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    Possibilities of using ChatGPT in university study

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    U današnjem vremenu u kojemu je umjetna inteligencija (AI) sve više prisutna, novi jezični model ChatGPT, koji razumije prirodni jezik i generira odgovore na upite korisnika, pronalazi sve veću primjenu u različitim granama znanosti i u mnogim područjima, pa tako i u obrazovanju. ChatGPT nudi brojne mogućnosti primjene u svim stupnjevima obrazovanja, a posebno u fakultetskom obrazovanju. Sustav kao takav može služiti kao pomoć pri učenju, pomoć pri pretraživanju i prevođenju literature, pomoć pri oblikovanju teksta, planiranju i osmišljavanju različitih aktivnosti za nastavni proces, i sl. Ipak, informacijama koje ChatGPT generira, studenti trebaju pristupati s oprezom i dodatnom provjerom kako ne bi došlo do pogrešnih ili nedovoljno vjerodostojnih podataka. Također, nameće se etičko pitanje i pitanje očuvanja akademskog integriteta u sklopu korištenja ChatGPT-a tijekom učenja i studiranja zbog pojave plagiranja, krađe i varanja. Upravo se takva primjena ChatGPT-a istražuje u ovom radu gdje se ispituju mišljenja i stavovi studenata o korištenju sustava za pomoć pri učenju u vidu svih navedenih aspekata mogućnosti i opasnosti ChatGPT-a. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju da većina ispitanih studenata koristi ili je koristila ChatGPT u pojedine fakultetske svrhe, kao što je pretraživanje i prijevod literature, pomoć u učenju i pisanju radova, ali ipak nisu informacije koristili bez dodatne provjere u relevantnim izvorima, što se na kraju pokazalo korisnim i neophodnim. Jedan dio studenata smatra kako je moguće da je akademski integritet narušen korištenjem ChatGPT-a, ali isto tako smatraju da ako korisnici odgovorno koriste sustav da je moguće implementirati ga u obrazovanje i koristiti ga kao alat za pomoć u učenju, a ne kao alat za varanje ili plagiranje.In today's era where artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly present, ChatGPT, the new language model which understands natural language and generates responses to user queries, is finding numerous applications in various branches of science and across many fields, including education. ChatGPT offers many possibilities for application at all levels of education, particularly in higher education. Such a system can serve as a learning aid, assistant in searching and translating literature, help with text composition and aid in planning and designing various activities for educational process. However, students should approach the generated information with caution and should check further in the literature to avoid inaccurate or insufficiently credible data. Additionally, ethical considerations arise, along with concerns about preserving academic integrity, when using ChatGPT for learning and studying, due to the risk of plagiarism, theft, and cheating. This research explores the use of ChatGPT in this context, investigating students' opinions and attitudes towards using the system as a learning aid, considering all the aforementioned aspects of the possibilities and dangers of ChatGPT. The research results indicate that the majority of surveyed students have used or are using ChatGPT for specific purposes in their academic pursuits, such as literature search and translation, assistance in learning, and paper writing. However, they do not rely solely on the information provided by ChatGPT and they ensure additional verification from relevant sources, which has proven to be useful and necessary for the preservation of academic integrity. One part of the students believes that academic integrity may be compromised by using ChatGPT, but they also think that if users responsibly utilize the system, it is possible to implement it in education and use it as a learning aid rather than a tool for cheating or plagiarism

