Bushehr University of Medical Sciences Repository

    The efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta‑analysis

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    BSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B infection is an important health problem all over the world, and according to the studies, Iran is a country with intermediate prevalence, so vaccination is a cost‑benefit approach. In this study, evidence about the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine was collected by systematic review methods and its amount was estimated by a meta‑analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, documents and literature search were performed using valid key words in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Data base, and Iranmedex databases from 1997 to 2010 in different regions of Iran. All cross‑sectional studies about the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in Iran which fulfilled the inclusion criteria entered the study. Antibody titer (Anti‑hemoglobins > 10 IU/L) was considered as the desired efficacy. In order to present the results, prevalence and Forest plot were used and for evaluation of the inconsistency meta‑regression model and I2 index were used. We used R.15.3.2 software for analysis. Results: Totally 64 studies (52 studies in general population and 12 studies among specific populations) including 12,575 subjects with age range from 8 months to 55 years entered the meta‑analysis. The efficacy was 86.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 83.9‑88.7%) in the general population and 59.62% (CI: 47.9‑71.29%) in specific patient populations. Also the efficacy was significantly related to the year of publication, age and gender (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Prevention is an important issue in general health. Hepatitis B vaccination is one of the methods used to prevent hepatitis B infection. According to this study, the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination was more than 80% in general population, so injection of full course of hepatitis B vaccinationis enough and booster dose is not required. Key words: Hepatitis B, meta‑analysis, meta‑regression, systematic review, vaccin

    The role of decentralized municipal desalination plants in removal of physical, chemical and microbial parameters from drinking water: A case study in bushehr, Iran

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of decentralized municipal desalination plants in removal of physical, chemical and microbial parameters from drinking water in Bushehr, Iran and compare the quality of outlet water with guidelines for drinking water. Fifty samples were taken from 10 decentralized municipal desalination plants (five times from every station). The mean values of physical, chemical and microbial parameters in outlet water were electrical conductivity (322.08 μS/cm), turbidity (0.0 NTU), pH (6.84), alkalinity (61.2 mg/L), carbonate (0 mg/L), bicarbonate (61.2 mg/L), total hardness (82.96 mg/L), calcium hardness (73.8 mg/L), magnesium hardness (18.96 mg/L) as CaCO3, calcium (29.52 mg/L), magnesium (4.72 mg/L), residual chlorine (0.37 mg/L), chloride (25.61 mg/L), TDS (161.04 mg/L), iron (0.045), fluoride (0.167 mg/L), nitrate (1.71 mg/L), nitrite (0.0026 mg/L), sulphate (107.17 mg/L), total coliform (0), fecal coliform (0) (MPN/100 mL) and HPC (322.9 CFU/mL). Our results showed that 10% of HPC outlet samples did not comply with the Iranian National Regulation (INR), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean levels of examined parameters in desalination plants’ outlets generally complied with the INR, EPA and WHO guidelines. Decentralized municipal desalination plants efficiency in removal of measured parameters were in the range of 18.52 (in the case of nitrite) to 100% (in the case of turbidity

    Healing effects of Pergularia tomentosa L., a native medicinal plant in Bushehr province, Iran on burn, in animal model

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    Burn injury is one of the most destructive events in the world. The Pergularia tomentosa L. is a medicinal plant that traditionally, applies for treatment of burning, in Bushehr province, Iran. Various bioactive compounds such as steroid glycosides, tannins, various vitamins, saponins, cardenolides and anthraquinones were identified into extract of the plant, which can be effective in burn wound healing. Twenty-one rats weighting every one 200±5 grams were divided equally into three groups. The second-degree burning induced on all groups. One of groups did not receive any treatment (The control group) and was treated locally with saline and eucerin. The Second group received the P. tomentosa L. as a topical ointment, and the third group received locally, a thin layer of silver sulfadiazine ointment 3% after washing the wound with saline. Afterward treatment period, the microscopic slides from histological sections were prepared. At that point, amounts of the fibroblast cells, blood vessels, wound area, necrotic tissues, and diameter of epidermis rate of wound healing were determined. Also the exterior status of wound in different days was considered. Results obtained from current study have revealed that the extract of P. tomentosa L. can significantly, cause qualitative and quantitative acceleration in healing of second degree burn wounds, due to their bioactive and vasoactive properties. In conclusion the P. tomentosa L. can is used as an overborne medicine with lower cost and side effect than the similar chemical medicines. Although, the further studies are needed on these plants, due to their some toxic effects

    Strong Hydrogen Bonding of Gallic Acid during Synthesis of an Efficient AgNPs Colorimetric Sensor for Melamine Detection via Dis-synthesis Strategy

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    We developed a convenient, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver nanoparticles probe for colorimetric detection of melamine. Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using gallic acid, known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, as a reducer and stabilizing agent simultaneously at room temperature. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by various technical analyses, for example, UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, elemental mapping, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photon spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Since the gallic acid has three hydroxyl groups, it can interact with melamine via several hydrogen bonds which has been confirmed with theoretical study by density functional theory; thus, in the presence of melamine, the free gallic acid as a responsible agent for the synthesis of AgNPs, is decreased. Consequently, the formation of silver nanoparticles is disrupted because reducers are not enough for the reduction of Ag + ion. Simultaneously, the color and spectral changes of the AgNPs depend on melamine concentration such that lower melamine concentration is equivalent to yellow (high absorbance) and higher concentration corresponds with colorless solution (low absorbance). In this way, the plasmon absorbance of AgNPs at 400 nm can be used for quantitative measurement of melamine. Our finding indicated that a sensitive linear calibration curve can be obtained between absorbance at 400 nm and the logarithm of melamine concentration in the range of 0.04-20 μM with a linear coefficient of 0.992. The assay conveys a detection limit of 3.609 nM ± 0.014 (3σ) and shows high potential for melamine detection in a selectivity study

