Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research
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    1885 research outputs found

    Genomic evaluation of binary traits in dairy cattle by considering genotype × environment interactions

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    Aim of study: To assess genotype by environment (G×E) interaction via single- and multi-trait animal models for binary traits in dairy cattle.  Area of study: University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. Material and methods: Phenotypic and genomic data were simulated considering a binary trait in four environments as different correlated traits. Heritabilities of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were considered to mimic the genetic variation of the binary trait in different environments. Eight scenarios resulted from combining the number of QTLs (60 or 300), LD level (high or low), and incidence of the binary trait (10% or 30%) were simulated to compare the accuracy of predictions. For all scenarios, 1667 markers per chromosome (depicting a 50K SNP chip) were randomly spaced over 30 chromosomes. Multi-trait animal models were applied to take account of G×E interaction and to predict the genomic breeding value in different environments. Prediction accuracies obtained from the single- and multi-trait animal models were compared. Main results: In the models with G×E interaction, the largest accuracy of 0.401 was obtained in high LD scenario with 60 QTLs, and incidence of 30% for the fourth environment. The lowest accuracy of 0.190 was achieved in low LD scenario with 300 QTLs and incidence of 10% for the first environment. Research highlights: Genomic selection with high prediction accuracy can be possible by considering the G×E interaction during the genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle

    Replacement of inorganic trace minerals by chelated minerals in pullet diets (12 to 20 weeks of age)

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    Aim of study: An experiment was carried out aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels and sources of trace mineral to laying pullets with two initial body weights (BWs). Area of study: The experiment was carried out in Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil Material and methods: Two hundred and eighty eight Bovans White pullets aged 12 weeks old were allotted in a completely randomized design and a 2×3 factorial arrangement, wherein the main effects included initial BW (light-weight and heavy-weight) and three dietary trace mineral sources and levels (100% inorganic, 100% chelated and low-dose corresponding to 50% chelated), totalizing six treatments with eight replicates of six birds. The performance, the metabolizability coefficient of nutrients, and the onset of lay were evaluated at rearing phase (12 to 20 weeks). At 17th and 20th weeks of age, the relative weight of reproductive and digestive organs, abdominal fat, and tibia quality were assessed. A residual effect was evaluated at production phase on productive performance and egg quality. Main results: The mineral source did not affect the performance of pullets. Birds fed 50% chelated mineral produced the lowest eggshell. The heavy-weight birds showed higher egg weight and eggshell quality. The lighter birds showed lower abdominal fat weight and lower tibia robustness index. Research highlights: The replacement of 100% of inorganic mineral for chelated mineral do not result in decrease of bird performance at rearing and at production phase, but a minimum amount should be provided to ensure growth and nutrient metabolizability

    Use of two relative depths of the soil apparent electrical conductivity to define experimental blocks with spatial regression models

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    Aim of study: Our main objective was to take advantage of the ECa information that the EM38-MK2 sensor records simultaneously at two relative depths for modeling using spatial regression and the subsequent blocking of the conductivity estimate values, incorporating elevation. Area of study: A 23.1-ha field located in the municipality of Puerto López (Meta, Colombia). Material and methods: A series of georeferenced data (15438) was collected from the EM38-MK2 sensor, through which the ECa was obtained at two depths, a spatial aggregation was performed using a grid of 40 m ´ 40 m (167 grid cells), to provide data in Lattice form, the centroid of the cells was determined as the new representative spatial coordinates, to adjust a Spatial Autoregression Model (SAC), and then define the blocks from the predictions of the adjusted model. Main results: The adjusted model has a comparative purpose with the usual proposals for delimiting management zones separately, so it was convenient to incorporate in the model a 3D weighting matrix relating the two relative depths recorded by the EM38MK2 sensor. By mapping the surface layer with the predictions of the SAC model, two distinguishable blocks were delimited in its ECa and management zone analyst (MZA), which can be suitable for experimentation or agricultural management. Research highlights: These results can be adopted to define the shape and dimension of the blocks in the context of experimental design so that with adequate blocking, the effect of spatial dependence associated with the physicochemical properties of soils related to ECa can be mitigated or suppressed