    Athletic content in preschool education

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    U današnjem suvremenom svijetu sve je veća prisutnost sjedilačkog načina života i smanjenog kretanja. Stoga, kako bi dijete pravilno raslo i razvijalo se, važno je poticati ga na kineziološku aktivnost. Motorički razvoj djeteta započinje u majčinom trbuhu prvim pokretima djeteta. Opće je poznato da kineziološka aktivnost čini bitnu ulogu u djetetovom rastu i razvoju. Djeca od najranije dobi kroz sportske igre razvijaju osjećaj kreativnosti, odgovornosti te stvaraju socijalne vještine. Važnu ulogu kod poticanja kineziološke aktivnosti imaju roditelji i odgajatelji. Uloga roditelja je osigurati djetetu dovoljno stimulativnih iskustva i prilika za psihomotorički razvoj. U ovom radu prikazan je prijedlog atletskih sadržaja za djecu predškolske dobi: hodanje, trčanje, skakanje i bacanje. Atletski sadržaji utječu na dječje ponašanje, stavove i na kompetencije. Sposobnosti trčanja predškolske djece, njihove motoričke i ostale sposobnosti ovise o uvjetima u kojima dijete živi i raste. Djeca koja su tjelesno aktivnija imaju bolju kondiciju i zdravstveni status. Važnu ulogu u dječjem rastu i razvoju imaju motoričke sposobnosti, a to su: izdržljivost, snaga, gipkost, brzina i koordinacija.In today's modern world, the presence of a sedentary lifestyle and reduced movement is increasing. Therefore, in order for the child to grow and develop properly, it is important to encourage him to kinesiological activity. A child's motor development begins in the mother's womb with the child's first movements. It is generally known that kinesiological activity plays an important role in a child's growth and development. From an early age, children develop a sense of creativity, responsibility and social skills through sports games. Parents and educators play an important role in encouraging kinesiology activity. The role of parents is to provide the child with enough stimulating experiences and opportunities for psychomotor development. This paper presents a proposal for athletic content for preschool children: walking, running, jumping and throwing. Athletic content affects children's behavior, attitudes and competencies. The running abilities of preschool children, their motor and other abilities depend on the conditions in which the child lives and grows. Children who are more physically active have better fitness and health status. Motor abilities play an important role in children's growth and development, namely: endurance, strength, flexibility, speed and coordination

    Violence against and among children of preschool age

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    U današnje vrijeme sve je značajniji porast nasilja nad i među djecom. Ovi oblici nasilja u fokusu su brojnih znanstvenika, ali i šire javnosti. Nasilje nad djecom može se definirati kao namjerno ozljeđivanje djeteta, prvenstveno od strane djetetove obitelji koja je najvažniji čimbenik u djetetovom životu. Različiti su oblici nasilja nad djecom, a kao najučestaliji navode se fizičko nasilje, emocionalno nasilje, seksualno nasilje i zanemarivanje. Dijete može biti izloženo i vršnjačkom nasilju. Nasilje među djecom može se opisati kao oblik nasilnog ponašanja u kojem je naglašena razlika moći između počinitelja nasilja i žrtve. Postoje različiti oblici nasilja među djecom, a najčešći su fizičko i verbalno nasilje. Postoje dvije vrste nasilja koja se odnose na djecu, a to su nasilje nad djecom i nasilje među djecom. Nasilje koje dijete doživljava u djetinjstvu najčešće ostavlja teške i dugotrajne posljedice u odrasloj dobi. Na sve oblike nasilja potrebno je djelovati odmah i što učinkovitije riješiti nastale probleme kako u budućnosti ne bi dolazilo do ponavljanja istih i/ili nastajanja novih.Nowadays, there is an increasing increase in violence againts and among children. These forms of violence are the focus of many scientists, but also of the general public. Violence against children can be defined as the intentional injury of a child, primarily by the child’s family which is the most important factor in a child's life. There are various forms of violence against children, and the most common are physical violence, emotional violence, sexual violence and neglect. A child may also be exposed to bullying. Violence among children can be described as a form of violent behavior in which the difference of power between the perpetrator of violence and the victim is emphasized. There are various forms of violence among children, the most common being physical and verbal violence. There are two types of violence that apply to children, namely violence against children and violence among children. The violence that a child experiences in childhood most often leaves severe and long-lasting consequences in adulthood. All forms of violence need to be acted upon immediately and as effectivelly as possible to solve the problems that have arisen so that in the future there is no repetition of the same and/or the emergence of new ones

