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    6220 research outputs found

    Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Controversies in Causality and Therapy

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    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a most interesting, complex and elusive condition seen by the oral health care provider. It is plagued by controversy and although a wealth of research has created clinical treatment databases, there is no gold standard algorithm to be applied in a universal fashion. The purpose of this article is to explore several controversies associated with the etiology(s), staging, treatments, and long-term resolution of MRONJ in patients who are treated by the oral health care provider. Controversies for optimizing prevention, and disease control will also be discussed from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Atypical Femur Fracture in a Male Without History of Bisphosphonate Use: A Case Report

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    BACKGROUND: Atypical femur fractures are a rare occurrence, especially in bisphosphonate-naïve men, and merit reporting owing to their unusual presentation and clinical implications. This case report highlights a unique instance of atypical femur fractures in a 73-year-old male with no prior bisphosphonate exposure. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, a 73-year-old Indian male with no history of bisphosphonate use, presented with left thigh pain and swelling following a minor fall. Radiographic assessment unveiled a closed left mid diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture. Subsequent imaging revealed an impending fracture in the contralateral femur. A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation, encompassing radiographic analysis, laboratory tests, and clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical management via intramedullary nailing was pursued for both fractures. Notably, the patient\u27s medical history was characterized by radiographic manifestations, the infrequent occurrence of atypical femur fractures in men, and associated risk factors. Treatment encompassed anabolic bone therapy employing teriparatide, alongside discontinuation of antiresorptive agents. CONCLUSIONS: This case underscores the significance of considering atypical femur fractures in older individuals with limited trauma history. It accentuates the role of anabolic agents in the therapeutic regimen and contributes to the evolving understanding of atypical femur fractures. The report underscores the need for vigilant monitoring and tailored management strategies in similar cases, thereby enhancing clinical practice and patient care

    Expanding Indications of Nonvitamin K Oral Anticoagulants Beyond Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation and Venous Thromboembolism: A Review of Emerging Clinical Evidence

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    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have emerged as a new therapy for patients who need and can tolerate oral anticoagulation. DOACs were initially approved for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Ease of administration, no requirement of bridging with other anticoagulants, and less frequent dosing have made DOACs preferable choice for anticoagulation. Studies are showing promising results regarding use of DOACs beyond the common indications. Studies have been done to show the potential benefit of DOACs in valvular atrial fibrillation, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Data have shown safety as well as comparable bleeding incidences with DOACs compared to vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants. Naturally interest is growing to see the use of DOACs apart from the NVAF, DVT, or PE. Authors have highlighted various study results to show the potential beneficial role of DOACs in the above-mentioned situations

    Intravascular Lithotripsy in Peripheral Artery Disease

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    Peripheral artery disease affects millions of people worldwide, and it is associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality. In addition, it represents a significant challenge for the interventional operators to appropriately and successfully revascularize heavily calcified stenoses. There are several established atherectomy devices with the risk of procedural complications including dissection and perforation, among others. Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) is a novel tool with relatively less procedural risk compared to the existing modalities. It is a device that emits high-energy ultrasound waves mounted on a balloon catheter that causes fractures on the calcium plaques allowing balloon expansion and luminal gain. Five trials have been published showing the safety and effectiveness of IVL, including one trial evaluating the device in common femoral artery and infrapopliteal arteries. The available data from the limited number of trials are very encouraging and demonstrates minimal risk. Additional studies on a larger scale are needed further to understand the its long-term effects and possible risks

    Apixaban versus No Anticoagulation for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Children With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia or Lymphoma (Prevapix-All): A Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomised, Controlled Trial

