This study investigates how mathematics education policy and curriculum in New York City changed over the period from 1958 through 2002. It looks at the events leading up to the 퉌new math era, the back to basics movement, and the Standards movement initiated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 1989. Since this period is bounded by two important pieces of legislation, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA),1958, and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 2001 an assessment of the arguments for and against the federal intervention in education is essential.
The research methodology used for this study is the investigation and analysis of primary sources and secondary data. The primary sources consisted of archival data containing records of mathematics education policy decisions, reports of meetings of officials of the New York City Department of Education, and curricula reforms over the last fifty years. The secondary sources of data came from previous mathematics education studies in the research community, including national studies that had selected New York City as a local site. Also, major pieces of relevant scholarly work on mathematics education were consulted.
After a thorough review of the relevant literature and a careful study of the data obtained from the various source documents, it could be argued that notwithstanding the best efforts of many chancellors: a) the decline of the mathematics scores as students move from the elementary
to the middle grades was never fundamentally better; b) the overall mathematics scores in grades 3 through 8 are still unsatisfactory; c) the achievement gap between students in poor neighborhoods and their more affluent counterparts is still cause for concern; and, d) there is still a persistent shortage of mathematics teachers in New York City schools. I further argue that since these problems have defied all attempts to solve them under the present system, it is obvious that a more concerted effort need to be made to understand the reason for these failures in the interest of the city`s children
The objective of this study was to assess changes in corticospinal excitability and spinal output following noninvasive transpinal and transcortical stimulation in humans. The size of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded from the right plantar flexor and extensor muscles, was assessed following transcutaneous electric stimulation of the spine (tsESS) over the thoracolumbar region at conditioning-test (C-T) intervals that ranged from negative 50 to positive 50 ms. The size of the transpinal evoked potentials (TEPs), induced by tsESS and recorded from the right and left plantar flexor and extensor muscles, was assessed following TMS over the left primary motor cortex at 0.7 and at 1.1× MEP resting threshold at C-T intervals that ranged from negative 50 to positive 50 ms. The recruitment curves of MEPs and TEPs had a similar shape, and statistically significant differences between the sigmoid function parameters of MEPs and TEPs were not found. Anodal tsESS resulted in early MEP depression followed by long-latency MEP facilitation of both ankle plantar flexors and extensors. TEPs of ankle plantar flexors and extensors were increased regardless TMS intensity level. Subthreshold and suprathreshold TMS induced short-latency TEP facilitation that was larger in the TEPs ipsilateral to TMS. Noninvasive transpinal stimulation affected ipsilateral and contralateral actions of corticospinal neurons, while corticocortical and corticospinal descending volleys increased TEPs in both limbs. Transpinal and transcortical stimulation is a noninvasive neuromodulation method that alters corticospinal excitability and increases motor output of multiple spinal segments in humans
The Reporter was Baruch College\u27s evening session newspaper. Founded in 1923, when Baruch College was still part of City College, the Reporter billed itself as the Oldest Evening Session College Newspaper Published in the United States. It ceased publication in 2002
Norepinephrine (NE) can modulate multiple cellular functions important for cancer progression; however, how this single extracellular signal regulates such a broad array of cellular processes is unknown. Here, we identify Src as a key regulator of phosphoproteomic signaling networks activated in response to beta-adrenergic signaling in cancer cells. These results also identify a new mechanism of Src phosphorylation that mediates beta-adrenergic/PKA regulation of downstream networks, thereby enhancing tumor cell migration, invasion and growth. In human ovarian cancer samples, high tumoral NE levels were correlated with high pSrcY419 levels. Moreover, among cancer patients, the use of beta blockers was significantly associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Collectively, these data provide a pivotal molecular target for disrupting neural signaling in the tumor microenvironment
Tree life history strategies are correlated with functional plant traits, such as wood density (WD), moisture content (MC), bark thickness (BT), and nitrogen content (N); these traits affect the nutrients available to xylophagous insects. Cerambycid beetles feed on substrates that vary in these traits, but little is known about how they affect community composition. The goal of this project is to document the abundance of two cerambycid subfamilies (Cerambycinae and Lamiinae) and the WD, MC, BT, and N content in the wood they eat. In a salvage project conducted adjacent to the Panama Canal, trees were felled and exposed to Cerambycidae for oviposition. Disks from branches of differing thickness from the same plant individuals were used to calculate WD, MC, and BT in the field; nitrogen content was determined using mass spectrometry. Thick and thin branches tended to differ in wood trait values; therefore, data were analyzed separately in subsequent analyses. In thin branches, cerambycid abundance and species richness were higher in samples with less dense, moister wood, and thicker bark. Thick branches showed similar trends, but the wood traits accounted for little variability in beetle abundance or species richness. There were no significant correlations between beetle data and nitrogen. Cerambycines emerged more slowly, and from denser, drier wood, than lamiines. Cerambycines might be more drought-tolerant than lamiines, and therefore more resistant to the longer, more severe dry seasons that are predicted to occur due to climate change
The artist Sturtevant produced exacting but inherently distinct recreations of artworks only recently completed by her contemporaries. This thesis examines the body of work she created after Marcel Duchamp between 1966 and 1973, and how that work reveals the central and entwined roles of photography and installation in her practice
Established by President Roosevelt in 1935 as part of the New Deal, the Federal Writers\u27 Project (FWP) put thousands of unemployed professionals to work documenting American life during the Depression. Federal writers--many of whom would become famous, including Ralph Ellison, Nelson Algren, Saul Bellow, Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, and Dorothy West--collected reams of oral histories and folklore, and produced hundreds of guides to cities and states across the country. Yet, despite both the Project\u27s extraordinary volume of writing and its unprecedented support for writers, few critics have examined it from a literary perspective. Instead, the FWP has been almost exclusively in the possession of historians who have rightly perceived its unique place in Depression-era history. This dissertation attempts to fill this critical void by investigating the FWP\u27s contributions to American writing--African American writing, in particular--in the postwar era and beyond. Drawing on archival documents, critical histories, and the work of select FWP writers, I explore how this relief program helped to pioneer a new documentary form that fused literary techniques with anthropological practices in an effort to showcase the unique voices of marginalized Americans. No longer sociological specimens or symbolic agents for reform, these subjects became empowered selves, in part because of the FWP\u27s efforts to create a grassroots literary methodology that privileged self-expression and the first-person perspective. Scholars have traditionally framed the FWP as a Depression-era initiative whose relevance died alongside the political and social currents that helped produce it. However, I contend that by aiming their documentary lenses so precisely on individuals and their unique voices, FWP writers ultimately eschewed the social realism of 1930s culture in favor of themes surrounding personal identity and the psychological dimensions of social engagement