    Kinesiological games of kindergarten children

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    Cilj ovog završnog rada je osvijestiti činjenicu da su kineziološke igre za djecu od iznimne važnosti jer utječu na djetetov rast i razvoj. Igra je najvažniji dio djetetova odrastanja te osnovni oblik djetetova učenja. Ona potiče razvoj djetetovih intelektualnih, socijalnih, fizičkih i emocionalnih vještina. Razvijanjem navedenih vještina dijete se potiče na razmišljanje, pamćenje, maštu. Kroz igru djeca stječu nova iskustva i znanja. Stoga je bitno djecu poticati na igru jer na taj način unaprjeđujemo njihov razvoj. Postoje mnoge motoričke igre za djecu predškolske dobi koje potiču razvoj osnovnih motoričkih sposobnosti poput agilnosti, brzine, eksplozivne snage ili brzine, koordinacije i spretnosti. Takve igre mogu sadržavati elemente nogometa ili rukometa i one su iznimno poticajne i korisne za djecu jer razvijaju motoriku ruku i nogu te koordinaciju pokreta s različitim pomagalima. Veoma je bitno da sadržaji motoričkih igara budu djeci zanimljivi, te različiti kako bi kod djeteta potaknuli različita iskustva. Također je bitna i okolina u kojoj djeca provode motoričke igre jer ona uvelike utječe na motivaciju i sudjelovanje djeteta u igri. Ako je atmosfera u kojoj djeca provode aktivnosti ugodna i poticajna djeca će moći nesmetano istraživati, uživati u igri što će rezultirati zadovoljstvom djece. Djetetu je potrebno u igri pružiti slobodu kako bi mogli nesmetano uživati i stjecati različita iskustva u interakciji s drugom djecom i razvijati samopouzdanje pri čemu bitnu ulogu ima odgajatelj.The aim of this final work is to raise awareness of the fact that kinesiological games for children are extremely important because they affect the child's growth and development. Play is the most important part of a child's growing up and the basic form of a child's learning. It encourages the development of a child’s intellectual, social, physical and emotional skills. By developing these skills, the child is encouraged to think, remember, imagine. Through play, children gain new experiences, knowledge. Therefore, it is very important that we encourage children to play as much as possible, because in this way we improve their development. There are many motor games for preschool children that encourage the development of basic motor skills and these are agility, speed, explosive power. The goal of these games is to encourage speed, coordination and dexterity in children. Such games can be football, handball, which are extremely stimulating and useful for children because they develop hand and foot motor skills and coordination of movements with various aids. It is very important that the contents of motor games are interesting to children, and different in order to encourage different experiences in the child. The environment in which children play motor games is also important because it greatly affects the child's motivation and participation in play. If the atmosphere in which the children carry out the activities is pleasant and stimulating, the children will be able to explore freely, enjoy the game and this will result in pleasure. There are a lot of motor games for preschool children that they really like and they should be as represented as possible in the child's life because they increase the work of all organs and organic functions. The child also needs to be given freedom in the game so that they can enjoy and gain different experiences in interacting with other children. Different kinesiological games allow children to develop self-confidence, joy, fitness. The role of educators in conducting kinesiological games for preschool children is to encourage children to develop motor skills through various kinesiological games and to create physical exercise habits in children. Within this final paper, examples and divisions of kinesiological games for preschool children are given

    Children's fears

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    Strah kao primarna emocija svakog čovjeka prisutna je kroz naš cijeli život. Dijete od svoje najranije dobi pa kroz cijelo odrastanje susreće se i bori s raznim strahovima koji ovise o dobi djeteta. U ovom radu fokus će biti na strahovima djece rane i predškolske dobi. Prema istraživanjima od druge do 14. godine više od 90 % djece pati od nekog straha, a većina ima i nekoliko strahova. Prema Vulić-Prtorić (2002) dječji strahovi nastaju kao produkt nekog događaja koji je dijete shvatilo kao prijetnju te on u njemu izaziva osjećaj nelagode i fiziološke promjene nakon čega dijete izbjegava takve situacije. Postepenim suočavanjem sa strahom strah će se smanjiti ili nestati, no nije dobro ignorirati strah i potiskivati ga u sebe. Roditelji i odgojitelji najviše vremena provode s djetetom i oni su prvi koji mogu primijetiti strah kod djeteta te su oni bitni faktori u savladavanju straha. Roditelji, ako ne mogu sami, mogu uz pomoć savjeta ili metoda iz stručne literature ili uz savjetovanje kod stručnjaka potražiti pomoć kako pristupiti djetetu kada se nečega boji te na koji način s njime pobijediti taj strah. Neki od načina na koje dijete pokazuje strah i kako ga možemo prepoznati kod djece su: plač pri odvajanju, odbijanje nepoznatih ljudi, bol u trbuhu, čvrsto držanje za ruku, agresivnost, problemi sa spavanjem i mokrenjem i slično. Cilj ovog završnog rada jest prikazati i opisati najčešće razvojne strahove u djetinjstvu te upoznati i razumjeti načine njihovog prevladavanja.Fear, as the primary emotion present in every human, accompanies us throughout our entire lives. From a very young age, children encounter and grapple with various fears that depend on their age. This work will focus on the fears of early and preschool-age children. According to research, from the age of two to 14, more than 90% of children experience some form of fear, with most having several fears. According to Vulić-Prtorić (2002), children's fears arise as a result of an event that a child perceives as a threat, causing discomfort and physiological changes, leading the child to avoid such situations. By gradually confronting their fear, it can diminish or disappear, but it's not advisable to ignore or suppress it. Parents and caregivers spend the most time with a child and are the first to notice a child's fear, making them crucial factors in helping the child overcome it. If parents cannot do it on their own, they can seek assistance from professional literature, advice, or consult experts on how to approach a child when they are afraid and how to help them overcome that fear. Some ways in which a child may exhibit fear and how we can recognize it in children include separation anxiety, refusal of unfamiliar people, stomachaches, tightly holding onto a hand, aggression, sleep problems, bedwetting, and more. The aim of this final paper is to present and describe the most common developmental fears in childhood and to introduce and understand methods for overcoming them

