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    5578 research outputs found

    Large-Scale Data Analysis for Glucose Variability Outcomes with Open-Source Automated Insulin Delivery Systems

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    Open-source automated insulin delivery (AID) technologies use the latest continuous glucose monitors (CGM), insulin pumps, and algorithms to automate insulin delivery for effective diabetes management. Early community-wide adoption of open-source AID, such as OpenAPS, has motivated clinical and research communities to understand and evaluate glucose-related outcomes of such user-driven innovation. Initial OpenAPS studies include retrospective studies assessing high-level outcomes of average glucose levels and HbA1c, without in-depth analysis of glucose variability (GV). The OpenAPS Data Commons dataset, donated to by open-source AID users with insulinrequiring diabetes, is the largest freely available diabetes-related dataset with over 46,070 days’ worth of data and over 10 million CGM data points, alongside insulin dosing and algorithmic decision data. This paper first reviews the development toward the latest open-source AID and the performance of clinically approved GV metrics. We evaluate the GV outcomes using large-scale data analytics for the n = 122 version of the OpenAPS Data Commons. We describe the data cleaning processes, methods for measuring GV, and the results of data analysis based on individual self-reported demographics. Furthermore, we highlight the lessons learned from the GV outcomes and the analysis of a rich and complex diabetes dataset and additional research questions that emerged from this work to guide future research. This paper affirms previous studies’ findings of the efficacy of open-source AID.European Commission Horizon 2020Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action Research and Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE

    How Does Inside Information Affect Sports Betting Odds?

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    We describe how the presence of insiders with superior information about potential outcomes of sporting events affects odds set by bookmakers, using a generalized version of the model in Shin (1991). The model has been widely cited as an explanation for the pattern of favorite-longshot bias observed in fixed-odds betting markets. We show that disagreement among those bettors without inside information causes favorite-longshot bias. The presence of insiders reduces odds but does not necessarily exacerbate favorite-longshot bias. For realistically calibrated beliefs, the fraction of insiders has a minimal effect on the ratio of favorite to longshot odds and the betting market collapses if this fraction rises above low levels

    Ireland: Trade unions recovering after being tipped off balance by the Great Recession?

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    This chapter describes the features and fortunes of the Irish union movement over the last thirty years, highlighting the issues it faced and the strategic responses it adopted. Whereas the collapse of social partnership agreements and the unilateral imposition of wage cuts after the financial crisis put unions very much on the defensive, it would be wrong to write off the Irish union movement.European Commission Horizon 2020European Research Counci

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    Toward Autism-Friendly Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Exploring Autistic Individuals' Experiences of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in the United Kingdom, a Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Background: Autistic individuals might undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination for clinical concerns or research. Increased sensory stimulation, lack of appropriate environmental adjustments or lack of streamlined communication in the MRI suite may pose challenges to autistic patients and render MRI scans inaccessible. This study aimed to i) explore the MRI scan experiences of autistic adults in the UK, ii) identify barriers and enablers towards successful and safe MRI examinations, iii) assess autistic individuals’ satisfaction with MRI service, and iv) inform future recommendations for practice improvement. Methods: We distributed an online survey to the autistic community on social media, using snowball sampling. Inclusion criteria were: being older than 16, have an autism diagnosis or self-diagnosis, self-reported capacity to consent and having had an MRI scan in the UK. We used descriptive statistics for demographics, inferential statistics for group comparisons/correlations, and content analysis for qualitative data. Results: We received 112 responses. A total of 29.6% of the respondents reported not being sent any information before the scan. Most participants (68%) confirmed that radiographers provided detailed information on the day of the examination but only 17.1% reported that radiographers offered some reasonable environmental adjustments. Only 23.2% of them confirmed they disclosed their autistic identity when booking MRI scanning. We found that quality of communication, physical environment, patient emotions, staff training and confounding societal factors impacted autistic people’s experiences. Autistic individuals rated their overall MRI experience as neutral and reported high levels of claustrophobia (44.8%). Conclusion: The study highlighted a lack of effective communication and coordination of care, either between healthcare services or between patients and radiographers, and lack of reasonable adjustments as vital for more accessible and person-centred MRI scanning for autistic individuals. Enablers of successful scans included effective communication, adjusted MRI environment, scans tailored to individuals’ needs/preferences, and well-trained staff.College of Radiographers Industry Partnership Scheme Research GrantAhead of print, check citing and date details in 6 m pleaseCan't get access trhough UCD so can't see pdf and no pages2023-06-15 JG: PDF updated to remove duplicate cover page erroneously added by RR

