This study examines changes in the governance of Nottingham and Derby in the period 1945-1968 from a local and national perspective. In so doing it foreshadows the changes wrought by the Local Government Act 1972, which usually receives greater academic attention. Post-war, local authorities became the nation’s principal landlords, while utilities, such as electricity and gas, were nationalised. In fulfilling their new responsibilities, urban authorities were forced to build estates on the periphery of, or outside, their boundaries. The relocation of residents resulted in an exportation of urban identity and greater urban-ness, but was not accompanied by a corresponding redrawing of administrative boundaries.
Nevertheless, when urban authorities sought boundary extensions they were fiercely contested by county authorities, local associations, and residents’ groups. Such associations and groups claimed to possess characteristics distinct from the authorities that wished to incorporate them. There was also a fear that democratic accountability would be lost in the creation of larger units of governance. The local feelings aroused by boundary extension proposals demonstrate that local government is more than merely an agent of central government. It is a living organism: changes to it affect not only services, but also the identity of that place.
The expansion proposals of the county boroughs of Nottingham and Derby differed markedly. Uniquely amongst county boroughs nationwide, Nottingham sought no expansion under the review initiated by the Local Government Act 1958. The thesis assesses the political motivations behind this and the wider reactions to reconfiguration proposals for both county boroughs. The role of conurbations is considered in terms of local governance, including the extent to which Nottingham and Derby could be classified as one. The thesis concludes that the maintenance of existing party political strengths outweighed local sentiment, and that only those proposals for reform which benefited the former were enacted
The file associated with this record has made unavailable whist an application for embargo is considered.This study focuses on the design, construction and experimental evaluation of the prototypes of a thermoacoustic cooler driven by a thermoacoustic engine which is a part of the SCORE (Stove for COoking, Refrigeration and Electricity supply) project. In this study, there are two prototypes considered. The first prototype is the thermoacoustic cooler driven by a combustion-powered thermoacoustic engine based on a travelling-wave looped-tube configuration. A propane gas burner is used to simulate the thermal input from biomass combustion. The system operates at atmospheric pressure using air as a working medium which allows employing PVC pipes as parts for resonators. The locations of the cooler are investigated experimentally in order to find the optimum configuration. The minimum temperatures of -8.3°C and -3.9°C are achieved at the frequencies of 58.6 Hz and 70.3 Hz, respectively. The second rig is a linear configuration of a coaxial travelling-wave thermoacoustic cooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. Due to the requirements of higher cooling performance, compressed air at 10 bar is employed. The operating frequency is 46.4 Hz. The resistance heating wire is applied to simulate the biomass combustion at this stage. The system is optimised experimentally in both geometry and operating conditions, to offer the best performance. So far, the lowest temperature of -19.7°C has been obtained at a drive ratio of 3.25%, while the maximum COPR has been 5.94%. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed prototype can produce a sufficient cooling power for storing vital medicines which meets one of the objectives of the SCORE project. Additionally, some suggestions are made as to the re-design of the linear configuration to ensure a more compact and lightweight device. In the author opinion, the contributions to engineering science are: (i) the design and build of the prototypes based on low cost and simplicity, (ii) the introduction of phase tuning part, matching stub, into the low pressure system to match the cooler to the engine, (iii) the design of the linear configuration of a coaxial travelling-wave thermoacoustic cooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine, (iv) improvement of the understanding of thermoacoustic technologies by application of DeltaEC programme, and (v) the application of DeltaEC simulations for optimisation of the coupled system
Study of the biology and ontogeny of Cretaceous and Recent ostracods shows that the family Cyprididae exhibits conservative evolution over the last 100 million years. The Cretaceous cypridid ostracod Pattersoncypris micropapillosa Bate, 1972, with preserved appendages, is described and details of the limbs of its adults and juveniles are compared with Recent Cyprididae.;A detailed study of the ontogeny of the Recent Cyprididae ostracod Eucypris virens Jurine, 1820) reveals that, with the exception of the last podomere on the antennules, the chaetotaxy (distribution pattern of setae) shows continual development on all podomeres of the limbs. Cyprididae ostracods have a pediform limb in the posterior part of the body, presumably to help them to attach to substrates; this is reflected by the pediform nature of one limb in all ontogenetic stages. This study has also shown that the fifth limb is more probably of thoracic origin and, hence, ostracods have only one pair of maxillae.;The upper lip and hypostomes of 23 species of Cypridoidea (Podocopina) ostracods were studied and significant variation noted in morphology between species, genera and subfamilies. Several features of the upper lip and hypostome are described for the first time. The morphology of the upper lip can be used to identify species, but it cannot be used to diagnose genera or subfamilies.;Spherical objects recovered from acetic acid preparation residues of vertebrate fossils from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of north-east Brazil are postulated to be the eggs of the ostracod Pattersoncypris micropapillosa Bate, 1972. These spheres are phosphatized, range in diameter from 85 to 110 m, and are comparable in many respects to the eggs of several Recent ostracod species
Flooding has caused intensive damage to communities both economically and socially
in recent decades. Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) aims at reducing
the diverse impacts of disasters, while vulnerability has been recognised as its most
beneficial phase. This study contributes to the assessment of vulnerability at a subregional
scale through the development of appropriate sets of indicators and methods.
