiO2 (NS) was added to balance the strength loss. Mortar specimens were prepared by replacing the cement with WA up to 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, and 50 %, using constant-flow mortar. The flexural and compressive strength results indicated that although adding 40 % of WA reduced the mortar's strength, it still remained in an acceptable zone (higher than 20 MPa). The addition of 2.5 % NS recovered the strength loss caused by replacing cement with 40 % WA

    Using Cyclic CBR Method to Determine Resilient Modulus of Hydraulic Binder Stabilised Road Pavement Base Layers

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    The mechanistic-empirical (E-M) design of pavement structures requires knowledge of the elastic modulus of the layers comprising the structure. The necessary cyclic (dynamic) triaxial testing is expensive and cumbersome for low-volume forest and agricultural roads. Opiyo (1995) developed a method called cyclic CBR (cCBR) to determine the resilient modulus (Mr) of granular road construction materials using CBR testing equipment. The present study tested the cCBR method on silty, fine sand stabilised with lime and a lime-cement mixture. For the test, 24 test specimens were prepared by adding 3, 5 and 7% pure lime and a 70–30 lime-cement mixture at the targeted 8–23% water content. Three metrics were used to express the bearing capacity of the specimens: (1) the commonly used CBR% value, (2) the Mr value calculated as a function of load force and elastic deformation determined as a result of the cCBR test, and (3) the resilient modulus calculated from the CBR value. The experimental results showed that the initial water content had a greater effect on the bearing capacity than the binder dosage. The present study found the cCBR procedure to be feasible. The test results were converted to a resilient modulus value using the formula developed by Opiyo and Molenaar, respectively. The calculated resilient modulus values from the CBR value exhibited a wide variation. Uzan's formula provided similar results to those calculated by Molenaar's formula. A 250 m long experimental road section was also constructed to verify the laboratory data. Based on the laboratory tests, five different 50 m long stabilisation layers were built. The bearing capacity data measured with the handheld BC-1 LFWD and KUAB-FWD equipment verified Molenaar's formula

    Global fine-resolution data on springtail abundance and community structure

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    Springtails (Collembola) inhabit soils from the Arctic to the Antarctic and comprise an estimated ~32% of all terrestrial arthropods on Earth. Here, we present a global, spatially-explicit database on springtail communities that includes 249,912 occurrences from 44,999 samples and 2,990 sites. These data are mainly raw sample-level records at the species level collected predominantly from private archives of the authors that were quality-controlled and taxonomically-standardised. Despite covering all continents, most of the sample-level data come from the European continent (82.5% of all samples) and represent four habitats: woodlands (57.4%), grasslands (14.0%), agrosystems (13.7%) and scrublands (9.0%). We included sampling by soil layers, and across seasons and years, representing temporal and spatial within-site variation in springtail communities. We also provided data use and sharing guidelines and R code to facilitate the use of the database by other researchers. This data paper describes a static version of the database at the publication date, but the database will be further expanded to include underrepresented regions and linked with trait data

    Tree size distribution as the stationary limit of an evolutionary master equation

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    The diameter distribution of a given species of deciduous trees is well approximated by a Gamma distribution. Here we give new experimental evidence for this conjecture by analyzing deciduous tree size data in mature semi-natural forest and ancient, traditionally managed wood-pasture from Central Europe. These distribution functions collapse on a universal shape if the tree sizes are normalized to the mean value in the considered sample. A new evolutionary master equation is used to model the observed distribution. The model incorporates four ecological processes: tree growth, mortality, recruitment, and diversification. Utilizing simple and realistic kernel functions describing the first three, along with an assumed multiplicative dilution due to diversification, the stationary solution of the master equation yields the experimentally observed Gamma distribution. The model as it is formulated allows an analytically compact solution and has only two fitting parameters whose values are consistent with the experimental data related to these processes. We found that the equilibrium size distribution of tree species with different ecology, originating from two contrastingly different semi-natural ecosystem types can be accurately described by a single dynamical mean-field model

    Művészet és innováció az információ korában

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    Az állami nyugdíjrendszerek fenntarthatóságának kihívásai

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    The mycoremediation potential of the armillarioids: a comparative genomics analysis

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    Genes involved in mycoremediation were identified by comparative genomics analysis in 10 armillarioid species and selected groups of white-rot Basidiomycota (14) and soft-rot Ascomycota (12) species to confine the distinctive bioremediation capabilities of the armillarioids. The genomes were explored using phylogenetic principal component analysis (pPCA), searching for genes already documented in a biocatalysis/biodegradation database. The results underlined a distinct, increased potential of aromatics-degrading genes/enzymes in armillarioids, with particular emphasis on a high copy number and diverse spectrum of benzoate 4-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.92] homologs. In addition, other enzymes involved in the degradation of various monocyclic aromatics were more abundant in the armillarioids than in the other white-rot basidiomycetes, and enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more prevailing in armillarioids and other white-rot species than in soft-rot Ascomycetes. Transcriptome profiling of A. ostoyae and A. borealis isolates confirmed that several genes involved in the degradation of benzoates and other monocyclic aromatics were distinctively expressed in the wood-invading fungal mycelia. Data were consistent with armillarioid species offering a more powerful potential in degrading aromatics. Our results provide a reliable, practical solution for screening the likely fungal candidates for their full biodegradation potential, applicability, and possible specialization based on their genomics data

    Az alkalmazott és az autonóm művészet szakrális alkotásokban. Jézus-ábrázolások nyomában

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