International Journal of Social Science Studies
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    An Assessment of the Partition and Scramble of Africa and the Effect of Slave Trade in the Continent

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    The scramble and Partition of African countries began in earnest with the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, and this was the cause of the most of Africa’s borders today. The conference was called by German Chancellor Bismarck to settle how European countries would claim colonial land in Africa and to avoid a war among European nations over African territory.  All the major European States were invited to the conference which includes the Germany, France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, and Spain were all considered to have a future role in the imperial partition of Africa.  The United States was invited because of its interest in Liberia but did not attend the conference because it had no desire to build a colonial empire in Africa. Also invited were Austria–Hungary, Sweden–Norway, Denmark, Italy, Turkey, and Russia who all were considered minor players in the quest for colonizing Africa, though Italy has claim some colonial possessions in Northeast Africa. Most notably there were no Africans present at that conference, nor were any Europeans present to ensure that native Africans had any say in the proceedings. This paper has adopted secondary source of data in the process of data collection. The findings of the paper have revealed that partition in Africa has led to emergence of colonialism, slave trade and other related contemporary imbalance that led to for present African underdevelopment. The paper recommended that African countries needs to be allowed to run its affairs as an independent sovereign countries  to manage both their mineral and human resource to compete with every continent of the world interterms of development dynamism and African countries should develop an approach that will help them to fight social menace of poverty, corruption, insecurity and unemployment

    Factors Affecting Employee Turnover in a Small Business in Egypt

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    Employee turnover has become a common phenomenon in all organizations. It will cost a lot of money and time because organizations need to hire new employees and train them to fill field open positions. There are many different reasons why they choose to leave the organization. So, organizations need to find out the most important reasons to treat and improve it. There are four categories of factors that affect employee turnover: demographic, work, financial-economic and organizational. The demographic category consists of three factors Age, Tenure and Job designation level. The second category which is personal consists of Job Satisfaction and Organizational commitment. While the third category is the organization which consists of payments and benefits, location of workplace, working environment (i.e., flexible working hours), perceive alternative employment opportunities, career promotion and recognition, supervision and relationship, training and improved skills and the last category consists of work stress, work/life balance and field of study. The research design is descriptive with a correlation type of instrumentation to get the effect of variables positively or negatively with the amount. The data will collect via a structured questionnaire. This study has identified several key factors that contribute to employee turnover, including perceived organizational support, job stress, work-life balance, and available job alternatives. The results suggest that organizations can reduce employee turnover by improving perceived organizational support and work-life balance while also minimizing job stress. These findings have important implications for HR management in developing effective retention strategies to retain valuable employees and improve organizational performance

    On Inhuman Conditions and Its Overcoming

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    Modern technologies have brought about alienation, disorientation, ill-beings and malaise in human lives by gradually transforming human beings into “inhuman beings”. Bernard Stiegler’s reflections on the relationship between human beings and technologies illustrate why and how the development of modern technologies induced such “inhuman conditions”. It begins with the descriptions of alienation by machines and the loss of knowledge of work. Subsequently, it describes culture industry and the loss of knowledge of life leading to an one-dimensional society and human spiritual disorientation. Then it illustrates how the ubiquitous programmed automaton (UPA) and the tyranny “24/7 capitalism” have contributed to the reign of stupefaction and stupidity and the loss of theoretical knowledge. It shows that the inhuman conditions are frustrating consequences of “the loss of all knowledge” as well as the “devaluation of spirit”. Overcoming of inhuman conditions requires human beings to reinvent knowledge as “knowledge of work” instead of “alienated labor or pure employment”, to reinvest the time liberated by technology in the re-sublimation of the human spirit and to re-enchant the world with an improvement in spiritual ecology. 

    Sports in the State of Puntland-Somalia: Not Just Beyond a Physical Exercise

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    Revealing the status of sports in State of Puntland-Somalia, this article presents a new information and insights, in which of its kind has not presented before that reflects the reality and can be generalized to rest of Somalia at all. The study employed qualitative analysis of the FGDs and a semi-structured KII, collection of documented materials and observations that were participated in 39 (30 by FGDs, 9 by interview) sports community aged 25-65 years. Generally, the respondents validated the hypothesis of the study: Sports in Puntland is no just beyond a physical exercise by providing more information about the kinds of sports, sports clubs, their management, capacities; professionalism; governance; financial situation and source of revenue, sports facilities and the legal frameworks that shape their functionalities administratively and politically and other key challenges sports club encounter. The study found that sports in Puntland is administratively and politically failure because sport activities are outright amateurism-oriented rather than professionalism. Moreover, sports science as a disciple is not taught as academic programmes nor as a physical education in schools or as subject mainstreamed in the school curriculum. The study also uncovered that sport in Puntland is suffering for lacking technical capacity in sports management and inadequate and insufficient financial support. It seems that the government has no interest in sports in general because there are no governing documents in place, for example, sports policy, sports act, strategic plan and fundraising strategy. The only sport facility available in Puntland is soccer field owned and administered by the state government ministry in charge of sports. The study also revealed the sports in Puntland is just for physical exercise, and the only game performed in tournament format is a football and it is played by male, and held once in a blue moon

    How Online Psychotherapy Platforms Facilitate Accessibility to Mental Health Services in Cairo; The Case of Shezlong Mental Therapy Platform