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    BACKGROUND: Paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or lymphoma are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. We hypothesised that apixaban, a direct oral anticoagulant, would safely reduce venous thromboembolism in this patient population. METHODS: PREVAPIX-ALL was a phase 3, open-label, randomised, controlled trial conducted in 74 paediatric hospitals in 9 countries. Participants aged 1 year or older to younger than 18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B cell or T cell) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (B cell or T cell immunophenotype) and a central venous line in place throughout induction were randomly assigned 1:1 to standard of care (SOC, ie, no systemic anticoagulation) or weight-adjusted twice-daily apixaban during induction. Randomisation was performed centrally and stratified by age (those \u3c10 years or those ≥10 years). Participants weighing 35 kg or less were administered 2·5 mg twice daily of apixaban as a 2·5 mg tablet, 0·5 mg tablets, or 0·4 mg/mL oral solution, while those weighing more than 35 kg were administered weight-adjusted prophylactic doses using 0·5 mg tablets or the 0·4 mg/mL oral solution twice daily. Primary outcomes were assessed by a blinded central adjudication committee. The primary efficacy outcome for the intention to treat population was the composite of symptomatic or clinically unsuspected venous thromboembolism, the primary safety outcome was major bleeding, and secondary safety outcomes included clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding. Patients were screened for venous thromboembolism by ultrasound and echocardiogram at the end of induction. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02369653) and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Oct 22, 2015, and June 4, 2021, 512 participants were randomly assigned and included in analyses (222 [43%] female and 290 [57%] male; 388 [76%] White, 52 [10%] Asian, 24 [5%] Black or African American, and 48 [9%] other races; and 122 [24%] Hispanic or Latino ethnicity). During a median follow-up period of 27 days (IQR 26-28), 31 (12%) of 256 patients on apixaban had a composite venous thromboembolism compared with 45 (18%) of 256 participants receiving SOC (relative risk [RR] 0·69, 95% CI 0·45-1·05; p=0·080). Two major bleeding events occurred in each group (RR 1·0, 95% CI 0·14-7·01; p=1·0). A higher incidence of CRNM bleeding, primarily grade 1 or 2 epistaxis, occurred in the apixaban group (11 [4%] of 256 participants) compared with the SOC group (3 [1%] of 256; RR 3·67, 95% CI 1·04-12·97, p=0·030). The most frequent grade 3-5 adverse events in both groups were thrombocytopenia (n=28 for the apixaban group and n=20 for the SOC group) or platelet count decreased (n=49 and n=45), anaemia (n=77 and n=74), febrile neutropenia (n=27 and n=20), and neutropenia (n=16 and n=17) or neutrophil count decreased (n=22 and n=25). Five deaths occurred, which were due to infection (n=3 in the SOC group), cardiac arrest (n=1 in apixaban group), and haemorrhagic cerebral sinus vein thrombosis (n=1 in the SOC group). There was one apixaban-related death (coagulopathy and haemorrhage after cardiac arrest of unknown cause). INTERPRETATION: PREVAPIX-ALL is, to our knowledge, the first trial assessing primary thromboprophylaxis using a direct oral anticoagulant in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or lymphoma. No statistically significant treatment benefit was identified in participants receiving apixaban. Major and CRNM bleeding were infrequent overall, but a higher incidence of CRNM bleeding (primarily epistaxis in younger children) occurred in participants receiving apixaban. For patients deemed to be at particularly high risk of thrombosis, PREVAPIX-ALL provides encouraging safety data for the use of apixaban in clinical settings in which the potential benefits are thought to outweigh the risk of bleeding. FUNDING: Bristol Myers Squibb-Pfizer Alliance

    Profiling Salivary Mirna Expression Levels in Fanconi Anemia Patients - a Pilot Study

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    The overarching goal of this study is to predict the risk of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. We have compared the microRNA (miRNA, miR) expression levels in saliva samples from FA patients (n = 50) who are at a low-moderate and/or high risk of developing OSCC to saliva samples from healthy controls (n = 16). The miRNA expression levels in saliva samples were quantified using qPCR. We observed that miR-744, miR-150-5P, and miR-146B-5P had the best discriminatory capacity between FA patients and controls, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 94.0%, 92.9% and 85.3%, respectively. Our data suggest that miR-1, miR-146B-5P, miR-150-5P, miR-155-5P, and miR-744 could be used as panel to predict the risk of developing OSCC in FA patients, with a 89.3% sensitivity and a 68.2% specificity (AUC = 81.5%). Our preliminary data support the notion that the expression levels of salivary miRNAs have the potential to predict the risk of developing OSCC in FA patients and in the future may reduce deaths associated with OSCC

