Universiti Putra Malaysia Institutional Repository

    Detection of polymorphisms and fecundity determination in Axis axis Erxleben, Rusa timorensis Blainville and Rusa unicolor Kerr raised in Lenggong, Perak, Malaysia

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    In animal breeding and conservation programmes selection is usually based on fecundity traits. Selection methods such as the traditional marker-assisted selection, which is based on observable phenotypes and genomic selection, which uses genomic features for selection and it can be genome-wide scanning or the candidate gene approach are employed. These candidate genes are polymorphic and their polymorphism is associated with traits of interest. Polymorphisms in form of SNPs and RFLPs have been employed to select animals for breeding and or conservation. This study is therefore, aimed at discovering polymorphisms in the protein-coding region of five fecundity genes: BMP15, FOXL2, GDF9, MHCDQA1 and MTNR1A in Axis axis Erxleben, Rusa timorensis Blainville and Rusa unicolor Kerr reared at PTH Lenggong. This study applied cytogenetic methods to detect morphological and numeric chromosomal aberrations in three breeds of deer comprising 60 individuals. Following the discovery of chromosomal aberrations, DNA was obtained from 45 individuals to amplify the protein coding regions of the fecundity genes, through high fidelity PCR. The genes were confirmed by mapping on metaphase chromosomes through Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH). The PCR products were thereafter sequenced by Sanger’s method. Following sequencing, a combination of Bioinformatic tools were used to detect SNPs and RFLPs in the fecundity genes. The genes were translated into proteins and analyzed for structure and function. Prediction programs and phylogenetic analysis were used to generate wild type proteins, which were used as templates to predict protein structure and the effect of amino acid substitutions on protein function. Fifteen of the 60 animals were found to carry chromosome aberrations. High fidelity PCR produced 225 sequences, which were confirmed by FISH and used in the downstream analysis. A total of 117 SNPs and 13 restriction sites with utility in animal selection were discovered in the protein coding regions of the fecundity genes through scan. After protein translation 19 variants were discovered; 3 in BMP15, 4 in FOXL2, 2 in GDF9, 3 in MHCDQA1 and 7 in MTNR1A. 11 of the variants carry neutral substitution and are therefore predicted to be functional. Based on the protein analysis 10 out of the 45 animals; TP27F, TF375, TP14F, TN60M, SJ4M, AX1, AX4F, AX3F, AX6F, AX7F were predicted to carry a combination of functional fecundity proteins. A large number of animals within the study population carry chromosomal aberration. Significant genetic diversity exists in the study population and some animals carry defective fecundity protein variants. The presence of chromosomal anomaly and protein polymorphisms, with some variant predicted to carry deleterious amino acid substitutions, may be one of the reasons for fertility decline in the study population. There is evidence of hybridization between R. timorensis Blainville and R. unicolor Kerr. Axis axis Erxleben is likely to have undergone inbreeding and allele fixation. It is concluded that the type of husbandry practiced in PTH Lenggong, Perak, where animals of different breeds are kept together, and the absence of a well-designed breeding program for the deer, might be responsible for these fertility problems

    Synthesis and optical properties of PbS/MnS core shell quantum dots

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    Optical characteristics of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are influenced by the dot size, composition and the capping molecules. This thesis focuses on the study of PbS/MnS core shell (CS) QDs where PbS serves as the core and MnS is the shell. The colloidal chemistry method was used to synthesise PbS QDs at room temperature. The growth of MnS shell by a simple ions substitution called cation exchange was successfully applied to fabricate the PbS/MnS core shell QDs in this research. This is a unique chemistry reaction which only can be occurred in chalcogenide material. This research also focuses on structural and optical properties of the PbS QDs and PbS/MnS core shell QDs. The structural properties were characterised by using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The HRTEM results show that the average size of the PbS QDs was 6.00 ± 1.00 nm with spherical in shape. For PbS/MnS core shell QDs, its average size was enlarged to 7.00 ± 0.50 nm and 7.40 ± 0.60 nm for PbS/MnS CS 0.3 and PbS/MnS CS 0.6, respectively. The size was increased due to the growth of MnS shell after the cation exchange. Besides that, the analysis of elemental composition via EDX has confirmed the presence of MnS composition. From the spectrum, an EDX peak associated with Mn was observed at 5.9 keV. The optical properties and the behaviour of the charge carriers inside the PbS and PbS/MnS QDs were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) at different temperature (10-300 K), power excitation (10-200 mW) and exposure time (3- 40 minutes). At room temperature, the PL peak energies of PbS/MnS core shell QDs were blue shifted upon the increasing shell thickness due to strong confinement effect induced by the shell. Temperature dependent PL shows the effect on the PL peak energy, full width half maximum (FWHM) and PL intensity. In general, the PL peak energy and FWHM were monotonically increased as the temperature increased which related to the interaction of charge carriers with phonons. In contrast, the PL peak intensities were quenched as the temperature increased which associated with the excitation of carriers out of the QDs into non-radiative recombination centres. Photoenhancement phenomenon was studied by exposed the samples under illumination up to 40 minutes and we found that the PL intensity was increased over period of time due to the presence of oxygen. In power dependent PL, the integrated PL intensity (IPL) was increased with the increasing power density. From the graph of IPL as a function of power density, generally gradient of the graph was close to unity where the radiative recombination is dominant. The development of PbS/MnS core shell QDs would be useful in the future especially in the application of photovoltaic devices

