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    Dr. William A. Foskett Folder

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    2 pages of family history documents containing and related to Doctor William "Dee" Foskett, - including: Slate Creek; Incredible Idaho articl


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    The introduction of new barley varieties and changes in management practices necessitate re-evaluating nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) nutrient management and application timing guidelines. Nitrogen has a significant impact on barley grain quality and yield. However, overapplication of N can result in yield reduction, groundwater pollution, and high protein content, resulting in lower end-use quality of barley, while underapplication of N results in reduced grain quality and yield. Because S improves N utilization and enhances protein synthesis and split N application improves yield and N use efficiency in winter barley, split N application timing and the interaction of N and S may be a valuable tool to reduce N loss, increase yield, improve grain quality, and improve N use efficiency for agronomically optimal spring barley production. In a bid to provide barley growers in the Western US with an optimal N application timing, as well as appropriate N and S rates for improved yields and grain quality and reduced input costs and environmental contamination, we evaluated the effects of N and S fertilizer rates and application timing on malt, feed, and food barley grain yield and quality for four site-years in Aberdeen and Kimberly Research and Extension Centers and Brigham Young University-Idaho in Idaho for the 2021 and 2022 growing seasons. Three barley varieties: malt (Moravian 179), feed (Claymore), and food (Julie) were grown at 1,980,000 seeds ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer treatments included urea (46-0-0) applied at 0, 45, 90, 135, or 180 kg N ha-1 at planting or a split application of 45 kg N ha-1 done at planting and top-dressed with 23, 45, or 90 kg N ha-1 at heading. Sulfur fertilizer treatments included three S rates of potassium sulfate (0-0-53-18) fertilizer applied at 0, 17, or 34 kg S ha-1 at planting. Data was collected on grain yield, protein concentration, plant height, harvest heads, test weight, kernel plumpness, and N use efficiency.We investigated fertilizer rates for N and S, but S did not affect yield and yield components due to the high S concentration in the irrigation water. Plant height, harvest heads, and grain yield increased with increasing N rate for all varieties except at the Aberdeen 2021 field site, where grain yield was non-responsive to N due to the high preplant N at this location. The linear responses indicate N fertilizer insufficiency to maximize yield. Claymore had a quadratic response at Rexburg, with a maximum yield at approximately 120 kg N ha-1 rate. At the Aberdeen 2021 site, Julie responded to N and had a quadratic response with a maximum yield between 135-180 kg N ha-1. Grain protein concentration, test weight, and kernel plumpness were similar to those reported for Moravian 179, Claymore, and Julie in the southeastern and southcentral Idaho variety trials. Single N application produced similar or greater yields than split N application, contributing a 6-46% yield advantage over split N application across all varieties. Similarly, single N applications improved N use efficiency compared to split N applications and contributed a 9-25% N use efficiency advantage. For malt barley at Kimberly and Rexburg, split N application produced grains with 0.6-1.4% higher protein concentrations than acceptable for malting, suggesting an economic loss for growers as grains are sold as feed. This study demonstrated how pre-plant soil N content and N treatment timing affect spring barley yield and quality responses to N. Furthermore, we showed that the high S concentration in the irrigation water in this area negates the need for additional S fertilizer to maximize barley productivity and quality on the Snake River Plain. Split N applications are not an efficient way to increase yield, and N use efficiency for spring barley production and should be avoided in favor of a single N application at planting.masters, M.S., Plant Sciences -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Measuring Intake and Behavioral Responses to Phenylthiocarbamide for the Identification of Phenotypic Expression of Bitter Tasting Ability in Sheep