    Alizarin red-S removal from aqueous solutions using saccharomyces cerevisiae: Kinetic and equilibrium study

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    Alizarin red-S (ARS) is a type of azo dye that is widely used for dyeing of wool and nylon. It is toxic and carcinogenic and can cause a serious hazard to aquatic ecosystems. The ARS removal was experimentally conducted using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass under various parameters of pH (3–11), contact time (20–180 min), the ARS concentration (25–100 mg L –1 ), and yeast dose (0.1%–1.3% w v –1 ). After completing each run, the suspensions were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 7 min. Finally, the absorbance of samples was read by UV-visible spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 427 nm. The maximum removal efficiency of ARS (68.51%) occurred at the conditions of ARS concentration of 50 mg L –1 , S. cerevisiae dose of 0.4% w v –1 , solution pH of 3, and contact time of 120 min. Biosorption process is desired at low pH under acidic conditions. The equilibrium data of the biosorption process were well fitted with the Langmuir model (R 2 = 0.99). Results indicated that the removal efficiency of ARS has an increasing rate from 10 to 80 min. The best kinetic model to fit experimental data was the pseudo-second-order. The results of the current study confirmed that S. cerevisiae could be used as a low-cost biosorbent for eliminating ARS from aqueous solutions

    Predictors of physical activity-related energy expenditure among overweight and obese middle-aged women in south of Iran: An application of social cognitive theory

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    Aims: This study aimed to determine the predictors of physical activity (PA) behavior in obese and overweight women in Borazjan district, south of Iran based on social cognitive theory (SCT). Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 398 obese or overweight middle-aged women referring to comprehensive health centers in Borazjan city. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version-22 and descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results: Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the constructs of SCT including self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome-expectations and perceived social-support from family and friends were related to physical activity behavior and energy expenditure. The multiple regression model showed self-efficacy and self-regulation were the most important predictors of PA behavior (R 2 = 0.217). Self-efficacy predicted PA behavior in both obese and overweight women and self-regulation in obese women and perceived social-support from friends in overweight women, also was predictors. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study that showed differences in predictive constructs of PA between two groups of overweight and obese women, it can be used to design and develop educational interventions to encourage overweight and obese women to do more PA and enhance their health status throughout a more active lifestyle

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Sargassum Oligocystum attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures by potentiating antioxidant activity in mice

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    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of Sargassum oligocystum extract on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure and the contribution of antioxidant capacity of this alga to its antiepileptic effect. Methods A dose of 100 mg/kg PTZ was used to induce the seizure in the male albino mice. Extract of Sargassum oligocystum in four doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg) and the vehicle were used 30 min before the injection of PTZ (n = 8). The onsets of clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, as well as the latency of death of animals, were recorded and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase level were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Sargassum oligocystum extract at the doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg significantly increased the latency of clonic and tonic-clonic seizures. Also, at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly increased the TAC. Moreover, Sargassum oligocystum at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the SOD activity and at the doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg increased the catalase level in neural cells compared with the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion Sargassum oligocystum extract inhibited PTZ-induced seizure. Attenuation of oxidative stress may partly be responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of this alga in the PTZ-induced seizures. Therefore, marine algae, especially Sargassum oligocystum, may be a valuable target to discover new antiepileptic drugs

    Implementation of absolute quantification in small-animal SPECT imaging: Phantom and animal studies

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    Purpose: Presence of photon attenuation severely challenges quantitative accuracy in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Subsequently, various attenuation correction methods have been developed to compensate for this degradation. The present study aims to implement an attenuation correction method and then to evaluate quantification accuracy of attenuation correction in small-animal SPECT imaging. Methods: Images were reconstructed using an iterative reconstruction method based on the maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm including resolution recovery. This was implemented in our designed dedicated small-animal SPECT (HiReSPECT) system. For accurate quantification, the voxel values were converted to activity concentration via a calculated calibration factor. An attenuation correction algorithm was developed based on the first-order Chang's method. Both phantom study and experimental measurements with four rats were used in order to validate the proposed method. Results: The phantom experiments showed that the error of -15.5% in the estimation of activity concentration in a uniform region was reduced to +5.1% when attenuation correction was applied. For in vivo studies, the average quantitative error of -22.8 ± 6.3% (ranging from -31.2% to -14.8%) in the uncorrected images was reduced to +3.5 ± 6.7% (ranging from -6.7 to +9.8%) after applying attenuation correction. Conclusion: The results indicate that the proposed attenuation correction algorithm based on the first-order Chang's method, as implemented in our dedicated small-animal SPECT system, significantly improves accuracy of the quantitative analysis as well as the absolute quantificatio

    Expression of recombinant parvalbumin from wolf-herring fish and determination of its IgE-binding capability

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    In this study, we produced the recombinant form of parvalbumin from wolf-herring fish and determined its IgE reactivity. Parvalbumin cDNA was sub-cloned into pET28 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21. The immunoreactivities of the recombinant and native parvalbumins were compared, and the effect of calcium binding was determined by sera from 25 fish-allergic patients. ELISA and Western blotting confirmed similar IgE-reactivities of the recombinant and native proteins and confirmed that this phenomenon is highly dependent on calcium binding. The recombinant protein was 94.5% similar to carp parvalbumin (Cyp c1). Approximately 72% of patients reacted strongly with recombinant parvalbumin, 80% of them reacted with the native form and only 56% showed IgE reactivity with crude extract. Because the IgE-binding capacity of recombinant wolf-herring parvalbumin is retained and is highly similar to Cyp c1, the wild and hypoallergenic forms of this allergen could be used for diagnosis and immunotherapy of fish allergy, respectively
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