PSU Knowledge Bank

    Effect of rubberwood and palm oil content on the properties of wood-polyvinyl chloride composites

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    Wood–plastic composites (WPCs) have been proposed as an alternative to natural wood due to their physical and mechanical properties. Development of these composites from natural fibers is receiving widespread attention partly because of growing environmental awareness. To dispose of produced waste from industry, low-value fiber resources could be converted into high-value products. This research studies the combination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to rubberwood (RBW) fiber, to palm oil trunk fiber, and to palm oil shell (POS) fiber. Composite performance optimization, material option comparison, basic engineering performance improvement, and durability of WPCs have been investigated. A two-stage process consisting of compounding and forming to produce WPCs using 40%–60% natural fiber reinforcements was carried out. Physical and mechanical properties of the WPCs were studied. The results showed that WPCs consisting of 60% RBW fiber and 40% PVC yielded the highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, which are approximately 90,130 MPa and 433 MPa, respectively. The ultimate compressive strength with a value of approximately 316 MPa was achieved from 60% POS fiber and 40% PVC. Reinforcing 40% POS fiber in 60% PVC exhibited the lowest water absorption rate. The overall result indicates an improvement of engineering performance, making better use of industrial wastes and indirectly assists environmental conservation endeavor along the process

    Composites from recycled polypropylene and rubberwood flour: Effects of composition on mechanical properties

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    The mechanical properties of composites from recycled waste plastic and waste sawdust are of interest in trying to convert these waste streams to useful products. The development of these composites from natural fiber is therefore receiving widespread attention due to the growing environmental awareness. The effects of compositions were investigated including different grades of plastic (virgin and recycled) and amounts of wood flour, coupling agent, and ultraviolet (UV) stabilizer on mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene/rubberwood flour (RWF)composites. Virgin polypropylene gave better mechanical properties than recycled (recycled polypropylene (rPP)), both in composites and as unfilled plastic. RWF content exceeding 25 wt% enhanced the strength of RWF-reinforced rPP composites. The modulus and hardness of composites increased linearly with wood flour loadings. Maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP) as a coupling agent increased the strength, modulus, and hardness of the composites. However, addition of 1 wt% UV stabilizer degraded the mechanical properties. Therefore, 4 wt% MAPP content is recommended to achieve good mechanical properties of rPP/RWF composites, while the amount of UV stabilizer should be as small as possible to avoid its negative influence.the graduate school of Prince of Songkla University, the Government budget Fund, Rubberwood Technology and Management Research Grou

    Effect of Turning Parameters on Surface Roughness of Aluminum Casting Semi-Solid

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    To study the effect of turning parameters on surface roughness of aluminum casting semi-solid, the experiment was conducted on a computer numerical control machine using carbide insert (Plansee Tizit; DCGT 070204FN-27 grade H10T Co 6.0%) as a cutting tool. The 3 cutting factors were studied including cutting speed, feed and depth of cut in the range of 130-220 m./min, 0.02-0.1 mm./rev and 0.45- 0.85 mm., respectively. The results showed that feed rate was the most affected factor to the finish surface roughness. Decreasing the feed rate gave the better surface roughness. Finally, the regression equation was validated by comparing the value of surface roughness from the equation and the actual experiment. It was found that the absolute different value was approximately 4.22% which is in the range of acceptable criteria

    The optimal formulation of recycled polypropylene/rubberwood flour composites from experiments with mixture design

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    A mixture design was used in experiments, to determine the optimal mixture for composites of rubberwood flour (RWF) and reinforced recycled polypropylene (rPP). The mixed materials were extruded into panels. Effects were determined of the mixture components rPP, RWF, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP), and ultraviolet (UV) stabilizer, on the mechanical properties. The overall composition significantly affected flexural, compressive, and tensile properties. The fractions of recycled polypropylene and rubberwood flour increased all the mechanical material properties; however, increasing one fraction must be balanced by decreasing the other, and the rubberwood flour fraction had a higher effect size. The fraction of MAPP was best kept in mid-range of the fractions tested, while the UV stabilizer fraction overall degraded the mechanical properties. Our results suggest that the fraction of UV stabilizer should be as small as possible to minimize its negative influences. The models fitted were used for optimization of a desirability score, substituting for the multiple objectives modeled. The optimal formulation found was 50.3 wt% rPP, 44.5 wt% RWF, 3.9 wt% MAPP, 0.2 wt% UV stabilizer, and 1.0 wt% lubricant; the composite made with this formulation had good mechanical properties that closely matched the model predictions.Prince of Songkla Graduate Studies Grant, the Government budget Fund (Research Grant Code: 2555A11502062)and Rubberwood Technology and Management Research Group (ENG-54-27-11-0137-S) of Faculty of Engineering,Prince of Songkla Universit

    Optimizing the formulation of polypropylene and rubberwood flour composites for moisture resistance by mixture design

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    D-optimal mixture experimental design was used to determine the optimal mixture of composites from rubberwood Hevea brasiliensis) flour and recycled polypropylene and to systematically analyze the effects of composition, namely recycled polypropylene, rubberwood flour, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, and ultraviolet stabilizer fractions. Panel samples were extruded, and their properties were characterized. The overall compositions significantly affected water absorption, thickness swelling, flexural strength and modulus, and maximum strain. Water absorption and thickness swelling increased with the fraction of rubberwood flour. At long immersion times, flexural strength and modulus decreased, but maximum strain increased with high fraction of rubberwood flour. The fraction of maleic anhydridegrafted polypropylene only slightly affected water absorption and flexural properties, while the ultraviolet stabilizer fraction had a clear negative effect increasing water absorption and decreasing flexural properties. The models fitted were used for optimization of a desirability score, substituting for the multiple objectives modeled. The optimal formulation found was 68.9 wt% recycled polypropylene, 25.0 wt% rubberwood flour, 5.0 wt% maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, 0.1 wt% ultraviolet stabilizer, and 1.0 wt% lubricant. This formulation of the composites can be used for most suitable applications based on the moisture resistance

    Effect of Wood Flour Content and Cooling Rate on Properties of Rubberwood Flour/Recycled Polypropylene Composites

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    The present article summarizes an experimental study on the mechanical and thermal behavior of recycled polypropylene composites reinforced with rubberwood flour. Different compositions were varied to investigate mechanical strengths, melting temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus. It was observed that the tensile and flexural strengths decreased with the increase of wood flour content. Furthermore, the air cooled composites showed improved properties in comparison with the water cooled composites. The melting and crystallization temperature results presented a weak influence of increased wood flour content on composites. However, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed an increase in the storage and loss modulus
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