    Encouraging environment in preschool

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    U današnje vrijeme svakodnevno čitamo rezultate novih istraživanja o tome kako i na koji način odgajati dijete, što je potrebno za pravilan razvoj, kakav je utjecaj okoline na razvoj djece. Nijedno dijete nije isto, svako je individua za sebe, sa svojim načinom i brzinom razvoja, s vlastitim mogućnostima, interesima, kompetencijama i osobnosti. Nekadašnje tradicionalno gledanje na dijete kao objekt danas se više ne uvažava, naprotiv, dogodio se konstruktivistički obrat te se dijete danas tretira kao subjekt. Nova suvremena slika djeteta mijenja način odnošenja odgojitelja prema djetetu, a u suvremenoj pedagogiji dominira slika djeteta kao aktivnog i kompetentnog djeteta koje je samostalno i socijalno aktivno. Nesigurnosti odgojitelja i stručnog osoblja u dnevnom ophođenju s djecom dovele su do pojačanog interesa za istraživanja poticajnog okruženja u kojem djeca obitavaju. U ovome radu prikazat će se što je i kako se organizira poticajno okruženje u vrtiću za djecu rane i predškolske dobi. U radu bit će iznesena dva pedagoška koncepta: Montessori i Reggio koji se često koriste u radu s djecom. Spomenut će se značajni sudionici u tome procesu (djeca, odgojitelji, stručno osoblje) i opisati neke njihove uloge u stvaranju okoline prikladne dječjem uzrastu. Objasnit će se veza između planiranja odgojnog rada, praćenja razvoja djeteta i njegovih postignuća, osobna odgojiteljska procjena mogućnosti djece s organizacijom okruženja. Znanja koja odgojitelji steknu na praktičan način i znanja kojima raspolažu od fakultetskih dana omogućavaju im gradnju nove razine osobnog razvoja. Takav način učenja jest osnovna bit refleksije koju odgojitelji prakticiraju s drugim kolegama i stručnim osobljem. Sve navedeno su ključni faktori u organiziranju poticajnog okruženja djece u ranom i predškolskom odgoju.Nowadays, every day we read the results of new research on how and in what way to raise a child, what is needed for proper development, what is the influence of the environment on children's development. No child is the same, each is an individual for himself, with his own way and speed of development, with his own possibilities, interests, competences and personality. The former traditional view of the child as an object is no longer respected today, on the contrary, a constructivist turn has taken place and the child is now treated as a subject. The new modern image of the child changes the way educators treat the child, and in modern pedagogy the image of the child as an active and competent child, who is independent and socially active, dominates. The insecurities of educators and professional staff in daily dealings with children have led to increased interest in research into the stimulating environment in which children live. This paper will show what it is and how to organize a stimulating environment in kindergarten for children of early and preschool age. Two pedagogical concepts will be presented in the paper: Montessori and Reggio, which are often used in working with children. Significant participants in this process (children, educators, professional staff) will be mentioned and some of their roles in creating an environment suitable for children will be described. The connection between the planning of educational work, monitoring the development of the child and his achievements, personal educator's assessment of the possibilities of children with the organization of the environment. The knowledge that educators acquire in a practical way, and the knowledge they have at their disposal since college days, enable the construction of a new level of personal development. Such a way of learning is the basic essence of reflection that educators practice with other colleagues and professional staff. All of the above are key factors in organizing the stimulating environment of children in early and preschool education