    Appropriateness of strategy comparisons in cost-effectiveness analyses of infant pneumococcal vaccination: a systematic review

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    Objectives: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is the standard framework for informing the efficient allocation of scarce healthcare resources. The importance of considering all relevant intervention strategies and appropriate incremental comparisons have both long been recognized in CEA. Failure to apply methods correctly can lead to suboptimal policies. Our objective is to assess if CEAs of infant pneumococcal vaccination apply appropriate methods with respect to the completeness of strategies assessed and incremental comparisons between them. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases and performed a comparative analysis of the retrieved pneumococcal vaccination CEAs. We checked the appropriateness of the incremental analyses by attempting to replicate the published incremental cost-effectiveness (CE) ratios from the reported costs and health effects. Results: Our search returned twenty-nine eligible articles. Most studies failed to recognize one or more intervention strategies (n = 21). Incremental comparisons were questionable in four CEAs and insufficient reporting of cost and health effect estimates was identified in three studies. Overall, we only found four studies that made appropriate comparisons between all strategies. Lastly, study findings appear to be strongly associated with manufacturer sponsorship. Conclusions: We found considerable scope for improvement regarding strategy comparison in the infant pneumococcal vaccination literature. To prevent overestimation of the CE of new vaccines, we urge greater adherence to existing guidelines recommending that all available strategies are evaluated to capture relevant comparators for CE evaluation. Closer adherence to existing guidelines will generate better evidence, leading to more effective vaccination policies

    Assessment of Phase Evolution in Titanium-Niobium-Based Alloys During Rapid Solidification

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    In this work, microstructural evolution in β-Ti alloys during solidification is studied as the cooling rate increases, approaching the cooling rates found in additive manufacturing processes. Using suction casting of thin rods, high cooling rates can be studied and compared, to find a trend in how these phases evolve under a broad range of solidification conditions. The effect of varying cooling rates is studied on the microstructural evolution of Titanium-Niobium (Ti-Nb)-based alloys with Tantalum (Ta) additions. A combined simulation and experimental approach is used to investigate the predictability of differences in microstructural evolution during rapid-solidification casting. Rods of binary Ti–25Nb and ternary Ti–20Nb–10Ta (wt% and hereafter) alloys were synthesized in diameters of 3, 5, and 10 mm using suction casting into copper moulds. Finite element (FE) and thermodynamic modelling was used to calculate the cooling rates and temperature gradients of the alloys. The microstructural and mechanical differences were determined via XRD, SEM/EDS, and mechanical testing.Science Foundation IrelandStryke

    Appendix to Hops, Skip and a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles

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    Appendix to the chapter 'Hops, Skip and a Jump: The Regional Uniqueness of Beer Styles' in Patterson, M., Hoalst-Pullen, N. (eds.). Geography of Beer: Policies, Propaganda and Place, including glossary, list of styles, malts and hops and a sample BeerXML file.Check for published version. Forthcoming, 2023, add DOI when publihsed. 2023-06-07 J

    The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Native Speech Norms: Effects of a Year Abroad on Second Language Learners of French

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    One of the perennial debates in language teaching is the one about the benefits, or otherwise, of time spent abroad -- learning the language while immersed in the target speech community. After all, as Gardner (1979) says, in acquiring a second language "the student is faced with the task of not simply learning new information (vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, etc) .. but rather of acquiring symbolic elements of a different ethnolinguistic community". To what extent is this process facilitated by living in the target language community? This article reports a study which provides concrete empirical data on the effects of such experiences on the language learning process. This sociolinguistic study of second language acquisition tries to investigate just what is the process of the acquisition of symbolic elements of another ethnolinguistic community. It is a study of the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence and focuses on the acquisition of a particularly sensitive sociolinguistic variable which is invested with powerful symbolic significance by the native speech community

    Children's School Lives: Preschool to Primary School Transition

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    This report is focused on the transition from preschool to primary school. School transitions are one of six core thematic areas that CSL focuses on . The transition into primary school is a significant event not only in the lives of the children, but also their family. It is embedded in wider dynamics related to the personal, social, and cultural context of their lives, as well as the particular trajectory of children’s own emotional and cognitive development (NCCA, 2018). The focus of this report is to present some of the patterns evident in this key transition point from a range of perspectives. As such, the findings presented in this report draw on data generated with the CSL cohort in Junior Infants, as well as an additional sub-study (the ‘Preschool study’), undertaken in the summer term 2019 to explore the perspectives of parents, children and early years educators on the transition to primary school.National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA

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