Western Kentucky University

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    Effects of Supramaximal Anderson Quarter-squats as a Potentiating Stimulus on Discus Performance in Division I Throwers: A Pilot Study

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 17(6): 99-114, 2024. No study has assessed supramaximal (over 100% 1RM) back squat variations as a potentiating stimulus in collegiate throwers. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a supramaximal Anderson (bottom-up) quarter squat potentiating stimulus would improve discus throw performance in Division I throwers compared to a dynamic warm-up alone. Nine NCAA division I thrower athletes (age: 20.1±1.4 years; 1RM back squat/body weight: 2.5±0.4 kg) randomly completed two sessions separated by at least 72 hours. One session involved a standardized dynamic warm-up alone (DyWU) followed by three trials of maximal discus throwing. The other session involved a dynamic warm-up with a supramaximal (105% 1RM) Anderson (bottom-up) quarter-squat set of 5 repetitions post activation performance enhancement stimulus (DyWU+PAPE) followed by three trials of maximal discus throwing. A two-way (warm-up strategy x time) ANOVA with repeated measures for each time point was used, with significance set at p\u3c 0.05. There were no significant (p\u3e 0.05) differences between DyWU alone versus DyWU+PAPE stimulus for discus throw distances at either 8 min. (31.7±5.6 vs 30.6±6.5 meters, respectively; d = -0.18), 11 min. (33.4±3.6 vs 31.3±4.7 meters, respectively; d = -0.52), or 14 min. post warm-up (34.1±3.9 vs 32.3±5.3 meters, respectively; d = -0.40). Compared to a dynamic warm-up alone, supramaximal Anderson quarter-squats following a dynamic warm-up had trivial/small to moderate detrimental effects on discus throw performance between 8-14 minutes post stimuli in Division I trained throwers, likely due to excess fatigue/PAPE inhibition

    Physical Fitness Responses after Sixteen Weeks of Three Fitness Program Trainings in Untrained Subjects

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 17(4): 54 - 72, 2024. The remarkable popularity of fitness trends like high intensity functional training (HIFT), choreographed high intensity classes (CHIC) and resistance (RT) trainings raises the question on their effect on cardio-respiratory, lactate removal rate, endurance and body composition responses. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare these effects. Ninety-five participants were randomly assigned into 16 weeks of these trainings, five sessions/week. Anthropometric and fitness tests were carried out before training (PRE), after eight (8W) and sixteen weeks (16W). Body composition measures demonstrated significant decrease in body fat percentage (p\u3c0.001, d=0.17–0.54) for all groups and fat mass (p\u3c 0.001, d= 0.26–0.53) for HIFT and CHIC in 8W,16W and in 16W for RT (p= 0.03 , d= 0.14), also significant increase in fat free mass only in HIFT (p\u3c 0.002, d= 0.06–0.21) and RT (p\u3c 0.001, d= 0.17–0.33) in 8W,16W. Cardio-respiratory measures demonstrated significant improvements in maximal aerobic capacity for HIFT (p\u3c 0.001, d= 0.58–1.26) and CHIC (p\u3c 0.001, d= 0.45–1.21) in 8W,16W. Endurance tests demonstrated significant improvements in 8W,16W in aerobic endurance among HIFT (p\u3c 0.001 , d= 1.28–3.19) and CHIC (p\u3c 0.001 , d= 1.16–1.79), in muscle absolute endurance in three groups (p\u3c 0.002, d= 0.14–1.17)and muscle relative endurance in HIFT (p\u3c 0.02, d= 0.13–0.2)and RT (p= 0.03, d= 0.3) in 16W. We can conclude that HIFT and CHIC are effective for cardio–respiratory and endurance improvement and all three programs are effective in reducing body fa

    Hines, Annie Duncan (Hines), 1873-1951 (SC 3716)

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    Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3716. Recipe book of Annie Duncan Hines, Bowling Green, Kentucky

    Cook, John Loy, 1838-1878 (SC 3709)

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    Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3709. Biographical data on John L. Cook, a physician of Henderson, Kentucky. Includes an 1878 article on yellow fever by Cook, published in the Louisville Medical News just prior to his death from the disease; a memorial address read before the McDowell Medical Society at Hopkinsville, Kentucky after his death; and information on his wife Annie

    Body Mass Index Superior to Body Adiposity Index in Predicting Adiposity in Female Collegiate Athletes.