A modified version of the BBC (Bogardi, Birkmann, and Cardona) model was selected
as the conceptual framework of the vulnerability assessment. This model depicts
characteristics and components of vulnerability and defines four pillars of sustainable
development as the sub-components of vulnerability. Notwithstanding some shortages
in the model, it has been a great vehicle for vulnerability assessment and has been
successful in operationalising the research objectives. Three sectors of land use were
extracted in order to cover the context-relevant characteristics of vulnerability.
Indicators were developed in order to measure and map flood vulnerability: 15
indicators for the arable sector, 15 for the wildlife sector, and 34 for the urban sector.
The development of indicators involved steps including a review of previous works, the
building of vulnerability components and sub-components, the identification of
indicators, and data collection.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provided the basis for all analytical and
methodological processes of the work. A 1 km grid cell raster map was set as the
format of the final mapping. In order to map the final vulnerability for the East Riding
of Yorkshire, indicators needed to be transferred, normalised, weighted and
integrated. Since this approach is greatly reliant on the decisions made at different
analytical and methodological steps, an evaluation of the outcomes seems necessary.
A sensitivity analysis was applied to this study to examine the sensitivity of the model
to changes in methods and data
The main question raised in this study is that of whether under conditions of colonial domination, underdevelopment and integration into the world capitalist system there was a possibility for the emergence of a working class in Algeria. This study has shown that the conditions for the emergence and development of a working class existed in Algeria since the colonial period. In this early period the processes of pauperization and proletarianization of large sections of the population through land expropriation and destruction of crafts and local communities have led to the formation of the first groups of wage labour on colonial farms and enterprises. However, the process of working class formation was hindered by the uneven development of colonial capitalism, political repression, racial discrimination as well as internal cleavages based on ethnicity and religion. The post-independence period provided new possibilities for the process of working class formation yet it has, at the same time, revealed its limitations. These were related to the weakness of the working class and the hostile political and economic environment. The experience of Self-management and the struggles which developed around it highlighted the extent to which specific historical conditions have affected working class formation. However, a new impetus to this process was provided by the rapid and intensive process of industrialization. The working class-in-formation not only saw its size expanding may times over in a short period of time (1966-82), becoming one of the main social groupings in the Algerian social structure, but has also acquired a rich and varied experience through its struggles. Despite many unfavourable conditions such as, recency of industrialization, disorganization, subordination of unions, and continued influence of traditional structures the Algerian industrial workers have developed embryonic forms of class consciousness expressing their common identity and shared interests. They have also shown an awareness of societal division and cleavages based on an unequal access to resources, generating antagonisms and conflicts. Most importantly, a majority among workers developed positive orientations toward collective forms of resistance and were prepared given the "right" conditions to engage in forms of collective action. Although expressed views on radical forms of resistance such as strikes, were not too favourable, these must be understood in the historical and situational context of the time. Overall, Algerian workers despite differences relating to the environment, working conditions and management policies, have shown a great deal of cohesion and homogeneity. New conditions have emerged recently following the collapse of the one-party state, an achievement for which part of the credit, at least, must go to the Algerian workers. These emergent conditions offer the working class new possibilities for an autonomous development leading to the realization of its potentialities as a major force in the Algerian social structure
The aim of the present study is to explore the motivational factors of Hong Kong vocational students in learning English. A qualitative case study approach was employed with a combination of surveys with self-completion questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and diary notes.
The research, which was carried out in two phases from September to June 2005-6 in one academic year, had the objective of examining whether there was any change of motivation for learning English. Ten students from a vocational institute were selected for the interviews, each were interviewed twice. They were also invited to write diaries, and to record their daily English activities. The data collected were used to triangulate with the interview findings when analyzing the results.
The study was initiated by students’ differences in learning attitudes and the variations in their standard of English. Research on motivation for, and attitudes towards learning
English reveal that instrumental and intrinsic motivations often apply to secondary school and tertiary-level learners, but prior to this study the research did not extend to vocational students in Hong Kong.
The findings show that vocational students not only have strong instrumental motivation for learning English but also have intrinsic motivation. It was apparent that in the process of their learning English, participants regarded English as a functional language which was tied up with their career. This finding is the same as that of previous research on attitudes towards learning English of Hong Kong students. In addition, vocational students’ motivation for learning English was found to be influenced and encouraged by many factors, particularly significant others, such as parents. The present study will enable English teachers to have a greater understanding of vocational students’ motives for learning English. This could help to improve teaching strategies, teaching materials and language policies; and, thus, enhance more effective learning of English in the vocational setting of Hong Kong
This thesis is under a permanent embargo in the LRA at the request of the author. Should you wish to download please go to the ethos record linked above and download from there.For almost all of man’s existence, his life has been ruled by the sun; work and leisure activities were largely restricted to the hours of daylight. Until little more than 200 years ago, artificial light sources were ineffective for all but the most basic tasks and were, in any event, unaffordable by most members of society. The changes which have created our modern 24 hour culture, in which almost no activity is constrained by the availability of natural light, have taken place, in industrial societies, in a relative short period of time since the late 18th century, and are still proceeding in parts of the developing world.