    Challenges in cooperation between preschool educators and parents

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    Dječji vrtić ima ključnu ulogu u cjelovitom razvoju djeteta poticanjem kognitivnog, emocionalnog, socijalnog i fizičkog rasta. Osim ovih temeljnih aspekata, također njeguje kreativnost, vještine rješavanja problema, emocionalnu svijest i društvene sposobnosti, postavljajući temelj za cjeloživotno učenje i osobni rast. S obzirom na integralnu ulogu roditelja i odgajatelja u odgojno-obrazovnom putu djeteta, postaje evidentno da je njihova suradnja bitan i nezamjenjiv element u tom procesu. Ova suradnja predstavlja partnerstvo koje obuhvaća i obiteljsku zajednicu i vrtić, ujedinjene zajedničkim ciljem (dobrobit djeteta). Postizanje uspješne suradnje ovisi o nekoliko temeljnih načela: uzajamno poštovanje, jednakost, aktivno slušanje, uzajamni dijalog i kolektivno ulaganje u djetetov rast. Takva suradnja uspijeva kada su i roditelji i odgajatelji spremni na kompromis, nudeći čvrst okvir za djetetov odgojno-obrazovni napredak. Međutim, pokušaj njegovanja djelotvornog partnerstva između odgajatelja i roditelja nije bez izazova. Ovi izazovi obuhvaćaju prepreke u komunikaciji, različita očekivanja, vremenska ograničenja, varijacije u kulturološkoj pozadini i sl. Osim toga, početak globalne pandemije naglasio je potrebu da odgajatelji neprestano proširuju i poboljšavaju svoje vještine kako bi održali kvalitetu suradnje s roditeljima, čak i usred nepredviđenih prepreka koje su pred njima. Suradnja odgajatelja i roditelja ima neizmjerno značenje u oblikovanju ranog odgoja djeteta. Ne samo da postavlja temelje za dobro zaokružen razvoj, već također pomaže u upravljanju izazovima koje predstavljaju različita pozadina i okolnosti koje se mijenjaju. Rješavanjem ovih izazova i prihvaćanjem evoluirajućeg okruženja obrazovanja, nastavnici i roditelji mogu stvoriti snažan savez koji u konačnici koristi djetetovom rastu i budućem uspjehu.Kindergarten plays a key role in the overall development of a child by encouraging cognitive, emotional, social and physical growth. In addition to these fundamental aspects, it also fosters creativity, problem-solving skills, emotional awareness and social skills, laying the foundation for lifelong learning and personal growth. Considering the integral role of parents and educators in the educational path of a child, it becomes evident that their cooperation is an essential and irreplaceable element in this process. This collaboration represents a partnership that includes both the family community and the kindergarten, united by a common goal (the well-being of the child). Achieving successful cooperation depends on several fundamental principles: mutual respect, equality, active listening, mutual dialogue and collective investment in the child's growth. Such cooperation succeeds when both parents and educators are ready to compromise, offering a solid framework for the child's educational progress. However, trying to foster an effective partnership between educators and parents is not without its challenges. These challenges include communication barriers, different expectations, time constraints, variations in cultural background, etc. In addition, the onset of the global pandemic has highlighted the need for educators to continually expand and improve their skills in order to maintain the quality of collaboration with parents, even in the midst of unforeseen obstacles that lie ahead. Cooperation between educators and parents is of immense importance in shaping a child's early education. It not only lays the foundation for well-rounded development, but also helps manage the challenges posed by diverse backgrounds and changing circumstances. By addressing these challenges and embracing the evolving environment of education, teachers and parents can create a powerful alliance that ultimately benefits a child's growth and future success