    Evaluation of the anti-coccidial effect of aqueous Sacoglottis gabonensis (Magnoliophyta, Humiriaceae) stem bark extract in broilers experimentally infected with mixed Eimeria species

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    Aim of the study: The aqueous Sacoglottis gabonensis stem bark extract (SGSBE) was evaluated for its anti-coccidial effects and toxicity in broiler chickens Area of the study: Nsukka, Nigeria Materials and methods: A hundred and nineteen, four-week old, broiler birds were used for this study. The toxicity of SGSBE was evaluated by administering graded doses of the extract once and for 21 days. The anticoccidial effect of SGSBE was determined using 25 birds arbitrarily divided into five groups (A-E) of five birds each. Groups A-D were orally infected with 200,000 sporulated mixed Eimeria oocysts while group E served as the uninfected control. Groups A and B birds were treated orally with SGSBE (200 mg/kg) once and daily for five consecutive days respectively while group C birds were treated with amprolium daily for five days. Birds in group D remained infected-untreated. The birds were observed for clinical signs, body weight changes, oocyst output, and some haemato-biochemical parameters. Main results: Mild signs of toxicity were detected with mortality only in the group that received the highest dose of SGSBE following toxicity tests. Clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed following infection of the birds. Oocyst output, clinical signs and lesions were significantly reduced (p<0.05) while body weight, survivability and haemato-biochemical indices of the birds were significantly improved (p<0.05) in SGSBE treated groups. Moreover, five days consecutive treatment with SGSBE yielded better results. Research highlights: The aqueous S. gabonensis stem bark extract is relatively safe and possesses anti-coccidial efficacy against mixed Eimeria infections in broiler chickens

    Effectiveness of the entropy weight method to evaluate abiotic stress tolerance in citrus rootstocks

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    Aim of study: The entropy weight method (EWM) is considered one of the most reliable and scientific approaches when decision making is influenced by multiple factors. However, there are no reports on the application of EWM in the evaluation of abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in crops. In this study, abiotic stress via saline water irrigations was imposed on different citrus rootstocks. The relative stress tolerance levels of rootstocks were ascertained using EWM and compared with standard fuzzy membership approach and the factor analysis. Area of study: Punjab Agricultural University Regional Research Station Abohar, India, 2017-2019. Material and methods: In a pot culture study, about 1½ yr-old rootstock seedlings were exposed to saline water irrigations with 4 and 6 dS m-1 electrical conductivity (EC) for 60 days. Saline water response index for mineral composition of plant parts, physiological and biochemical attributes of rootstocks were calculated for each salinity level over 2 dS m-1 conductivity water, considered as control and subjected to further analysis. Main results: At 4 EC, the entropy weight and membership function value of the rootstocks ranged 0.758-0.998 and 0.682-0.731, respectively. The corresponding values at 6 EC ranged between 0.759-0.991 and 0.391-0.728, respectively. Following EWM, the rootstocks were rated for their relative tolerance levels as: Rangpur Lime>Cleopatra>Volkamer Lemon=Rough Lemon>Carrizo at 4 EC salinity level. At 6 EC, the order was: Cleopatra>Rangpur Lime>Volkamer Lemon>Rough Lemon>Carrizo. The results were consistent between EWM and standard principle component analysis approaches. Research highlights: The study suggests that the comprehensive evaluation of crop genotypes for abiotic stress tolerance is also feasible with the EWM

    Editorial Board

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    Short communication: Organic fertilization for the improvement of production and quality of ripe figs

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    Aim of study: The use of natural inputs in farming practices and the consumption of in natura products have been on the rise. Natural crop fertilizing sources gains force when the intent lies in crop by way of an ecologically correct agricultural system. To this end, this paper targeted assessing the use of cattle (CM) and bird manure (BM) in organic fertilization of fig culture in organic handling, and its effect on the production of ripe figs. Area of study: Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Material and methods: In 2011, an experimental fig orchard was established using the ‘Roxo de Valinhos’ cultivar. The experimental outline adopted was in randomized blocks, with 3 repetitions and 7 treatments comprised of: the control and 6 types of fertilization using CM and/or BM. Harvests were performed in 2016 and 2017. The characteristics evaluated were mean weight, length and diameter of individual fruits, mean weight and number of fruits per tree, total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity and pH. Main results: Organic fertilization with 5 L of CM per fig tree promoted the best results in all biometric variables as compared to the plants that were not fertilized. Considering quality, only 5 L of CM or 1.25 L of BM provided equal total titratable acidity in comparison with control. Plants fertilized with 2.5 L of CM produced figs with higher maturation index against plants fertilized with 5 L of CM or 1.25 L of BM. Research highlights: Considering the fig tree productivity and quality of ripe figs, organic fertilization with CM and BM promoted good characteristics