Previous studies of artificial lighting have relied heavily on cultural sources and provide an imperfect understanding of the effects these developments had on society. This project concentrates on the changes that lighting brought to the workplace, and applies the techniques of historical archaeology specifically to the factories of late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain, where so many aspects of modern industrial life were pioneered.
The deployment of artificial lighting in factories (particularly of gas lighting, which was first developed in the cotton mills of Britain) is traced in over-view and through examination of a number of case studies. The results clarify the role this played in the wider dissemination of lighting technology and show how the impact which these developments had on the physical and socio-economic development of factories differs significantly from previous assumptions in several respects, most notably with regard to working hours and night work, which did not increase when better lighting became available. These findings suggest that other culturally-based assumptions about the impact of lighting on industrialising societies also need to be re-examined
This thesis consists of three essays tied together with the common thread of technical analysis in asset pricing. They extend the technical analysis literature on data snooping bias, long-range dependence, and mixed frequency technical trading, respectively.
The first essay introduces an aggregate technical trading index by extracting the most relevant forecasting information contained in 7,846 technical trading rules to predict equity risk premium in the U.S. The proposed method significantly outperforms the existing false discovery rate (FDR) method in both in-sample and out-of-sample analysis.
The second essay focuses on the use of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators’ ability to predict equity risk premium. A Bullish Index is introduced to measure the changes in stock market behavior. A positive (negative) shock of the Bullish Index is closely related to strong equity risk premium predictability for forecasts based on macroeconomic variables (technical indicators) for up to six (nine) months.
The third essay studies the forecasting power of technical trading signals generated at various frequency levels with the Mixed Data Sampling model. The proposed aggregated high-frequency technical indicators (daily or weekly) can add value for momentum trading strategies compared to low-frequency (monthly) technical indicators, with a net-of-transactions-costs annualized certainty equivalent return gain up to 1.54%. The results indicate that there is no clear evidence of additional economic value for moving average trading strategies in forecasting monthly U.S equity risk premium.
In conclusion, this thesis provides new methodologies for predicting equity risk premium with technical analysis in the U.S market. The empirical results support the proposed methods with robustness check in all aspects of investing, i.e. the choice of risk preferences, transaction costs, out-of-sample analysis, and subsample period analysis. This thesis provides solid evidence in supporting the use of technical analysis in predicting the stock market movement.</p
In this paper we study the facility leasing problem with penalties. We present a 3-approximation primal-dual algorithm, based on the algorithms by Nagarajan and Williamson for the facility leasing problem and by Charikar, Khuller, Mount and Narasimhan for the facility location problem with penalties. In the facility location problem, it is given a metric space (V, d), a set F ⊆ V of facilities, an opening cost for each facility, and a set D ⊆ V of clients. The goal is to choose a subset of facilities to open and an assignment between clients and facilities which minimize the cost of opening the facilities plus the sum of the distances from each client to its corresponding facility. This problem does not admit a polynomial-time algorithm with approximation factor smaller than 1.463 unless P = NP [Sviridenko 2002]. Currently the best approximation factor is 1.488 [Li 2013]
The use of satellite NO2 data for air quality studies is increasingly revealing the need for observations with higher spatial and temporal resolution. The study of the NO2 diurnal cycle, global sub-urban-scale observations, and identification of emission point sources are some examples of important applications not possible at the resolution provided by current instruments. One way to achieve increased spatial resolution is to reduce the spectral information needed for the retrieval, allowing both dimensions of conventional 2-D detectors to be used to record spatial information.In this work we investigate the use of 10 discrete wavelengths with the well-established differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique for NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrievals. To test the concept we use a selection of individual OMI and TROPOMI Level 1B swaths from various regions around the world, which contain a mixture of clean and heavily polluted areas. To discretise the data we simulate a set of Gaussian optical filters centred at various key wavelengths of the NO2 absorption cross section. We perform SCD retrievals of the discrete data using a simple implementation of the DOAS algorithm and compare the results with the corresponding Level 2 SCD products, namely QA4ECV for OMI and the operational TROPOMI product.For OMI the overall results from our discrete-wavelength retrieval are in very good agreement with the Level 2 data (mean difference <5 %). For TROPOMI the agreement is good (mean difference <11 %), with lower uncertainty owing to its higher signal-to-noise ratio. These discrepancies can be mostly explained by the differences in retrieval implementation. There are some larger differences around the centre of the swath and over water. While further research is needed to address specific retrieval issues, our results indicate that our method has potential. It would allow for simpler, more economic satellite instrument designs for NO2 monitoring at high spatial and temporal resolution. Constellations of small satellites with such instruments on board would be a valuable complement to current and upcoming high-budget hyperspectral instruments.</div
Updated in last 30 days.
Access Repository Dashboard
Do you manage Leicester Research Archive? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard!👇