Journal of Applied and Natural Science
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    2528 research outputs found

    Salt stress and its impact on rice physiology with special reference to India- A review

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    With the increasing population, by 2030, the population of India will have seen an unprecedented rise of 1.43 billion and require food grains of around 311 million tones. Of the total area, nearly 5% of the area in India is affected by soil salinity. It is said that about 10% of soil is salinized every year. At this rate, 50% of the land area will be salinized by 2050.These repercussions challenge us to expand the area under cultivation or to increase the yield per unit area to maintain food security and sustainability. In order to meet the growing demands of the increased population, two major approaches can be met. Firstly, the available area under cultivation must be increased, which can be done by the reclamation of various problematic soils and making them suitable for cultivation. The second and holistic approach is to employ various biotechnological and breeding aspects in the development of resistant varieties surviving the harsh and unfavourable environment and showing no subsequent reduction in the yield parameters. For this, one must understand the various physiological aspects of tolerance for screening the elite varieties suited for a particular ecosystem or environment. Thus, the present study vividly explains the various physiological aspects of salt stress on rice. Employing these techniques, one can screen superior genotypes resistant to various stresses, thus keeping the Malthus predictions at bay

    Efficacy of nanomaterials for sustainable crop productivity of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Rani under naturally ventilated polyhouse

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    Nanomaterials, as a source of plant nutrients, play a significant role in cellular metabolism and nutrients uptake by plants, so they have the potential to improve the growth and productivity of Capsicum. A replicated field trial was carried out in 3 x 3 factors Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two factors viz., micronutrients (Cu, B and Mn) and nanomaterials (nano-Fe, nano-Zn and nano-Mg) applied at the rate of 1000 ppm to explore efficacy of nanomaterials and micronutrient for enhancing productivity of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Rani. The layout of experimental area was designed to accommodate 9 treatments (3 x 3) and a control (without treating with micronutrients and nanomaterials). Inside the naturally ventilated polyhouse, the raised beds (height-30 cm, length-50 m, width-90 cm and bed spacing-60 cm) were prepared for the transplanting capsicum seedlings. Application of nano-Zn and/or nano-Fe @ 1000 ppm in combination with borax and/or CuSO4 @ 1000 ppm was significant (p<0.05) for improving various plant growth and productivity parameters of Capsicum. The combined application of nano-Zn with borax or CuSO4 and nano-Fe with borax or CuSO4 (@ 1000 ppm each) was the effective approach for improvement in plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number of fruits, yield plant-1 and estimated yield hectare-1. The experimental findings of the present study confirm the necessities of nanomaterials as a nutrient source for enhancing capsicum's productivity to achieve food and nutritional security and promote sustainable agriculture, inclusive and sustainable economic growth of the farming community

    Evaluation of Spatio-temporal dynamics in agriculture in arid and semiarid region of Rajasthan, India-A statistical approach

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    The aridity of the arid and semiarid  region of Rajasthan, India is considered  as a great challenge for the growth of the crops due to lack of precipitation and high range of temperature. The present study focused on evaluating agricultural dynamics of the arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan for the period of 2008-09 and 2021-22. The study comprised seven districts of Rajasthan: Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. Indices like crop combinations, crop diversity and agricultural efficiency of crops were taken into consideration. Hanumangarh showed 8 crop combinations to 4 from past to recent years viz. Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), Guar seed (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), Kharif pulses (Without Arhar) and Moth (Vigna aconitifolia), while in Jaisalmer, it was 3 crop combinations in the past while it is 6 in the recent years viz. Bajra, Guar seed , Moth , Mustard (Brassica), Mung (Vigna radiata) and Groundnut(Arachis hypogaea). A small percentage of Seasamum (Sesamum indicum) and  Cotton (LINT)(Gossypium) was in the past previous years, but now, it is almost negligible. Wheat (Triticum) was observed in a lower to moderate percentage share throughout the period. There was no change in the dominant crops except in Ganganagar and Churu district. All the districts had higher crop diversification in recent years except Barmer. The result of agricultural efficiency showed that Ganganagar, Jodhpur, Hanumangarh had higher agricultural efficiency (> 100), while Barmer had the least value (< 50). Agricultural Indices efficiently visualized temporal agriculture trends in arid and semiarid regions of Rajasthan

    Optimization of hydrothermal-assisted alkali process for enhanced xylan recovery from banana fiber biomass