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    Research on the genetic and phenotypic expression of bitter taste perception in sheep suggests bitter-tolerant sheep may be more inclined to consume less palatable rangeland plants. In the absence of definitive genetic tests, the current work focuses on the development of accurate and precise methods for the classifying of bitter-taste-sensing phenotypes (i.e., bitter taster) in sheep. Existing methods for determining bitter taster status of sheep using phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)-spiked drinking water were lengthy, laborious, and limited on sample size. Our first experiment outlines refined methodology for the classification of nearly three times the number of rams, utilizing only two concentrations of PTC-solution over a 2-day test period. During this trial, behavioral reactions uniquely associated with each PTC-tasting phenotype were also identified. A later attempt to develop methods utilizing an involuntary drench to deliver PTC-solution suggests that the use of behavioral analysis for the identification of bitter tasting phenotypes in sheep may be limited to voluntary preference tests. Although bitter taster status impacts dietary preference in humans, literature regarding the influence of bitter taste perception on the foraging behavior of sheep is limited. Subsequent tests using intake of both internal and topical applications of PTC-treated feed to identify bitter tasting ability were inconclusive. While some mature rams showed reluctance to consume PTC-treated feed, ram lambs consumed PTC pellets to near entirety. Although ram lambs did not demonstrate an aversive feed intake response, behavioral reactions indicative of bitter sensitivity were observed among individual sheep. Factors outside of genetics, such as physiological state or learned behaviors may play an important role in voluntary diet decision making in sheep. Efficient methods for the identification of bitter taster phenotypes are the first step in determining the effects of bitter tasting ability on dietary selection in sheep.doctoral, Ph.D., Animal, Vet & Food Sciences -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Development, Construction, and Operation of a Non-Nuclear Microreactor Experimental Capability

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    Idaho National Laboratory has constructed the microreactor non-nuclear experimental test bed (MAGNET) to reduce uncertainty and risk for microreactor developers, users, and regulators. MAGNET will provide verification and validation data for dynamic models and system scaling allowing demonstration and validation of microreactor systems, components, and auxiliary systems. The system was designed around typical air-Brayton parameters with a hot design temperature of 650°C and a maximum allowable working pressure of 22 bar. The differential temperature through the microreactor test article was assumed to be 290°C. MAGNET is compatible with compressed air, nitrogen, or helium as the cooling fluids. Testing to date comprises a single heat pipe proof of concept test and a prototype helium-to-air heat exchanger test for a commercial developer.masters, M.S., Mechanical Engineering -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Feed-based Protocols for Mitigating Soybean Meal-Induced Enteritis (SBMIE) in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchhus mykiss)

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    As the world population continues to show exponential growth, wild fish stocks are becoming stagnant causing a shortfall in capture fisheries and increasing the price of fish meal as a source of protein. Thus, different combinations of raw materials, including plant-derived ingredients, need to be considered to fulfil the increasing demands of the aquaculture industry and maintain cost-effectiveness. Soybean meal became a preferred source of protein in aquafeeds, however, it has typically encountered a variety of challenges at high inclusion levels, especially in piscivorous and carnivorous species like rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Despite the adequate protein content and amino acid profile of SBM, the presence of antinutritional factors such as phytate, saponins, lectins, etc., has historically led to significant repression of growth performance. In addition, the inflammation of the distal intestine, referred to as soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE), is a noteworthy sign of reduced tolerance to SBM, and it is related to poor nutrient absorption in the intestine, ultimately impacting other organs such as the liver. Nowadays, the use of feed additives in fish feed formulations has become a popular approach to enhance feed utilization while providing additional benefits, including affordability of the feed, and boosting immunity. Attenuation of SBMIE will make it possible to increase SBM inclusion levels in practical formulations while maintaining the health status of farmed fish and reduce risk for disease. The overall goal of this thesis was to gain insight into the evolution of SBMIE in the long-term and attempted to identify biomarkers associated to SBMIE. In addition, this research evaluated the suitability of glutamine, bile acids and vitamin D as dietary supplements in mitigating said pathology in rainbow trout. Three feeding trials were carried out to study each additive over a period of thirty, eighteen, and ten weeks, respectively. This research further aimed to investigate the potential detrimental effects that either a prolonged exposure to dietary bile acids or extra high vitamin D doses (i.e., > 10 mg Kg-1) could have on this species. Results from this work confirmed the occurrence of SBMIE when feeding SBM at 30% and 40% inclusion levels and that these effects are maintained throughout >18 weeks. In addition, the supplementation of high level SBM diets with either 2.0% glutamine or 1.5% bile acids had the potential to reduce intestinal inflammation. The research detailed herein also demonstrates the capacity of dietary bile acids in reverting hypocholesterolemia derived from 40% level SBM diets. Moreover, no apparent bile-associated cytotoxicity was detected over the long-term, further validating bile acids as an additive for use in aquafeeds. A significant increase in growth performance was observed from the supplementation with 2.0% glutamine in combination with vitamin D. The data obtained here are, however, insufficient to determine the potential benefits derived solely from dietary vitamin D. Future research will be required to gain in-depth understanding of molecular markers that can shed light on underlying SBMIE mechanisms, which will allow continuing improvement of mitigation approaches as well as developing monitoring tools that can be used in farm operation.doctoral, Ph.D., Animal, Vet & Food Sciences -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Integrated Weed Management in Small Grain Production Systems