    Tnf Inhibits Aqp2 Expression via a Mir137-Dependent Pathway

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    As miR-137 is a regulator of aquaporin (AQP)2 expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibits the expression of several extrarenal AQPs, we tested the hypothesis that TNF inhibits AQP2 in the kidney via a miR-137-dependent mechanism. AQP2 mRNA and protein expression decreased ∼70% and 53%, respectively, in primary renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells transfected with a miRNA mimic of mmu-miR-137, suggesting that miR-137 directly targets AQP2 mRNA in these cells. Exposure of IMCD cells for 2 h to 400 mosmol/kgHO medium increased mmu-miR-137 mRNA expression about twofold, conditions that also increased TNF production approximately fourfold. To determine if the increase in mmu-miR-137 mRNA expression was related to the concomitant increase in TNF, IMCD cells were transfected with a lentivirus construct to silence TNF. This construct decreased mmu-miR-137 mRNA expression by ∼63%, suggesting that TNF upregulates the expression of miR-137. Levels of miR-137 also increased approximately twofold in IMCD tubules isolated from male mice given 1% NaCl in the drinking water for 3 days. Intrarenal lentivirus silencing of TNF increased AQP2 mRNA levels and protein expression concomitant with a decrease in miR-137 levels in tubules isolated from mice given NaCl. The changes in AQP2 expression levels affected the diluting ability of the kidney, which was assessed by measuring urine osmolality and urine volume, as the decrease in these parameters after renal silencing of TNF was prevented on intrarenal administration of miR-137. The study reveals a novel TNF function via a miR-137-dependent mechanism that regulates AQP2 expression and function. An emerging intratubular tumor necrosis factor system, functioning during normotensive noninflammatory conditions, acts as a breaking mechanism that attenuates both the increases in Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and aquaporin-2 induced by arginine vasopressin, thereby contributing to the regulation of electrolyte balance and blood pressure. A greater appreciation for the role of cytokines as mediators of immunophysiological responses may help reveal the relationship between the immune system and other physiological systems

    New-Onset as Opposed to Established Atrial Fibrillation as a Risk Factor for Incident Stroke

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    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established risk factor for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). It remains unclear if new-onset AF confers a higher risk of AIS than longer-standing AF. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all stroke-free patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the Henry Ford Health System between March 6 and September 6, 2016. Incident AIS and new-onset AF were ascertained by the presence of new diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record over a follow-up period of up to 5 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for new-onset AF or AIS. RESULTS: Of 7310 patients who underwent baseline TTE the mean age was 65 years, 54% were female, 51% were Caucasian, and 46% had left atrial enlargement (LAE). Of at-risk patients, 10.9% developed new-onset AF and 2.9% experienced incident AIS. The risk of new-onset AF among at-risk patients was 3.1 times higher among patients with any degree of LAE compared to those with normal LA size (95% CI 2.6-3.6, P \u3c 0.0001). New-onset AF, more than established AF, in turn had a powerful association with incident AIS. The cumulative 5-year risk of AIS was 3.5% in those without AF, 5.9% in those with established AF prior to TTE, and 20.1% in those with new-onset AF (P \u3c 0.0001). In multivariable analysis new-onset AF had the strongest association with incident AIS (P \u3c 0.0001), followed by increasing age (P = 0.0025), black race (P = 0.0032), and smoking (P = 0.0063). CONCLUSIONS: New-onset AF has a strong relationship with incident AIS. LAE was present in nearly half of stroke-free patients undergoing TTE, and was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of new-onset AF during follow-up. Vigilant cardiac monitoring for AF in individuals with LAE, coupled with the timely initiation of anticoagulation, may be an important strategy for the primary prevention of AF-related stroke

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