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    Banana fiber is a rich lignocellulosic biomass source that has not been widely explored. The hemicellulose components (15 - 20 %) of banana fiber can be a feedstock for producing high-value commodity chemicals. Hemicellulose is extracted by physical, chemical, and biological methods, in which combining hydrothermal treatment with alkaline mode of extraction provides an enhanced recovery percentage. Thus, the present study aimed to optimize the hydrothermal-assisted alkaline method of xylan extraction from the banana fiber biomass. Initially, xylan was extracted with a conventional-based alkali method. A maximum of about 43 and 35 % was recovered from pretreated and raw banana fiber at 12% NaOH concentration when incubated at 55 °C for 24 h. To improve the xylan yield, the hydrothermal assisted alkali method experimented in which 67.1% and 58.3 % of xylan were recovered when treated at 121 °C for 1 h at 12% NaOH. To further enhance the xylan recovery, a two-step alkali process by combining conventional and hydrothermal-assisted alkali methods resulted in the highest xylan (81%) recovery from pretreated banana fiber when incubated with 12 % alkali for 8 h followed by steam treatment. On the other hand, a maximum of 73 % of xylan was recovered when steam treated after incubation for 24 h from raw banana fiber. Thus, the alkali incubation followed by steam treatment significantly showed the highest xylan recovery from the banana fiber biomass. The extracted xylan might be utilized as a source for various xylan-based products, including furfural, xylooligosaccharides, xylose, and xylitol, all of which have significant roles in the pharmaceutical and food industries

    Heterologous expression of phytase in Schizochytrium sp. as a fortified feed additive for the Livestock industry

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    Phytates present in plant-derived feed can chelate nutrients and reduce their bioavailability for monogastric animals such as poultry and swine. The addition of hydrolase, phytase can alleviate this problem but is hindered by its cost. The goal of the current study is to clone, express and purify the phytase gene from Bacillus sp. (DS11) into Schizochytrium sp. ATCC 20888 is also a good producer of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is expected to enhance animal nutrition and reduce phosphate pollution. The DNA sequence analysis using multiple sequence alignments showed significant similarity to the phytase gene from Bacillus sp. (DS11). Subsequently, specific primers were designed based on the consensus sequence of the Bacillus phytase gene obtained from sequencing. The coding DNA sequence was determined to have a length of 1152 base pairs. Phytase gene was successfully cloned into the pRI201-AN DNA vector and transformed into Schyzochytrium sp. Screening on G418 plates showed 53 resistant colonies and from this 11 prominent colonies were chosen for further testing. Out of this, 8 colonies tested positive, with colony PCR having 1.5 kb with a phytase activity of 1.77 U/ml of crude lysate. Further purification with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography provided a specific activity of 15.59 U/mg. This appears to be the first ever reported recombinant phytase produced in Schizochytrium sp. The phytase recommendations are 250U/Kg of feed preparation for broiler & swine diets  . It was also determined that 72.64 U/5.2 gm of wet biomass and 1.80% of w/w microalgae would fulfil these requirements per kg of feed preparation

    A controlled experiment to verify the effect of magnesium fertilizers on soil pH and available soil nutrients in acid soil of Nilgiris, India

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    An incubation experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions for 60 days to observe the impact of different Magnesium fertilizers on soil chemical properties, i.e. pH, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and DTPA extractable micronutrient cations. A complete factorial complete randomized block design (FCRD)with two replications and six levels was selected as the experimental layout. The levels included were (L0) Absolute control (L1) soil + Mg @ 10 kg ha-1, (L2) soil + Mg @ 20 kg ha-1, (L3) soil + 30 kg ha-1, (L4) soil + 40 kg ha-1, (L5) soil + 50 kg ha-1. Findings revealed that applying magnesium fertilizers to soil significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affects soil parameters. The impacts of magnesium fertilization on soil pH altered with sources and incubation period. The application of CaMg(CO3)2 @ 50 kg ha-1 recorded significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher soil pH (5.67) as compared to MgCO3 @ 50 kg ha-1 that increased the pH up to 5.57 due to the impact of carbonate ion whereas MgSO4.7H2O decreased the soil up to 4.80 because of dissolution of SO42- ions to the soil solution.  Applying CaMg(CO3)2 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced soil available N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Cu content which is due to the decrease in acidity, which indirectly enhanced the nutrient availability.  The positive effects persisted throughout the experimental duration, indicating the potential long-term benefits of magnesium fertilization in acid soil management. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge by providing novel insights into applying magnesium fertilizers as an effective strategy for addressing soil acidity and improving nutrient availability in acid soil

    Plant species composition and product utility pattern of Garo homegardens in Meghalaya, India

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    Home garden is a traditional landuse system practiced by many rural households in the tropical region. The composition and management practices within homegardens are largely driven by cultural setup and ecological conditions. The present study characterized the plant species composition, utility patterns and management of  Garo homegardens in Dadenggre block, West Garo Hill district of Meghalaya, India. Fifty households from 5 villages were randomly selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The homegardens size ranged between 0.07 and 1.29ha, harbouring 132 plant species, out of which 74 species were trees, 19 shrubs and 39 herbs. Among the perennials, Areca catechu (areca nut) was the most common contributor to household earnings. When species were grouped into 9 utility classes (timber, medicinal, fruit, fuelwood, fodder, vegetables, ornamental, spice, and others), highest number was for fuelwood, followed by vegetables and fruits. The average household income was Rs. 318/100m2, the highest contribution from the sale of vegetables. Various home garden management activities were conducted, engaging family members and generating employment for others. Animal rearing is common in many households and the application of animal manure and household waste has helped maintain soil fertility of homegardens’ soils. Homegardens are integral to the Garo society, contributing significantly to household needs and activities.