    Effect of potato contact parameters on seed metering performance using discrete element method

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    Aim of study: To study the effect of potato surface with or without sandy loam soil on seed metering performance, we investigated the motion behaviour of the potato seed particles during the seed metering process using a self-designed across-bridge metering device by discrete element method (DEM). Area of study: Tonganyi Town, Dingxi, Gansu, China Material and methods: First, the contact characteristics of potatoes were measured using some novel devices. Second, simulations were performed under the same experimental conditions to verify the reliability of the contact parameters. Finally, the velocity and angular velocity of the seed in the seed box and the number of seeds taken by the large spoon during the taking and clearing process were analysed using ANOVA. Main results: The coefficients of static friction (SF) and rolling friction (RF) of seed particles with soil were smaller than those without soil and had the highest values between particles and plastic, followed by between particles and steel, and between particles. Further, the rates of metering single seed particle in simulation and experiment were 98.17% and 97.57%, respectively. The rate of missing seed particles was 1.83% and 2.43%, respectively; it was found to significantly decrease as RF increased from 0.01 to 0.06 to 0.12, and the resultant angular velocity and velocity also significantly decreased as SF increased from 0.1 to 0.5 to 1.0. In addition, the number of seeds taken by the large spoon also reduced. Research highlights: Therefore, potato seed particles surface with or without soil can significantly affect the seeding performance and highlight the need for surface treatment using mechanised metering

    Soil properties modulate the effect of different carbon amendments on growth and phosphorus uptake by cucumber plant

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    Aim of study: Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable, limited and strategic resource, inefficiently used in agriculture. Organic carbon (C) supply to soil can stimulate microbial activity increasing the mobilization of soil P thus improving its uptake by crops. This work aimed at investigating the effect of different C amendments on P uptake and how may differ depending on soil properties and P fertilization. Area of study: Soils used in this study were collected in SW Spain. Material and methods: An experiment with cucumber was performed involving three factors: (i) C amendment (cellulose, glucose, citric acid and control without amendment), (ii) soil type (Vertisol and Alfisol), and (iii) P supply (unfertilized, and mineral phosphate in form of KH2PO4). Main results: Cellulose or glucose provided the highest P uptake by plants in soils independently of the treatment. Cellulose and glucose addition was effective increasing dry matter (DM) in the Alfisol. Citric acid application decreased the development of aerial parts and roots, and P uptake in soils compared with other sources. In the Alfisol, increased P uptake with cellulose was associated to an increased concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, which seemed to be related to microbial activity. Research highlights: Organic amendments affect microbial activity, and P mobilization mechanisms are associated to microorganisms. This explain the improvement of P supply to plants with amendments; these effects, however, are modulated by soil properties and consequently vary depending on soil type

    Tunisian consumer preferences for local forest honey attributes: A market segmentation analysis

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    Aim of study: This study focuses on the segmentation of local forest honey market based on consumer preferences for its origin and other sensory attributes. Area of study: Tunisia Material and methods: The empirical analysis relies on a face-to-face questionnaire survey of 200 respondents, conducted in 2019 among Tunisian consumers. A cluster analysis was used to identify the market segments and multinomial logit analysis was used to determine segment membership characteristics. Main results: Three distinct market segments were identified. The first segment of consumers (44% of the sample) prefer eucalyptus and multifloral honey from the Northwest origin; the second segment (39%) is composed of consumers that tend to buy honey mainly produced in the eastern region of the country; in the third (17%), consumers prefer thyme-rosemary' honey. Research highlights: Consumer preferences for local forest honey mainly depend on its geographical origin, flower type, flavor and color. Findings suggest that gender, income, and grocery shopping task are the main determinants of the importance of these attributes

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