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    Mental disorders are considered as one of the biggest causes of disabilities that are common in several countries. Egypt lacks societal awareness of mental illness and mental health maintenance that could be attributed to the cultural and religious influence on the society which certainly affects the accessibility to mental care. Whether due to financial barriers, social barriers or privacy issues the concept of mental health and mental wellbeing is not fully developed in Egypt. With the technology advancements we’re experiencing today Telemedicine is becoming a popular way of practicing medicine and delivering medical services specially in mental health. Shezlong is one of the most popular online platforms offering mental health services to those in need, utilizing the power and convenience of the technology to overcome the barriers of access specially in Egypt. The utilized theoretical framework comprised 10 dimensions acting either as barriers or facilitators to accessibility to mental healthcare. The research design is descriptive with the correlational and inferential statistics type of instrumentation. The data will be collected via a structured questionnaire. The correlation and regression analysis revealed that “Acceptability, Affordability, Ability to seek, Availability and Accommodation, Ability to pay, Appropriateness, Ability to engage and Ability to reach” are the main barriers that influence the Egyptian patients to accessibility to mental services. The results suggest that the higher the levels of these specific dimensions, the higher degree of accessibility will be experienced by the patient

    From Reason to Wisdom: Heidegger’s Interpretation of Logos

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    Heraclitus’ “all things are one” carries a classic metaphysical structure, which signifies that Being was already concealed at the beginning of Western thought. Heidegger delves into early Greek thought to reveal people’s understanding of nature before the deviation between logos (λόγος) and nature (φύσις). He argues that the light of Being flashed at the beginning of Western thought and then immediately vanished. The consequence of the concealment of Being was the formal opening of the path of Western metaphysics centered on rationality, which was taken as the path of wisdom. Western metaphysics ultimately led humanity to the realm of nihilism. Therefore, one possible way to address the nihilism problem caused by rationality is to return to early Western thought (pre-Socratic period), explore the original meaning of logos and nature, re-understand what wisdom is, and gain insight in wisdom to deal with nihilism

    Heuristics and Stock Buying Decision: Evidence from Brazil, Pakistan, and Malaysia Stock Markets

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    Applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches, we investigate the influence of anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and availability heuristics on stock buying decisions of individual investors at the Brazilian stock market and their relations with demographic aspects. We also compared the results with investors from Pakistan and Malaysia. To collect the data, a survey was administered. Data were analyzed by description, correlation, and regression analysis. The results show that all three heuristics are likely to affect the Brazilian investor’s stock buying decisions. The effect of heuristics is similar across genders, type of subscriber, and level of education groups. However, for the older group and those with income higher than BRL15,000.00 per month (about USD 3,000.00), the anchoring heuristic exhibit a more extreme effect. From these findings, this paper reveals the presence of the heuristics in stock market decisions in developing countries, such as Brazil, as well as Pakistan and Malaysia. However, the effect on Asian’ individual investors is more prevalent

    Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Social Science Studies, Vol. 11, No. 5

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    International Journal of Social Science Studies (IJSSS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether IJSSS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 11, Number 5Dipankar Chatterjee, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, IndiaLingkai Kong, Izmir University of Economics, TurkeyMd. Nasir Uddin, Prime Minister’s Office, BangladeshNadarajah Pushparajah, University of Jaffna, Sri LankaNAZIAH ABD. KADIR, Universiti Selangor, MalaysiaSana Ali, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan      James YoungEditorial AssistantOn behalf of,The Editorial Board of International Journal of Social Science StudiesRedfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USAURL:

    On Shen Jiaben’s View of Law: An Investigation of Human Rights

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    During the late Qing Dynasty, the switch from conventional legislation to contemporary legislation was exemplified by Shen Jiaben’s human rights-focused legal perspective. Under the background of comprehensively governing the country according to law, learning from excellent traditional legal thoughts and culture is a critical way to construct a creative rule of law. Shen Jiaben oversaw the ten years of legislation modification towards the conclusion of the Qing Dynasty, which lasted the entirety of modern China. He transformed traditional Chinese law into a Western-compatible contemporary legal framework, closely related to his excellent legal thoughts. Specifically, Shen Jiaben pushed for preserving human rights in the research and creation of the legal system in contemporary China. His reasoning was based on the actual situations of modern countries, which is quite pioneering. Focusing on the social reality at that time, Shen Jiaben’s legal thought of human rights doctrine criticized and inherited the traditional Chinese legal thought of “benevolent government” while fully absorbing the essence of foreign legal culture of human rights doctrine and promoting the gradual reform of the modern legal system. Learning from Shen Jiaben’s legal view of the rights of individuals doctrine is helpful to deepen further our understanding of human rights and the rule of law in the new era and help promote the integrated construction of a country, a government, and a society under the rule of law

    Is the Banking and Financial System Changing the Social and Political Global Dimension?

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    This paper aims to demonstrate how banking and financial centres, which are not formal political decision-makers, are gaining a growing and significant role in the social and political dimension. By focusing on the contemporary dominance of banks and financial centres, as opposed to an unduly narrow focus on their vital role in the interactions between nations, this study contributes to the much-needed conversation about the influence of non-State players in the social and political dimension. The case studies of banks involved in State and inter-State policy will be analysed using the theoretical framework presented in this thesis. The case study of PNB Paribas, which was allegedly involved in the Sudan war in 2002, by influencing political decision-makers and, as a result, changing political outcomes, will receive the majority of attention


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