    Physical activity and academic success of students primary education

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    Cilj ovog rada bio je istražiti povezanost između tjelesne aktivnosti i akademskog uspjeha učenika primarnog obrazovanja. Istraživanje je provedenoj u Osnovnoj školi grofa Janka Draškovića u Zagrebu na uzorku od 71 učenika (42 dječaka i 29 djevojčica) u dobi od 7 do 11 godina. Uzorak uključuje 12 učenika drugog razreda, 26 učenika trećih razreda i 33 učenika četvrtih razreda. Razina tjelesne aktivnost ispitana je anketnim upitnikom „Fels physical activity for questionare children“ (Fels PAQ) koji se sastoji od osam pitanja. U istraživanju su sudjelovali učenici čiji su roditelji dali suglasnost. Učenici su upitnik rješavali samostalno, uz prethodno dobivene upute. Na osnovi pitanja izračunati su indeks sporta (IS), indeks slobodnog vremena (ISV), indeks kućanskih poslova (IKP) i ukupan rezultat tjelesne aktivnosti (UTA). Rezultati su uspoređeni s općim uspjehom i zaključnim ocjenama iz Matematike, Prirode i društva te Tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture. Učenici koji su aktivniji u sportu, slobodnim aktivnostima i kućanskim poslovima imaju bolji rezultat iz Tjelesne i zdravstvene kulture, no sudjelovanje u tjelesnoj aktivnosti ne utječe na opći uspjeh. Također, uočeno je kako je veliki broj ispitanika nedovoljno aktivan. Rezultati prikazuju kako su učenici najviše aktivni u području slobodnog vremena, a najmanje u obavljanju kućanskih poslova. Tjelesna aktivnost vrlo važna je sastavnica obrazovanja. Učenici se sve više bave suvremenom tehnologijom (TV, internet, videoigre i sl.), a sve manje tjelesnom aktivnošću, što može imati implikacije na njihov opći uspjeh i zdravlje. Tjelesna aktivnost u dječjoj i adolescentskoj dobi vrlo je važan faktor za fizičko i mentalno zdravlje i razvoj.The aim of this work was to investigate the connection between physical activity and academic success of primary education students. The research was conducted at the Grof Janko Drašković primary school in Zagreb on a sample of 71 students (42 boys and 29 girls) between the ages of 7 and 11. Respondents are 12 second grade students, 26 third grade students, and 33 fourth grade students. The level of physical activity was tested using the Fels physical activity questionnaire for children (Fels PAQ), which consists of eight questions. Only students whose parents gave consent participated in the research. The students solved the questionnaire independently, following previously explained instructions. Based on the questions the sports index (IS), the free time index (ISV), the housework index (IKP), and the total physical activity score (UTA) were calculated. The results were compared with overall academic success and final grades in mathematics, science and social studies , and physical education (P.E.).Students who are more active in sports, leisure activities and household chores show better results in P.E. but participation in physical activity does not affect overall acdemic success. It was also found that a large number of respondents are not sufficiently active. The results show that students are most active in the free time category, and least active in doing household chores. Physical activity is a very important part of education. Students are increasingly engaged in modern technology (TV, Internet, video games, etc.), and less and less engaged in physical activity, which affects the general academic success and health of children. Physical activity in childhood and adolescence is a very important factor in physical and mental health and development

    Teachers' opinion about educational applications in learning and teaching students with special educational needs

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    Informacijsko-komunikacijska tehnologija sve je više prisutna u učenju i poučavanju učenika. IKT omogućuje veću motivaciju i zainteresiranost učenika za rad, stoga učitelji često izabiru IKT za rad s učenicima. U razredima je sve više prisutnih učenika s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama. Odgojno-obrazovni sustav Republike Hrvatske naglašava inkluzivni pristup koji uključuje učenike s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama u redovne razrede. Stoga, učitelji omogućavaju učenicima s teškoćama i darovitim učenicima individualizirani i diferencirani pristup, što označava razne strategije podrške. Razne edukativne aplikacije nude učenicima da na interaktivan način uče i vježbaju zadatke za određeni predmet, ali i dodatno nauče neke činjenice. Edukativne aplikacije potiču i logičko zaključivanje učenika. U radu je prikazano ono što se odnosi na prednosti i mane korištenja edukativnih aplikacija i mobilne tehnologije, kao i nekoliko primjera edukativnih aplikacija za darovite učenike i učenike s teškoćama. Informacijsko-komunikacijska tehnologija omogućuju interaktivnu nastavu. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je istražiti mišljenje učitelja o edukativnim aplikacijama koje mogu primijeniti u radu s učenicima s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama. U radu se uspoređuju razlike u stavovima učitelja razredne i predmetne nastave redovitih osnovnih škola, kao i razlike stavova učitelja prema godinama njihovog rada u školi. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 183 učitelja razredne i predmetne nastave redovitih osnovnih škola u Republici Hrvatskoj. Za potrebe ovoga istraživanja konstruiran je upitnik o učinkovitosti i utjecaju edukativnih aplikacija i informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije na obrazovanje učenika s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama. Rezultati istraživanja su pokazali statistički značajnu povezanost između godina staža i mišljenja o uporabi edukacijskih aplikacija u učenju i poučavanju učenika s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama. Dok s druge strane, nema statistički značajne razlike između mišljenja učitelja razredne i predmetne nastave o uporabi edukativnih aplikacija s učenicima s posebnim odgojno-obrazovnim potrebama.Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly present in student learning and teaching. ICT enables greater motivation and interest among students, which is why teachers often choose ICT for working with their students. There is a growing number of students with special educational needs in classrooms. The educational system of the Republic of Croatia emphasizes an inclusive approach that includes students with special educational needs in regular classrooms. Therefore, teachers provide students with disabilities and gifted students with individualized and differentiated approaches, which involve various support strategies. Various educational applications offer students the opportunity to learn and practice tasks for a specific subject in an interactive way, as well as to acquire additional knowledge. Educational applications also encourage students' logical reasoning. The paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using educational applications and mobile technology, as well as several examples of educational applications for gifted students and students with disabilities. Information and Communication Technology enables interactive teaching. The aim of this research was to explore teachers' opinions on educational applications that can be used in working with students with special educational needs. The study compares the differences in attitudes between teachers of primary school classrooms and subject-specific teachers, as well as differences in attitudes based on the number of years of teaching experience. The research involved 183 teachers from regular primary schools in the Republic of Croatia. For the purposes of this research, a questionnaire on the effectiveness and impact of educational applications and ICT on the education of students with special educational needs was constructed. The research results showed a statistically significant correlation between years of teaching experience and opinions on the use of educational applications in the learning and teaching of students with special educational needs. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in the opinions of classroom and subject-specific teachers regarding the use of educational applications with students with special educational needs

