Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences
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    707 research outputs found

    Sedimentary Facies, Palynology, and Organic Geochemistry of Eocene Kalumpang Formation in Lariang and Karama Areas, West Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    The Kalumpang Formation was deposited in a delta plain setting. A Middle to Late Eocene age (Proxapertites operculatus zone) was inferred from palynological analysis, with a paleoenvironment in a coastal plain setting with a strong terrestrial influence. Samples from the Kalumpang Formation indicate a marginal to early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation. It is mostly composed of gas-prone to oil and gas-prone Type III kerogen facies. The biomarker character of both the rock and oil samples suggests a terrestrial origin, with a significant contribution of estuarine or bay organic material. The oil derives from a non-carbonate lithology, while the rock samples are from carbonate/calcareous shale origin. The abundance of oleanane compound and C30 resins suggests higher plant angiosperm input of Late Cretaceous or younger age for both the rock and the oil samples. The oil seep contains more abundant oleananes compared to the carbonaceous mudstone of the Kalumpang Formation. This suggests that the oil originated from more marine facies than the rock samples, which were deposited in a delta plain setting. This study demonstrated the agreement of depositional environment interpretation and age assessment between lithofacies, palynological, and organic geochemistry analysis

    Optical Spectroscopy and Photoionization Model of Planetary Nebula NGC 6572

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    We investigated NGC 6572 through optical spectroscopy to determine its kinematical and chemical properties. Two intermediate dispersion spectra (R~5000) centered around Hα and HÎČ were used to derive the nebular expansion velocity from emission lines associated with Hα, HÎČ, [OIII], [NII], and [SII] ions. A low dispersion spectrum (R~1000) was used to determine the nebular electron temperature, density, and chemical composition. We performed photoionization modeling to construct a self-consistent nebular model, while intermediate-resolution spectral images showed the global elliptical structure of the nebula. The expansion velocity deduced from most of the emission lines is consistent with the typical expansion velocity of planetary nebulae, i.e., around 15-20 kms-1. The nebular physical properties align well with those determined by other studies. The nebular abundances were found to be lower than the solar abundances (except for oxygen) but still comparable with the abundances derived by other researchers. The photoionization model generated spectral lines that are consistent with the lines found in the observations. Further spectroscopic observations with higher resolution and wider range at various position angles will be very useful to reveal a more complete and detailed structure of the nebula and to improve the determination of the nebular physical properties

    Applying Fluorescence Dissolved Organic Matter Spectra and Phytoplankton Biology Index for Assessing Urban River Quality

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    The relationship between phytoplankton dynamics and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems based on fluorophore organic matter properties results in poor implementation of methods for water quality monitoring. This study aimed to investigate the relation between fluorophore organic matter and phytoplankton index and to estimate the phytoplankton index by fluorescent organic components for water quality assessment. The research was conducted by sampling urban river water, followed by measuring the biological phytoplankton index and dissolved organic matter during the wet and dry seasons. Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrices (FEEMs) analysis combined with Parallel Factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified three main components of the fluorescence organic matter, i.e., a fulvic acid-like component (C1) and humic acid-like components (C2 and C3), in the aquatic system, whether in the dry season or the wet season. C1 was mainly generated by phytoplankton species, i.e., Nitzschia sp., Plectonema sp., Navicula sp., and Pinnularia sp., and C2 and C3 had a less signiïŹcant relationship with phytoplankton species. The diversity of Bacillariophyta had a stronger contribution to the release of DOM than the diversity of Cyanobacteria. The abundance index of a particular phytoplankton species can be used to determine the organic components of FEEM-derived fluorescence organic matter

    The Modified Double Sampling Coefficient of Variation Control Chart

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    The concept of monitoring the coefficient of variation has gained significant interest in quality control, particularly in situations where the mean and standard deviation of a process are not constant. This study modified the procedure of the previous double sampling chart for monitoring the coefficient of variation, developed by Ng et al. in 2018. Instead of using only information from the second sample, here, information from both samples is used. The probability properties of the out-of-control signal and run length of this chart are presented. To evaluate the chart’s performance, the optimal design and a comparison with the previous double sampling control chart using average run-length criteria are described. It was found that the modified double sampling chart has better performance and is more efficient compared to the previous chart, especially when the total sample size is smaller. As a study case, the application of this chart is illustrated using real data from a molding process. This confirmed that the modified double sampling chart improved performance in detecting out-of-control signals. Thus, the modified chart is recommended to be applied in industry

    Synthesis of Human Antibodies Against HBsAg in Newly Established Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL-YN) Cell Line

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    Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is an effective treatment for hepatitis B, including postexposure prophylaxis of HBV infection, prevention of HBV reinfection in liver transplant patients, and reducing sexual transmission. This study investigated the synthesis of human IgG antibodies that specifically target HBsAg subtype adr in CHL-YN cells, a newly established cell line that grows faster than CHO-K1. To achieve the synthesis of human IgG antibodies, a plasmid vector encoding DNA sequences for human IgG antibodies against HBsAg was constructed and then transiently transfected into CHL-YN cells. The expression and antigen-binding capacity of the recombinant human IgG antibodies were analyzed using western blot and ELISA. The results showed successful expression and secretion of human IgG antibodies that recognize HBsAg subtype adr in CHL-YN cells. The ELISA test confirmed the specificity of the human IgG antibodies towards HBsAg subtype adr. Thus, this study concluded that human IgG antibodies that target HBsAg subtype adr were transiently expressed in CHL-YN cells