    Functional and nutritional properties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) seed and its industrial application: a review

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    Background: Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is an important commercial fruit in southeast Asia and is gaining more attention in recent years because it is juicy and sweet and has a refreshing flavour and an exotic appearance. It is commercialized for fresh consumption and is industrially processed as canned fruit, juices, jams, jellies, marmalades, and spreads. The seed is a major co-product of this industry and is worthy of attention for industrial applications and their feasibility. Scope and approach: This review describes the composition of the rambutan seed, which is examined from a critical interpretation regarding the suitable use of this co-product. This review also compares the total yield, physicochemical and thermal properties of its fat for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this fruit co-product as a source of natural edible fat with potential industrial uses. Key findings and conclusions: Rambutan seed is a major co-product of the industry that has high premium-grade fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre, antioxidants, and phenolic content and that can be used in several segments of the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Rambutan seed powders are also used as local medicine (they contain antidiabetic compounds) in Malaysia. To determine the effectiveness of raw rambutan seeds in treating diseases, in vivo and human clinical studies should be performed. Research should also continue to determine if rambutan seed fat can be fractionated, chemical and enzymatic interesterified, and blended with other fats to make cocoa butter alternatives. Comprehensive studies are needed on rambutan seed to explore more potential industrial applications

    Determinants of leisure time physical activity among elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia

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    Globally people are living longer due to medical advancement, better awareness and knowledge towards the importance of healthy lifestyle. Reduction of physical activity commonly linked with increasing age, due poor health and physical tolerance and is associated with comorbidity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounted as most burdening cause of morbidity among elderly and it is often regarded with reduction in physical activity. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with leisure time physical activity among elderly with T2DM in Petaling district Selangor according to the Socio-ecological model. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 health clinics within Petaling District Selangor, using stratified to proportionate size sampling and simple random sampling methods. Data collected through pre-tested and validated questionnaire using self-administered interviewer assisted method. LTPA was measured using Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire designed specifically for Malaysian elderly with 2 section namely Exercise Physical Activity and Non-Exercise Physical Activity with 9 activities in total. Activity frequency measured with 5-point scale. Descriptive analysis conducted for all study variables and independent t-test, ANNOVA and multiple linear regression conducted for further analysis. Significant level was set at <0.05 p-value and 95% CI. 520 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study with a response rate of 100%. Mean age of respondents were 67.99 ± 5.25 years (young-old 88.7%). Most respondents were male (57.7%), Indian (39.2%), married (70.4%), secondary school education level (43.3%). Mean household income was 3377.49 ± 4033.64 with 48.7% >Rm2001. Mean height 160.21 ± 9.70 cm and weight 68.70 ± 12.69 kg. Overall body mass index means 26.81 ± 4.72 with 43.3% overweight. Duration of diabetes 11.15 ± 9.11 years with 61.3 % ≤ 10 years. 78.1% has ≥3 co-morbidities and 66.2% had high knowledge on physical activity, mean score 24.69 ± 3.30. Attitude towards physical activity was positive, mean score 4.00 ± 0.44 and 68.7% respondents had good social network. Commonest resource available for physical activity was Park and 79% respondents had ≤ 2 resources. The LTPA was dominated by the Non-exercise physical activity (1.70 ± 1.16), with cleaning house – indoor as most frequently engaged non exercise physical activity. Meanwhile, commonest exercise based physical activity was walking, with mean score of 1.49 ± 1.70. Final linear regression model revealed, significant determinant for Leisure Time Physical Activity among elderlies with type 2 diabetes mellitus are age (B=-0.304, 95%CI: 0.426,0.746), gender (B=0.299, 95%CI: 0.207,0.392), education level (B=0.109, 95%CI: 0.012,0.205), ethnicity (Chinese - B=0.126, 95%CI: 0.009,0.243) and (Others - B= -0.402, 95%CI: - 0.760,0.045), presence of co-morbidities (B= -0.232, 95%CI: -0.338,- 0.127), vigorous exercise attitude (B= 0.115, 95%CI: 0.024,0.206) and social network (B= 0.202, 95%CI: 0.106,0.299). Majority of type 2 diabetes elderlies in Petaling district Selangor has low physical activity level with limited engagement in exercise based physical activity. Future planning and implementation of physical activity programs for T2DM elderlies should focus among those group of elderlies whom are old-old aged, male, lower education level, having >3 co-morbidities, living with poor social network and having negative attitude towards PA within vigorous exercise attitude

    The influence of coaches leadership style towards cohesiveness among high school team sports athletes