    Variations in functional leaf traits of trees and shrubs in the semi-arid regions of Haryana, India

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    The concept of functional diversity is critical in the field of forest ecology as it helps determine trends in community structure and worldwide change by examining variations in functional traits among plants. Functional traits like leaf traits, stem traits, root traits etc., are characteristics of a species that incorporate its ecological and evolutionary history and can be used to predict both its response and impact on ecosystem function. During the present study, six functional leaf traits viz., leaf size (LS), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf phosphorus content (LPC), and leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N:P) were evaluated for a variety of trees and shrubs in the forests of semi-arid regions of Haryana, India i.e., Site I-Dulana (Mahendergarh), Site II-Kheri Batter (Charkhi Dadri) and Site III-Asalwas Dubia (Bhiwani). Functional leaf trait values showed a significant variation.  LS was reported to be positively correlated with SLA(0.39) and N:P(0.11) while negatively correlated with LDMC(-0.26) LNC(-0.29) and LPC(-0.16). The selected plant species displayed a negative but weak correlation between SLA and LNC(-0.05) whilst a strong positive correlation between Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P)(0.36). All three Sites had the value of N:P ranging from 12.58 to 65.69, thus exhibiting P limitation.  The present study advances the field of functional ecology in Haryana's tropical dry forests significantly.  This is also crucial to forecast community formation trends and characterize the contributions of different species to ecological processes

    Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose utilizing Iraqi vinegar’s mother pellicles

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    Bacterial cellulose is an exopolymer prepared of α-1, 4 D glucopyranose units, created by several bacteria belonging to several genera, available in a multitude of implementations because of its greater chemical, mechanical and thermal characteristics combined with good biocompatibility and biodegradability. This present study aimed to produce low-cost, environmentally friendly Bacterial cellulose utilizing Iraqi vinegar’s mother pellicle (BCIVMP) and to study its properties. Bacterial cellulose was purified by using 0.1M NaOH and distilled water to study the properties. The chemical composition, crystallinity, particle size and surface shapes were studied using various devices. Ultraviolet -Visible Spectroscopy (UV Vis spectra) showed the optical transmission of bacterial cellulose. The mean values observed for bacterial cellulose were 273 and 542 nm. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of the following functional groups –C–O and/or –C–C–, –C–O–C and/or –C–C–O and–O–H in the bacterial cellulose. The BCIVMP surface was examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low amplification, the BCIVMP showed an extremely spongy construction with different levels of pore size. At higher amplification, both small and large clustered nanocrystals were seen. The average diameter was 17-29 nm. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the elements belonging to the functional groups present in the structure of bacterial cellulose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diffractogram of (BCIVMP) showed the sample's high crystallinity due to the narrow double peak. The crystallinity index of(BCIVMP was found to be 91.5%. The study concluded that bacterial cellulose production from the Iraqi vinegar’s mother pellicles is eco-friendly, recyclable, and inoffensive to humans.

    Community structure and functional diversity of soil nematodes from Udupi district, Karnataka, India

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    Nematodes constitute the most significant, most numerous, and diversified set of multicellular organisms on the earth. They live in various environments and exhibit a wide range of behavioural patterns. In the soil food web, they can be found at various trophic levels as herbivores (plant parasitic nematodes), bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores, and predators. As there were fewer studies on nematode ecology in the Udupi region, the present study aims to study the community structure and functional diversity of soil nematodes. Soil samples were collected following opportunistic random sampling employing a soil auger and were stored at 40C until transported to the laboratory. Nematodes were isolated from soil, killed, fixed, dehydrated, and displayed on a glass slide after isolation. The standard keys were used to identify the individual to genera level. 62 genera of soil nematodes belonging to 26 families and 7 orders were identified. Predator were the most prevalent communities. Various statistical indices for assessing nematode population ecology and nematodes specific indices were also calculated and it indicated a significant abundance of large plant parasitic nematodes. The region exhibits low levels of labile organic carbon and nutrient enrichment (Enrichment Index (EI):14.06 to 21.22). Despite this, the soil food web in the region is well-structured, indicated by Structure Index (SI) (85.51 to 89.74). Prevalence of fungal decomposition dominance and the soil appears to be minimally disturbed, as indicated by high channel index values and low Basal Index (BI) values, respectively


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    Journal of Applied and Natural Science
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