    Magnetic Characterization of Fine Sediment in the Solo Basin Indonesia

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    The magnetic characteristics of fine sediment samples from the Solo Basin are reported in this paper. Magnetic fine sediment was identified by magnetic susceptibility mapping based on sampling of 182 points. Then, a depth analysis (on 7 selected sampling points) was performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, which showed an iron oxide content of up to 55.42%, while X-ray diffractometry confirmed magnetite minerals with crystallite size ≀100 nm. Further, the vibrating sample magnetometry results verified the magnetic characteristics under a single-domain configuration. The characteristic magnetic susceptibility map showed that there is a lithogenic effect on sediment in the Solo Basin. In addition, anthropogenic activities seem to play a pivotal role in distributing magnetic materials

    Computational Study of Nocardiotide-A Analogues in the Development of Technetium-99m Radiopeptides for Cancer Imaging for Targeting Somatostatin Receptor 2

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    Nocardiotide-A (cWIWLVA) is a cyclic peptide with significant cytotoxicity against several cancer cells. The present research aimed to design a radiopeptide based on nocardiotide-A analogues to be labeled by technetium-99m targeting SSTR2, which is the most widely expressed receptor in several types of human cancers and used as radiopeptide target. Nocardiotide-A analogues were individually designed by replacing valine at the lead compound with lysine, arginine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine, and this was simulated by molecular dynamics using AMBER18. A molecular docking using AutoDock 4.2 was performed and evaluated to understand the effect of chelation of technetium-99m on 99mTc-HYNIC-EDDA and 99mTc-HYNIC-tricine on the binding affinity of nocardiotide-A analogues. The molecular dynamics simulation confirmed that the designed nocardiotide-A-based peptides were stable in the binding pocket of SSTR2 for 200 ns. Moreover, the nocardiotide-A-based radiopeptides are able to interact with residues Q102, D122, Q126, and N276 by building hydrogen bonds, which are essential binding residues in SSTR2. The molecular docking simulation revealed that the best docking parameter is exhibited by 99mTc/EDDA/HYNIC-cWIWLNA and 99mTc/tricine/HYNIC-cWIWLNA with a binding free energy of –12.59 kcal/mol and –8.96 kcal/mol, respectively. Taken together, nocardiotide-A-based radiopeptides are prospective to be further developed for cancer imaging targeting SSTR2

    The Potency of Camellia Sinensis L. to Reduce Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Rat Model

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    This study was conducted in order to ascertain how green tea extract (GTE) could affect inflammatory markers, including level of interleukin-(IL)-12, IL-18 of serum and lung, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, gene expression of NLR family-pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) of lung, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ÎșB), lung histopathology, and IL-6 expression of lung tissue in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats as ARDS animal model. Rats were given GTE at dosages of 0, 50, 400, 800 mg/kg of body weight for 28 days to boost their immune systems. The rats were then stimulated with LPS (5 g/kg of BW) and after that continued to receive GTE for 28 days. Levels of serum or lung IL-18, IL-12, TNF-α, were measured using the ELISA method; expression of lung NF-ÎșB and NLRP3 was measured by qRT-PCR; immunohistochemistry (IHC) was implemented to assess lung IL-6 expression; and lung histopathology was evaluated through the bleeding, inflammation, and alveolus scores. GTE had the ability to lower serum IL-18, lung TNF-α, and lung IL-12 levels; suppress the lung gene expression of NF-ÎșB, NLRP-3, IL-6 expression; and improve lung histopathology. Green tea extract inhibited inflammation in the ARDS rat model by decreasing the proinflammatory cytokine level and proinflammatory gene expression

    Evaluation NO2 Detection Using Low-Cost Folded-Path Photometer

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    The measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in industrial and residential areas needs comprehensive and reliable instrumentation providing long-interference-free operation and minimum maintenance and recalibration. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy can be used as a direct measurement technique based on the specific absorption characteristics of NO2 following the Berr-Lambert law. This paper proposes a low-cost folded-path photometer to measure NO2 in the air. Cheap tubular acrylic was used as a detection cell with a 3D printed framework, making it compact, modular, and flexible. Evaluation of this differential optical absorption spectroscope (DOAS) was conducted by instrument test responses using NO2 gas. The estimated LOD was ~1263 ppb using a 2-nm resolution of the spectrometer and a 6-meter detection cell length. Deviation of the DOAS was estimated to be 0.8% at high concentration and 2.85% at low concentration based on the calibrated DOAS. Intercomparison of the results was conducted using two different instruments to evaluate the DOAS’s performance by measuring NO2 from motorcycle emissions, which indicated that there was a good correlation between the results. The coefficient correlation (R) was 0.649 for the DOAS- ASTM D1607 Griesz Saltzmann method pairing and 0.846 for the DOAS- electrochemical gas analyzer pairing

    Magnetoresistance Features at the Magnetic Field-Induced Phase Transition in FeRh Thin Films

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    The causes of the appearance of first-order magnetic phase transitions remain a mystery. FeRh alloy is a classical material where a first-order magnetic phase transition occurs. The authors of this article studied the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic state to the ferromagnetic state in FeRh alloy. Comparison of the magnetometry and transport properties results allowed us to determine a number of differences in the mechanisms of the phase evolution during magnetic field and temperature induced transition. This article notes the priority of the rearrangement of the micromagnetic structure of the ferromagnetic phase as a result of the induction of a phase transition by a magnetic field. The main feature of the magnetic field induced phase transition compared to the temperature induced one is the change in the micromagnetic structure of the ferromagnetic phase. The growth of a ferromagnetic phase with less scattering fields leads to asymmetric behavior when a phase transition is induced near the metastable state. We also focused on the importance of taking into account the effect of magnetostriction when analyzing the evolution of the phase transition, which leads to the irreversibility of the phase transition near a zero magnetic field

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