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    Tracing the Human Right from Law to Policy to Reproductive Healthcare: Exploring the Strengths and Shortcomings of Undocumented Migrant Women’s Access to Reproductive Healthcare in Switzerland

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    Background: Through the UN Human Rights Declaration and articles of other UN treaty bodies, access to healthcare is a fundamental human right that has been granted to all, including undocumented migrants (UDMs). In Switzerland, reports estimate that there are between 80,000 to 100,000 UDMs. Among European countries, Switzerland is one of the few countries where UDMs have the right to access healthcare services beyond emergency healthcare, as they are included in the Swiss Federal Law on Compulsory Healthcare (LAMal). For UDM women, they face two layers of vulnerability (their irregular living status and the reproductive health needs that come with their gender). Objective: This research paper will explore UDM women’s legal right to access reproductive healthcare in Switzerland. The objective is to put the unique framework of Switzerland’s healthcare policy for UDMs under examination, following human rights law to its intersection with reproductive healthcare, ultimately ending with the specific provision of reproductive healthcare for UDM women who are victims of FGM, analyzing the successes, gaps, and challenges that occur during the translation from theory to practice through looking at adequacy, accessibility, affordability, adaptability, and quality. Method: To conduct research capturing the evolution of legal and healthcare policies, the data used was a combination of primary and secondary sources, combining research reports from organizations that analyzed undocumented migration in Switzerland with focuses on human rights, healthcare and/or reproductive healthcare for UDMs with an interactive approach of formal and informal interviews to expand on the intersections of law and reproductive health for UDM women in Switzerland. Results/Findings: This research finds that both shortcomings and strengths exist in the enactment of UDM women’s human right to access reproductive healthcare in Switzerland. Experts discussed key challenges for migrants to enact their human right to healthcare afforded to them in the health policy due to the high costs of health insurance premiums and challenges due to their irregular stay to receiving subsidies in different cantons. The fact that UDMs could access reproductive healthcare in Switzerland is a success, however challenges exist due to the accessibility of healthcare providers in different cantons, the accessibility and affordability of the costs of care, the adequacy of reproductive healthcare to meet the needs of UDM women due to challenges in adapting to cultural and linguistic specifications, and the quality of care for UDM women who are victims of FGM. Conclusion: Tracing the human right to access healthcare for UDMs points for the need for a more integrated system of healthcare for UDMs throughout Switzerland. In theory with the incorporation of cultural sensitivity education for healthcare providers, the accessibility of interpreters, policies facilitating the access to subsidies in the cantons, and organizations helping UDM women navigate the healthcare system, UDM women’s experience seeking reproductive healthcare in Switzerland could be more aligned with their human right to access healthcare and the Swiss healthcare policy supporting this right. Going forward, further research on this topic should expand to more cantons in Switzerland and see how to establish a framework to assess UDM women’s reproductive health in the long term

    Community Owned Renewable Energy in North Coast NSW Social Housing

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    This study assesses the feasibility of implementing community owned renewable energy (CORE) technology in social housing units in North Coast NSW. I completed this study by conducting interviews with three renewable energy policy experts to ascertain the current state of renewable energy and CORE in NSW. Second, I conducted four interviews with separate social housing unit employees/residents to understand their interpretation of current barriers to implementing renewable energy in the social housing and if any of the units currently have any renewable energy technology or energy efficiency programs in place. After finishing this assessment, I did a comparative analysis with the barriers to CORE determined by academics and the barriers identified by social housing unit employee/resident interviews. This showed the significance of the capital and information barriers, as both academic and non-academic sources cited these as reasons against implementation of renewable energy. After deciding the most significant barriers, I assessed unique benefits of CORE over standard renewable energy technology that can address these barriers. These benefits include the economic and social benefits of CORE, such as financing structures that enable high investment returns, possibility of donation based funding, community engagement, centralized location of renewable energy technology and ability for greater social cohesion. Understanding these benefits show the potential opportunities of CORE over standard renewable energy that social housing units should consider for future implementation. The study shows the importance of innovating solutions as a way to connect low-access and vulnerable populations to renewable energy technology. As household and electricity costs continue to affect the North Coast NSW region, devising creative ways to address these impacts are essential to promote equity in achieving environmental sustainability. Therefore, if these barriers are addressed, CORE has the potential to be an effective way to transition social housing units to renewable energy and reduce their ecological footprint substantially

    Comparative Study of Terrestrial Arthropod Diversity in Primary and Re-planted Pine Forest in a Community Forest at Andasibe, Madagascar