    Engaging in sports activities of preschool age children

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    Tjelesna aktivnost označuje mišićni rad s povećanom energijskom potrošnjom u slobodnom vremenu, rekreaciji i sportu, u profesionalnoj djelatnosti i uobičajenim dnevnim aktivnostima. Dijete danas gledamo kao cjelovito biće. Njegov razvoj je složena pojava kroz pojedine aspekte razvoja te je, kao takva, bitno saznanje djetetovih razvojnih osobina i sposobnosti. Kineziološka aktivnost najvažnija je u ranoj fazi razvoja. Ona može utjecati na tjelesni razvoj i na stvaranje zdravog načina življenja. Cilj ovog diplomskog rada je uvid u čimbenike koji utječu, odnosno ne utječu na nisku razinu tjelesne aktivnosti djece predškolske dobi. Roditelji odlučuju o uključivanju djece u sportske aktivnosti izvan ili unutar vrtićkog programa stoga su ispitani njihovi stavovi o tjelesnoj aktivnosti djece tijekom slobodnog vremena. Za potrebe istraživanja kreiran je anonimni online anketni upitnik sastavljen od 12 pitanja. Istraživanje je obuhvatilo 35 roditelja djece predškolske dobi od čega se 8 (23%) odgovora odnosilo na djecu muškog spola, a ostalih 27 (77%) na djecu ženskog spola. Prema podatcima prikupljenim u istraživanju 94% djece uključeno je u sportske aktivnosti. Dječaci najviše biraju nogomet i neki oblik sportskog programa, dok djevojčice biraju ritmiku i balet. Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju da su roditelji svjesni važnosti bavljenja sportskim aktivnostima svoje djece te ih uključuju u izvan vrtićke ili vrtićke programe sportskih aktivnosti.Physical activity refers to muscular work with increased energy expenditure during free time, recreation, and sports, in professional activities, and in daily routine activities. Today, we view a child as a holistic being. Their development is a complex phenomenon through various aspects of development, and as such, it is crucial to understand the child's developmental characteristics and abilities. Kinesiological activity is most important in the early stage of development. It can influence physical development and the establishment of a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the factors that influence, or do not influence, low levels of physical activity in preschool children. Parents make decisions regarding their children's involvement in sports activities outside or within the kindergarten program; therefore, their attitudes towards children's physical activity during free time were examined. For the purposes of the research, an anonymous online questionnaire was created, consisting of 12 questions. The study involved 35 parents of preschool children, with 8 (23%) responses relating to male children and the remaining 27 (77%) relating to female children. According to the data collected in the research, 94% of the children were involved in sports activities. Boys mostly choose soccer and some form of sports program, while girls choose rhythmic gymnastics and ballet. The obtained results show that parents are aware of the importance of their children engaging in sports activities and involve them in extracurricular or kindergarten sports activity programs

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