Western Washington University

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    9201 research outputs found

    Big World, Small Planet – Module 1: Getting Started with Sustainability, Student Edition

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    Big World, Small Planet – Module 1: Getting Started with Sustainability, Student Edition We live in an interconnected world. Movies, music, news, manufactured goods like clothing and electronics, and people travel across the globe. With this much exchange of ideas, culture, and material goods, our actions in one region are sure to affect people living in other regions. Understanding how and where we connect can help us understand how we might impact others. This understanding can also help us find ways to make these new lines of contact work benefit of all

    Taste of Place and Provenance

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    Bioregionalism is a framework that could serve to bridge the gap between humans and the land that they inhabit. A bioregional food system exemplifies the reduction of large scale agriculture and economy to one that falls within climatologically and geographically determined regions, superseding anthropogenic and political borders. Not only would a bioregional food system encourage mindfulness of the ecosystem that surrounds a community, but create a secure, community-based economy scaled to match the bioregion. The valuation of products and crops of local farmers and artisans would reflect the reliance on bioregionally specific wares, as well as ground members in their sense of place and role in maintaining a healthy, sustainable, and resilient environment. The recognition and respect of indigenous communities is imperative, as local ecological knowledge, or the know-how surrounding foraging and food procurement in specific regions, begins and ends with generations of stewardship and care among local tribes who have inhabited this land from time immemorial. Bioregionalism can only function if there is sufficient understanding of foraging practices, recognition that aseasonality in agriculture must cease, and a shift in valuation of natural resources and ecosystem services. The meal in this analysis is a good example of respecting indigenous food practices without appropriation, supporting local producers in the region, and utilizing local ecological knowledge for the bioregion

    Riesz Bases of Root Vectors of Indefinite Sturm-Liouville Problems with Eigenparameter Dependent Boundary Conditions. II

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    We consider a regular indefinite Sturm-Liouville problem with two self-adjoint boundary conditions affinely dependent on the eigenparameter. We give sufficient conditions under which the root vectors of this Sturm-Liouville problem can be selected to form a Riesz basis of a corresponding weighted Hilbert space

    The Planet, 1998, Spring

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    Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Southwest Quarter of the Tanacross D-1 Quadrangle, Alaska

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    The study area is in the northeast corner of the Tanacross quadrangle, east-central Alaska. Known as the Interior Porphyry belt, it lies between the Tintina fault to the north and the Denali fault to the south. Seven major porphyry copper-type deposits have been found within the belt since I969. Because much of the belt was unglaciated during Pleistocene time, the probability of finding a zone of supergene enrichment is enhanced. In Alaska a porphyry copper-type deposit with a supergene zone may improve the current economic status by helping to facilitate amortization of production capital costs. The rocks within the study area consist mainly of Paleozoic or older schists and gneiss units that have been intruded by late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous rocks. Limited exposures, residual soils, and thick brush in the Tanacross area have necessitated the use of reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, and Landsat imagery to locate areas of potential mineralization. Three such areas were found within the study area; they have been named Pika Canyon, NE Pika Canyon, and Fishhook prospects. The Pika Canyon and NE Pika Canyon prospects have been studied by detailed soil geochemistry, ground magnetics, and geologic and alteration mapping. Only the geology and alteration have been mapped at the Fishhook prospect. Work completed at the three prospects indicates that Pika Canyon and Fishhook prospects represent potential porphyry copper-type deposits, and that NE Pika Canyon is possibly a structurally controlled copper-zinc deposit. At the present stage of exploration the economic potential of these prospects cannot be determined

    Structural Characterization of a Human/Porcine Chimeric FVIII Construct and an Improved Human Factor VIII Model and Progress Towards Determination of the FVIII C1 Domain In Complex With Inhibitory Antibodies

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    Blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a non-enzymatic protein cofactor, which plays a crucial role in the formation of a stable blood clot. Absence or deficiency of FVIII results in the blood disorder hemophilia A, with symptoms including internal hemorrhaging and the inability to stop bleeding from open wounds. Treatment of hemophilia A relies on replacement of FVIII with blood, plasma, or protein concentrate infusions. Unfortunately, approximately 30% of patients receiving replacement FVIII generate pathologic anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies, which both reduce the effectiveness of the FVIII therapeutic and increase the severity of hemophilia A symptoms. This thesis reports the determination of the molecular structure for “Et3i”, a next-generation human/porcine chimeric FVIII protein for hemophilia A therapy. At 3.2 Å resolution with a Rwork of 0.2146 and Rfree of 0.2879, this will be the highest resolution structure of FVIII to date and will be of substantial interest to the hematological community. Furthermore, an improved model of human FVIII with more robust geometry and amino acid register assignment, and a Rwork of 0.2655, and Rfree of 0.2895 based on previous 3.7 Å data has been constructed. Lastly, progress has been made towards the structural determination of the inhibitory antibodies M6143, 2A9, and B136 in complex with the C1 domain of human FVIII. Details of these interactions could inform the development of future hemophilia A protein therapeutics with reduced immunogenicity