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    This study is a comparison of tree and terrestrial arthropod diversity along native andre-planted pine transects.Transects were laid in a primary and re-planted pine forest in Andasibe Community Forest Park. Data was collected over six days, taking measurements of trees, inspecting and collecting specimens from pitfall traps once a day. Terrestrial arthropods were identified to morphospecies and measures of diversity were calculated. To understand the health of the trees, information was collected that included trees diameter at breast height, canopy cover and soil cover. Terrestrial arthropod communities and diversity were found to be significantly different in the native and replanted pine transects, likely due to the difference in non-native trees

    Examining predation as a possible means of controlling Crown-of- Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) outbreaks on reefs around Lizard Island, Australia

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    Since the world’s coral reefs are currently threatened by a variety of different natural and anthropogenic factors, research on protecting coral reefs is pivotal to protect these diverse ecosystems. However, only Indo-Pacific reefs such as the Great Barrier Reef are dying due to a corallivorous echinoderm threat known as the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci). A. planci is a starfish which feeds on coral tissue and can quickly reduce coral cover on a reef during an outbreak. Although scientists are still unsure as to what causes these outbreaks, one suggestion is the predator-removal theory. The predator removal-theory states that major predators of A. planci are being overfished and are unable to regulate the A. planci population, resulting in outbreaks. This study’s goal was to determine the major predators of A. planci in an attempt to ascertain if predation could be used to control A. planci populations. In situ predation experiments were preformed on reefs off of Lizard Island by staking whole A. planci on the reef with cameras to record any instances of predation. Internal organs were also put out on the reef with the whole A. planci, mimicking the condition of an A. planci after a predation event. The weight of female gonads was collected from select A. planci to determine the percentage of body mass composed of gonad. Overall, nine species of fish were found to consume parts of the A. planci and one of which (Lethinus nebulosus) was found to be commercially exploited. It was also determined that A. planci predators could be divided up into categories of “lethal predation” and “sublethal predation”, with most predators of the internal organs falling under sublethal predation. Since none of the fish species that ate gonads were planktivores, it is improbable that these species are egg predators and regulate A. planci populations during spawning events. Finally, the percentage of mass 4 Chan composed of gonads increased greatly with size, stressing the importance of controlling these highly fecund individuals. Overall, future studies could continue to identify predators of A. planci and rates of predation of fish species on A. planci should be determined in order to estimate whether or not it is enough to regulate A. planci populations

    Women’s Work in a Rural Village: Realities, Motivations, and Satisfaction

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    According to a United Nations report published in 2004, the remaining key challenge to women’s empowerment and gender equality is “women’s indifference to their own empowerment. [1] Initially I was interested in conducting my fieldwork on the state of women’s satisfaction with women’s rights and gender equality in Indonesia, as well as limits to greater equality. Before beginning my study, I spent time considering this declaration about women’s indifference as a potential barrier to greater empowerment and equality, as well as the biases inherent in the statement. I decided to not focus directly on women’s satisfaction with gender equality, since I did not want to approach my fieldwork with a mindset that would be incompatible with the mindset of my informants. That is, I chose to not explore perceptions about gender equality directly since I would not be able to put aside my Western, feminist biases to ask unbiased questions. Instead, I chose to explore women’s daily lives, specifically focusing on women’s work. I chose to explore women’s work because I am interested in women’s daily lives and satisfaction in a patriarchal society where women’s role has historically been primarily domestic. Ultimately, women’s work is a lens through which I seek to understand the way women think of their roles in the community. Though my analysis demonstrates my bias towards feminism, I hope to also give voice to my informants’ stories as they told them. [1] United Nations, “Women Watch: Indonesia. Overview and Achievements and Challenges in Promoting Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment” (2004:11

    Identity, Entitlement and Violence: A Cross Analysis of Intimate Partner Domestic Violent with the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

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    This capstone investigates the root causes associated with domestic violence and compares such causes with those associated with the Palestinian-Israeli conflict to determine if the violence associated with both phenomena shares anything in common. Research regarding domestic violence was conducted at Washington County Department of Community Corrections (Oregon). Qualitative research included gathering the total number of domestic violence cases supervised by the county and calculating what percentages involved male and female perpetrators. Qualitative research included observations of and conversations with individuals under supervision for DV offenses and review of public archives. Research of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict included extensive reading of books and articles in order to obtain a diverse and comprehensive view of the conflict. Virtually all sources are autobiographical in nature or firsthand accounts of the conflict and include an array of perspectives (i.e. Palestinian, Arab, Muslim, Christian, Israeli, Jewish, American, female, academic, political, journalistic). Despite distinct differences, the research indicates that violence associated with domestic abuse shares an element in common with violence associated with the Palestinian-Israeli conflict: Some individuals or groups believe that based on their identities (i.e. Israeli, Jew, Palestinian, male) they are justified or entitled to use violence against ‘other’ identities (i.e. Palestinian, Israeli, Jew, female) under certain circumstances. This understanding provides a focal point where professional practitioners can offer challenges and alternatives to beliefs of entitlement and violence incorporated in identity when attempting to transform conflicts from violence, distrust and misunderstanding into peaceful, supportive relationships