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 1487-1498, 2023. Body mass index (BMI) is moderately correlated with %Fat and often used to assess obesity in athletes. Limited research assesses BMI as a surrogate for %Fat in female collegiate athletes. Body Adiposity Index (BAI) is an anthropometric measurement suggested to be superior to BMI at predicting adiposity but has not been well assessed within female athletic populations. This study aimed to determine if BAI is superior to other anthropometric indices to predict %Fat in female collegiate athletes and college-aged female non-athletes. Collegiate female athletes and female non-athletes were invited into the laboratory for anthropometrics and %Fat measurements via BOD POD. BAI was calculated as Hip Circumference/Height1.5 – 18. Eighty-eight female non-athletes and 72 female athletes from soccer (n = 27), softball (n = 28), and basketball (n = 17) completed the study. Using BMI, 19% of non-athletes had a false positive (FP). Sensitivity of BMI in non-athletes was 85.5%, while specificity was 73%. 16% of athletes had a FP. Sensitivity of BMI within athletes was 100%, specificity was 81%. BMI outperformed BAI in athletic (BMI: r = .725, p \u3c .001; BAI: r = .556, p \u3c .001) and nonathletic (BMI: r = .650, p \u3c .001; BAI: r = .499, p \u3c .001) groups. The strongest anthropometric predictor of %Fat within the non-athlete population was BMI (r2 = .42, p \u3c .001). Waist circumference was the strongest predictor in the athletic population (r2 = .62, p \u3c .001). BMI outperformed BAI in its ability to predict %Fat

    The Relationship Between Athlete Perceptions of Coaching Leadership Behaviors and Athlete Grit

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 17(5): 12-23, 2023. Coach leadership style has long been positively correlated with athlete experiences such as motivation, health (i.e., burnout), and performance outcomes (i.e., enhanced execution time to complete tasks) (24). More recently, grit (18) has been positively correlated with athlete experiences such as engagement (39) and decreased burnout (32). Given the impact coaches have on their athletes and the positive psychological benefits of grit, it is reasonable to explore the intersections of coaching behaviors and grit. As such, the purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between athlete perceptions of coach leadership behaviors and athlete grit. Intercollegiate athletes completed measures of grit and the leadership behaviors of their coach. A significant positive relationship was observed between the grit perseverance subscale and the leadership behavior of training and instruction (r =.30, p \u3c .05). Additional analyses revealed that athletes’ perceptions of coach positive feedback significantly predicted their perseverance. Taken together, these findings suggest a link between positive coach feedback and athlete perseverance. Implications of these results for professional practice and future research are discussed

    More than Body Composition: A Darwinian Theory of Somatotype, Applied to a DII Track and Field Outdoor Season

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 17(4): 1-12, 2024. This study presents somatotype data on a team sport with chronic and diverse sporting demands. The aims were to (1) characterize a somatotype profile for Division II (DII) track and field athletes (n=54) by sex, class, and events; (2) determine if somatotype changed across the season; (3) determine if changes differed based on class or sex; and, (4) assess potential differences in somatotype between sexes. Methods: Anthropometrics (height, weight, body composition, somatotype) were evaluated after a competitive indoor season and immediately before the outdoor conference championships (41 days). Body measurements were assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis device, skinfold assessment, boney breadths, and limb girths. Descriptive statistics are provided as well as results from two-way ANOVAs which evaluate differences in actual and change scores across sex and class. Results: Our DII track and field athletes were primarily endomorphic (scores displayed as ENDO, MESO, ECTO, respectively). Males were found to be primarily ENDO-MESO somatotypes (4.7, 4.1, 3.0), while females were dominantly ENDO (7.7, 2.9, 2.9). Upperclass were more ENDO-MESO balanced compared with lowerclass (5.8, 3.8, 2.8 vs 6.0, 3.5, 3.0). When investigated based on sex, class level, and event, the groups were similar. There was no meaningful change to ECTO scores across the season for males or females. Female athletes improved ENDO scores (-0.89%) and males and females improved MESO scores (14.29% and 5.29%, respectively), indicating adaptations can be accomplished despite the chronic demands of a competitive season. Conclusion: Our research offers practitioners information about the potential changes they may expect across a competitive track and field season

    James Hyde (d. 1875) and Wife Mary Wright (d. 1865), of Long Island and New York City.

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    Discussion of James & Mary (Wright) Hyde family of Long Island and New York City

    UA12/2/81 Omega Psi Phi

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    Records created by and about Omega Psi Phi fraternity

    UA12/2/85 Sigma Gamma Rho

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    Records created by and about Sigma Gamma Rho sorority


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