    Effects of salmon-derived nutrients on an artificial stream system

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    An artificial stream system was constructed to study responses of autotrophic and heterotrophic stream communities to salmon-derived nutrients. The artificial stream system contained 12 raceways (1.2 m long x 20 cm wide x 13 cm tall) that were provided with a constant flow of well water. The experimental treatment group consisted of clay pots filled with pureed salmon carcasses and agar to simulate decomposing salmon carcasses; a control group was included consisting of pots containing agar without salmon tissue. Unglazed clay tiles were placed downstream from the clay pots for periphyton to colonize. Periphyton samples were collected from these tiles. Measurements were taken twelve times over the course of 84 experiment days. Water samples were analyzes for nitrogen (total nitrogen, ammonium, and nitrate+nitrite) and phosphorus (total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus). Periphyton samples collected were analyzed for chlorophyll, ash-free dry weight, and respiration. The artificial stream successfully introduced salmon-derived nutrients, especially salmon-derived nitrogen, in a manner that enhanced periphyton. Total nitrogen and ammonium were usually significantly higher in the fish+agar treatments than in the agar treatment group. Phosphorus leached rapidly from the experimental treatment group, while the agar treatment group followed the source water fairly consistently. Periphyton was rarely different among treatments. This may have been due to high background nutrient concentrations in the source water. In addition, there was extensive growth of periphyton along the raceway sides in the fish+agar treatment group that was not reflected in the growth on the tiles and may have shaded periphyton growth on the fish+agar tiles. I determined that the artificial stream system was an appropriate tool for studying the effects of salmon-derived nutrients on autotrophic and heterotrophic communities. Subsequently, other researchers modified the water source and periphyton sampling procedure to successfully study the movement of salmon-derived nutrients into stream communities

    Public Speech and Religion in the Public Square: Creating Citizens Who Can Breach the Wall

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    One of the problems with treating schools like a market and treating students and parents like customers is that what students might want from schools is not necessarily what they deserve. Preparation for democratic life—learning to give as well as to take in public discourse, learning to hold others as dearly as myself—may not at all be what children want, but it is what they deserve. Further, democracy is both messy and contentious. Religion is one, but hardly the only, fundamental commitment that divides us, and fundamental commitments by their nature are not easily compromised. And when not religion, it is often something else

    H2O contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from primitive magmas in the Northern Cascade arc

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    The subducting Juan de Fuca plate is the hot endmember of slabs worldwide, and its unique thermal character prompts debate about the role of fluid-flux melting versus decompression melting in the Cascade arc. While slow subduction of this hot slab is expected to result in strong dehydration prior to reaching sub-arc depths, there is no consensus on whether the slab is entirely dehydrated at this point, or whether volcanism is the result of water-poor, decompression melting, or fluid-flux melting. I provide the first measurements of pre-eruptive volatile contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from primitive magmas in the northern region of the arc, at Mount Baker and Glacier Peak. These volatile contents and melt inclusion compositions are used to model mantle melting processes. Low-K olivine tholeiite (LKT) and calc-alkaline basalt (CAB) melt inclusions at Glacier Peak have minimum H2O concentrations of 2.0 and 2.2 wt. % and fO2 of ΔQFM +1.1 and +1.5, respectively. The evolved compositions of these melt inclusions in both lava types (host olivine: Fo85-89) are corrected to mantle values by addition of ≤15 wt. % olivine, and the results suggest that the minimum water contents in the parental magmas are 1.7 wt. % and 2.0 wt. %. Measured values themselves may be low due to degassing at crustal depths. The Mount Baker Schreiber\u27s Meadow cinder cone (CAB) has minimum H2O concentrations of 2.3 wt. %, though these contents cannot be adequately disentangled from potential crustal involvement and/or magma mixing/mingling to be corrected to mantle values. Results of modeling indicate that both LKT and CAB magmas at Glacier Peak are the result of 13-15% fluid-fluxed melting of a compositionally heterogeneous mantle source, last equilibrated near the base of the crust. Source regions are interpreted to contain both an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like component and a mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like component. Minimum H2O contents suggested in the source region are between 0.21 and 0.28 wt %. This is in contrast to southern regions of the Cascade arc, where LKT magmas are considered to be the result of dry decompression melting of a MORB-like source


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