    The Hidden Epidemic: Mental Health Epidemiology in Post-Conflict Populations and Implications for Conflict Transformation Practices

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    This capstone explores the ramifications of unmitigated mental health illness in conflict populations, paying special attention to refugees and migrants. The intersection between conflict and mental health is explored and analyzed in order to highlight the implications of the findings and to make recommendations to both metal health and conflict transformation practitioners. This capstone depends predominately on secondary resources and personal interviews and is informed by my own practicum experience at a refugee health center. The need to improve mental health outcomes in order to pursue conflict transformation and peace building is a key focus and is supported by the research pursued by this capstone. This capstone closes with a call to action, elucidating the importance of practicing in a multidisciplinary fashion, marrying conflict transformation practice and mental health practice, to cater to the refugee crisis in Syria

    Curbing Corporate Inversions: A Study of National and International Efforts to Establish Corporate Tax Equity

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    In recent years, the number of U.S. companies trying to merge with a foreign company and thereby reincorporate themselves in countries with a lower corporate tax rate – a practice known as corporate inversion – has skyrocketed. The public outcry in 2014 against corporate inversions led the U.S. Treasury to release a series of new anti-inversion regulations, and more policy changes are in the process of being debated. At the same time as this national discussion on the harmful effects corporate inversions have on the U.S. tax base is progressing, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is in the process of working with G-20 countries to develop a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Action Plan, a plan that aims in part to bring about major international corporate tax reform. In light of these developments, this paper aims to explain the incentives behind corporate inversions and the different policies being discussed on both the national and international level that could discourage this practice. Through the analysis of government reports and interviews with experts, this paper shows that actions on the national level to stop inversions are indeed possible, although the most meaningful actions will probably be carried out by the Administration, not Congress. The OECD effort to create a multilateral tax instrument, however, is much less promising; the governments currently involved have strongly divergent interests when it comes to setting standards for corporate taxation, and developing countries are almost completely left out of the conversation. Based on these conclusions, the paper makes recommendations on measures to curb inversions and advises that the United States not wait for an international solution to its national problem of tax base erosion

    he Creators A Look at the Changing Work of Potters and the Future of Their Craft in Thimi, Nepal

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    The Newari sur-name Prajapati has been associated with those who are of the potter caste in the Kathmandu valley. In the past 30 years ceramics in the historic pottery town of Thimi has changed drastically from being an essential and necessary craft and the only occupation for Prajapatis, to a struggling population of visually aging potters. This paper examines the workshop Everest Pottery in Thimi nepal as a case study for the state of ceramics in Thimi today. The author traces the origins of the workshop\u27s founder Shiva Prajapati and examines the shift that Shiva made from traditional Newari pottery practices to modern techniques. The author discusses the success of Everest Pottery and the shift of their market from local to global. The author concludes that with the rise of aluminum, plastic and the fact that Nepali\u27s are no longer looking to buy terracotta pots, the traditional forms that have inhabited the houses of the Kathmandu Valley for generations may be all but gone in the next few years. As a secondary focus the author discovered that while Everest Pottery has left behind most traditional Newari pottery practices, Newari traditional values and customs remain present in the workplace and can be witnessed through the stark division of labor by gender. The women of Everest Pottery all have different stories of how they came to work in ceramics. The author discusses the stories of the women of Everest Pottery, their perceptions of their own roles in ceramics and the perceptions of the female role from the point of view of the men of Everest Pottery. The author found that while there is no spoken rule against women throwing on the wheel, even in a modern ceramic workshop, this tradition remains. Most women who learned to throw in their youth stop throwing when they get married, and additionally do not want to try again for fear that it is too difficult. Similarly, the men of Everest Pottery express doubts about women\u27s ability to throw due to their lack of strength. While the women of Everest Pottery seem to be happy with the status quo, the author offers a counter observation that while some women aren\u27t interested in the wheel, the ones that are given no space to learn. Additionally the author offers potential futures for ceramics if women are eventually included in this integral part of the process

    Historical Perspectives on a National Heroine: R.A. Kartini and the Politics of Memory

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    R.A. Kartini is an Indonesian national heroine, considered Indonesia’s founding feminist. Because of her inherently political status as a woman, a Javanese subject of Dutch colonialism, and an aristocrat, her memory has been used in diverse ways throughout history. In this paper I examine four main periods in which Kartini’s image has been dictated due to current political and social climates: Dutch imperialism, Indonesian independence, the New Order, and the present day. This paper is based on three weeks of research and fieldwork, including eight interviews with eleven informants, who had a diverse range of educational backgrounds and knowledge of history. My results attempt to identify trends in the use of the politics of memory surrounding Kartini and the reasons she is able to be contextualized in so many different ways


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