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    Small grain systems make up a large portion of Idaho's agricultural production, and just like any other crop, have weed pressures. Using different methods of weed control such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical has been proven to be an effective way to help control different types of weeds. The main objectives of this thesis project were to evaluate alternative pre-plant herbicides for weed control in small grains, 2) assess the use of herbicides and crop rotations for integrated weed management, and 3) evaluate weed control and weed pressure impacts on alfalfa, one of the most important rotational crops in small grain production systems. For chapter 1, a 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of alternative preplant burndown herbicide treatments as compared to glyphosate treatments, the industry standard. An economic analysis and crop injury observation were also conducted. Most herbicide treatments achieved 90% or more control of the predominant weed species. In the economic analysis, at least six different herbicide treatments were equivalent to the cost of glyphosate at $26.50 per hectare. No observable damage from herbicide treatments was present, and crop yield was not affected by the treatments. All these factors show that there are alternatives to preplant burndown that are just as effective as glyphosate treatments. With combinations of herbicides, each having a different site of action, weed control can be achieved while simultaneously reducing the risk of herbicide-resistant weeds spreading. For chapter 2, a 4-year crop rotation study was initiated in 2021 at the University of Idaho Kimberly Research and Extension Center to evaluate weed control and seedbank dynamics in wheat-alfalfa vs wheat-annual crop (corn and dry bean) rotations. There were three herbicide treatments: non-treated, postemergence (POST) only, and preemergence (PRE) + POST. After the first year, there was no difference in seedbank density among treatments. After two years, weed seedbank density was reduced from 2,227 viable seeds m2 in the non-treated to 1,344 seeds m2 in the PRE + POST treatments, representing nearly a 40% difference in seedbank density. There was also a trend of PRE + POST treatments slightly reducing weed seedbank density compared to POST-only treatment. Weed density within the crops during the growing season was influenced by the type of crop as well as the herbicide treatment. Both POST-only and PRE + POST treatments reduced weed density compared to the non-treated and the PRE + POST treatments reduced weed density in each crop compared to the POST-only treatment. Weed control treatments did not affect alfalfa yield. However, herbicide application (POST only and PRE + POST) improved corn and dry bean yield. The combination of fewer weeds and greater crop yield in the PRE + POST treatments holds promise for reducing weed seedbank and potentially improving long-term crop productivity and economics. In chapter 3, field studies were conducted in Idaho in 2021 and 2022 to evaluate the effect of weed control treatments on alfalfa forage accumulation, weed biomass, and nutritive value. In addition, the relationship between the proportion of individual weed species biomass and alfalfa nutritive value was assessed. These studies included eight different herbicide and herbicide combination treatments, including the non-treated check. Treatments were comprised of pre-emergence incorporated, early postemergence (after 80% alfalfa emergence), and postemergence (third trifoliate alfalfa) herbicide applications. Data collection included weed control efficacy, weed and alfalfa biomass, and alfalfa nutritive value. Additional samples were collected and combined in the following alfalfa to weed biomass proportions (% by weight): 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0, for wet chemistry analysis of forage nutritive value to evaluate the relationship between the proportion of individual weed species biomass and alfalfa nutritive value. The acetochlor-only treatment provided less than 50% weed control while the EPTC-only treatment provided 54 to 81% weed control. The control provided by acetochlor and EPTC were less than treatments containing imazamox and imazamox plus bromoxynil. Weed biomass in forage (23 to 55% of total biomass) due to poor or no weed control reduced crude protein, increased fiber concentrations, and reduced the relative feed value. The relationship between the proportion of individual weed species biomass and alfalfa nutritive value was linear for all weed species evaluated.masters, M.S., Plant Sciences -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Embedded System for Recording Vocalizations of a Waterbird

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    Using animal vocalizations to determine the population of wildlife is a developing field. Finding out what the population is and whether it is increasing or decreasing helps government agencies determine what actions need to be taken to help conservation of endangered species. Surveys can be done by actively playing animal vocalizations and listening for responses but relies on researcher experience to correctly identify the species and whether it has been counted already. Statically placed recording devices in animal habitats can record nearby sounds but will only record animals that vocalize nearby. Placing a recording device onto the animals will record all the sounds it makes but also those of conspecifics it interacts with. This method has challenges such as a lower battery life, limited processing power and needs to minimize interfering with the animals’ everyday activities. This thesis aims to design a device addressing these challenges that can be attached to the back of the Ridgway’s Rail, a water bird that lives along the Southern Californian coastline and record the vocalizations it makes to help with population counting.masters, M.S., Electrical and Computer Engineering -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0