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    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of coach leadership and cohesiveness among high school team sport athletes in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. These studies include the relationship of leadership style and team cohesion and leadership contributions to the integration team athletes. A total of 130 athletes on the team aged between 16 and 19 years. Participants completed all questionnaires Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS), which consists of 40 questions which measure five leadership coach and Scale Integration Group (GEQ), which consists of 18 questions that measure dimensions of cohesion. The findings showed that two leadership coaches who have significant influence on the Democratic style (r = .178, p < .05) and social support (r = .262, p < .01). The results also showed that the influence of coach leadership on the integration task force social support (β=.366, p< .01) and Style Instruction and Training (β =-.212, p<.05) are significant predictors of the team cohesiveness. Some suggestions were also given for future research

    Development of automatic control oil palm cutter

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    An automatic cutter for harvesting Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) use in the oil palm plantation was design and fabricated at Faculty of Engineering, UPM. This cutter was suitable for short oil palm trees of between 4 to 5 years old. The cutter was design to be portable easily attached to a tractor by three-point link attachment. This cutter consisted of sharp bar to hold the oil palm FFB and cutting tool to cut the FFB. Two methods of cutting and harvesting the FFB were tested. The first concept is by cutting the FFB's stem and at the same time turning the FFB more than 3600. The other method of harvesting is only by cutting the FFB‟s stem. Hydraulic system was used as a power source to actuate the cutter. In order to automate the cutter, Programmable Logic Control (PLC) and limit switches were used. This cutter also can be an end-effector for the agricultural robot use in the oil palm plantation

    Use of shredded empty fruit bunch and cement block debris as a media for Brassica rapa var. chinensis cultivation

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    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and cement brick debris (CBD) could serve as an alternative media for crops. Malaysia generates large quantities of agricultural wastes from the oil palm plantations and huge volumes of construction waste materials due to rapid urbanization. The CBD is one of the waste products that can be used as a medium for growing crops. This study is specifically focused on the potential of using shredded EFB and CBD as a medium with different ratios for growing mustard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis). The objective of this study was to characterise new growth media using shredded EFB and CBD. Four types of media ratios as treatments were used; soil: EFB: CBD (1:1:1, 1:1:2, 0:1:2, 0:1:1) and standard medium ratio (3:2:1) which is a control. The experimental treatments were arranged in complete randomised design (CRD) with six replicates. The variables measured were pH, EC, water retention, soil moisture, bulk density and tissue nutrients such as potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). The yield and growth of mustard was also recorded overtime. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to measure nutrients concentration. The result showed that shredded EFB, CBD and soil at all ratios above can be used as a new growth medium for Pak Choy cultivation. In addition, more research work should be done to improve and identify the suitable ratio because of the medium ratios in this study having higher pH and excessive in Ca content which can give impact to the medium

    Inclination towards entrepreneurship among university students: evidence from Malaysia

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    This paper aims to explore the factors that influence the students’ intention to be entrepreneurs at Malaysian universities. Among others, the influence of entrepreneurship education, the university’s role, family and peers, and demographic characteristics on the students’ inclination towards entrepreneurs are investigated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Accounting students at three public universities in Klang Valley. About 180 questionnaires were completed and used for the purpose of this study. Regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that there is a moderate inclination towards entrepreneurship among the Accounting students. Entrepreneurship curriculum and course content, the role of university, perceived skills and ability, image of entrepreneurs, and peers and family significantly influence the students’ intention to be entrepreneurs. However, gender is not an important factor in influencing the students to choose entrepreneurship as their future career choice. The results appear to suggest that gender of a Malaysian student is not an important factor to determine whether he or she would venture into a business

    Influence of nano-size reduction on absorption and bioavailability of calcium from fortified milk powder in rats

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    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on absorption and bioavailability of calcium from the fortified milk in ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX-osteoporosis rats. The main goal was to determine the effect of daily consumption of experimental diets on serum calcium, feces calcium, bone calcium, bone breaking strength and bone morphology among rats. This study was conducted to optimize the preparation of nano-fortified milk powder. Then, the calcium bioavailability in 64 female OVX rats and OVX-osteoporosis rats was investigated. The results revealed that bone breaking strength (maximum load) and bone calcium increased with consumption of nano-fortified diet compared with fortified diet. The same observations were seen for bone morphology. OVX rats exhibited higher calcium bioavailability and absorption than OVX-osteoporosis rats with regard to fortified and nano-fortified diets. The amount of calcium absorption from fortified and nano-fortified milk powders in OVX rats was 63.54% and 89.06%, respectively. The bioavailability of calcium from fortified and nano-fortified milk powders in OVX rats was 24.64% and 41.65%, respectively. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability (%) from fortified and nano-fortified milk powders in OVX-osteoporosis rats was 9.74% and 30.17%, respectively. In OVX-osteoporosis group, the absorption levels of calcium from the same experimental diets were 60.54% and 89.09%, respectively

    Vice chancellor of UPM visit to the famous onagadori centre

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