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    Motivational factors that encourage students to participate in Leadership Development Events are described in this qualitative study. A focus group interview of the 2023 Idaho FFA State Employment Skills LDE competitors (n = 4) yielded several themes related to the following research questions: 1) what factors encourage students to participate in LDEs; 2) what factors discourage students from participating in LDEs; and 3) what motivates students to practice for competitive events. Data were analyzed using open and axial coding. Four conclusions were drawn from this study: 1) FFA members and advisors influence student motivation to join the FFA; 2) students participate in LDEs to prepare for careers; 3) the lack of team members may discourage LDE participation; and 4) LDE competitors value being recognized for their efforts. Three major recommendations for practice are: 1) develop learning objectives for CDEs and LDEs with students; 2) incorporate LDE objectives into classroom curriculum; and 3) evaluate how FFA members are recognized for their participation in LDEs.masters, M.S., Agricultural Ed, Ldrshp & Comm -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Electrochemical Corrosion Investigation of Structural Materials in Molten Fluoride Eutectic Salts

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    This thesis investigates the corrosion behavior of structural materials when exposed to molten fluoride eutectic salts using electrochemical techniques. The research objective is to rank and screen metal structural materials for nuclear reactors based on their performance in determining physical properties, including impedance, corrosion rates, and polarization in FLiNaK salt at 700 °C. The ranking and screening process involved evaluating the materials' performance in these tests and establishing a relative hierarchy. Criteria such as lower corrosion rates, higher impedance values, and increased polarization resistance to corrosion were considered during the analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel, and polarization resistance (Rp) measurements were conducted for nickel, stainless steel 304, stainless steel 308, Inconel 600, Inconel 617, and HastelloyN. The results revealed variations in the physical properties and corrosion mechanisms of the alloys based on their composition. The EIS analysis provided insights into the corrosion mechanisms and interface properties of the materials, contributing to the development of improved materials in future work. Additionally, the Rp measurement indicated the materials' resistance to corrosion. The findings of this study have significant implications for the design and selection of materials for future high-temperature applications involving molten fluoride eutectic salts, including Gen-IV nuclear reactors and molten salt batteries. The knowledge gained from this research contributes to the development of more durable and efficient materials by delivering important physical property data of metals in molten salts at high temperatures. This knowledge can facilitate the use of these materials as structural components capable of withstanding harsh environments, ultimately enhancing the reliability and safety of high-temperature systems up to 700 °C.masters, M.S., Chemical & Biological Engineering -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0

    Gravity Compensation and Design Modification of a Scapulohumeral Exoskeleton Joint

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    This thesis investigates the design of PRISM (Parallel Rotation mechanism for the Inclusion of Scapulothoracic Motion) for the exoskeleton BLUE SABINO (BiLateral Upper-extremity Exoskeleton for Simultaneous Assessment of Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Output). PRISM (previously known as PANDORA) is the portion of BLUE SABINO that is responsible for providing shoulder protraction/retraction and elevation/depression, known as scapulohumeral rhythm. Shawn Trimble performed the original design work (Trimble, 2016). A key function of PRISM is gravity assistance. The joint responsible for shoulder elevation/depression must lift the entire exoskeleton. A gravity assistance mechanism should reduce torque requirements, maintain actuator placement, consider ergonomics, and improve safety. This process is split into two portions: designing spring attachments and selecting an appropriate spring. Thousands of springs are evaluated to discover the single spring that minimizes the change in force as PRISM actuates, minimizes the spring length, and maximizes the potential force in the spring. A structural goal of most exoskeletons is to minimize both mass and deflection. Components within PRISM that contribute to both mass and deflection (parts 2004, 2009 and 2010) were redesigned and evaluated through FEA within SolidWorks. The best design has a deflection of 0.2415 mm and a mass of 14.086 kg. This a 39% decrease in deflection and a 3% increase in mass with respect to the original design.masters, M.S., Mechanical Engineering -- University of Idaho - College of Graduate Studies, 2023-0


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