University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with and Without Toileting Dysfunction

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    Toilet training is a stressful time for parents and families; however, pediatric providers are often uncertain of how to guide parents through this period because of limited systematic research in this area. The current study investigated the role of timing and method of toilet training, use of physician and community resources, and parent and child psychosocial variables to better understand normative toilet training and clarify the role of family, parent, and child characteristics in the toilet training process. The literature regarding early childhood development and normative toileting was reviewed, followed by a discussion of voiding dysfunction and relevant psychosocial and cultural patterns. Participants included 437 community parents (77% female, 82% White, 69% married) of children (48% female) between the ages of two- and six-years-old. A subclinical sample (n=27) and matched controls who did not experience toilet training challenges were identified from within the larger community sample. Data were gathered through an online retrospective survey including measures of demographics, family functioning, child behavior, child temperament, parenting style, parent stress, and open-ended questions about toilet training decisions and resources. Qualitative results indicated that parents used numerous methods of toilet training and half of parents did not consult their child’s primary care provider during the process. Most children were toilet trained by three-years-old. Five latent groups of children were identified in the current sample. Classes differed primarily along child behavior symptoms, temperamental activity, negative parenting behaviors, household conflict, and reported use of child-centered toilet training. The subclinical sample had significantly higher ADHD symptoms and were described as slightly more emotionally labile than the matched non-clinical group. The results of this study indicate that family-system variables likely influence how children are toilet trained. These findings support further consideration of the recommendations provided to parents prior to beginning their child’s toilet training and highlight the need for additional attention to the family system during this process

    Waking the Dead, Speaking to the Living: The Display of Human Remains in Museums

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    Artifacts are immensely powerful aids in telling stories from the past, yet it is the dead persons of past eras who accrued a host of ethical and legal issues. This article discusses several perspectives on and problems with the practice of displaying human remains in museums and includes a number of case studies from select museums in the USA and Europe. As a precaution to the reader, this article also features a few images of human bodies on display in museums

    Ordering Spaces, Making Places: Women’s Uses of Non-Domestic Spaces in Tokyo, Japan, 1868–1937

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    This dissertation explores Japanese women’s uses of non-domestic spaces in the modern period (1868–1945), focusing on the transformations that were occurring in the new capital city of Tokyo. After the 1868 Meiji Restoration, a modern government took over in place of the Tokugawa shogunate, the feudal military government that had ruled Japan for nearly three centuries, based on a hereditary status-based system. The fall of Tokugawa social order liberated Japanese people from the principle that John W. Hall famously called “rule by status.” Yet, it also complicated the ways in which the society was organized. Because the status system had defined where people lived and visited on an everyday basis, the mechanisms for ordering spaces in cities also drastically transformed after the fall of the Tokugawa regime. In this time of instability and negotiation, women began venturing outside of the familiar spaces of home. At the same time, various male stakeholders with social, political, and economic power – such as national government officials and corporate managers – employed multiple strategies to establish a new socio-spatial order across the city of Tokyo. It was men who, for the most part, designated which spaces were to be used and how, according to what they deemed appropriate. Yet, I argue that women played limited, but surprisingly active roles in contesting these mechanisms. Through three case studies of incidents that involved women venturing into non-domestic spaces, I show how women worked with and against these forces, inventing alternative uses of non-domestic spaces of their own. To examine some of the forces propelling women’s increasing presence outside of the home, this dissertation builds on two methods for understanding cities and architecture: an approach that examines urbanity as a process and the ethnography of architecture. Using the urbanity-as-a-process approach, this dissertation interrogates modern Tokyo as an ongoing, complex project that was constructed by multiple stakeholders and forces, rather than designed merely by professionals, such as architects, planners, and policy makers. Drawing on the ethnography of architecture approach, the chapters also privilege interpretations that emphasize the uses and perceptions of specific spaces, rather than their forms and construction. Each case study focuses on what was at the time a new kind of urban space, whose spatial mechanisms for gendering were still flexible and unstable. The first case study traces the development of the campus for Tsuda College – a women-only school in Tokyo – from 1900 to 1931. It shows how Tsuda College students, teachers, and administrators contested the exclusionary system of higher education in Japan by identifying and scraping up alternative resources. The second case study looks into the process by which two women’s organizations – Tōyō Eiwa Girls’ School Alumnae Association and Japan Women’s Association for Education – expanded their spatial networks for socializing between 1873 and 1912, focusing on their uses of parks. The national government intended to push violent and noisy men, who met in the parks for political gatherings, out of the parks to achieve their purpose of having regular gatherings. This chapter demonstrates how socializing women took advantage of the national government’s need to achieve their purpose of having regular gatherings. The third case study explores how managers at the flagship location of Mitsukoshi Department Store used female employees as what I call “sensory capital” from 1900 to 1924. This chapter demonstrates that managers constantly manipulated the bodies of saleswomen, through complex strategies to ensure their coexistence with male employees at work and separation outside work. It also shows how saleswomen subverted the systematic management of their bodies. Taking all these case studies together, I suggest that it was not only women who were gauging their changing place in the city and in Japanese society after the collapse of the Tokugawa social order; this process was also significant for the elite men who established most of the gendering systems. In doing so, this dissertation complicates traditional historical narratives of architecture and urban spaces in modern Tokyo; namely, it reconceptualizes the modernization of the built environment in Tokyo as an unstable, inconsistent process of exploration and negotiation, rather than a perfectly calculated process of progress and development. More broadly, by using materials that have not traditionally been deemed as architectural evidence, this dissertation offers a model for how to excavate the spatial interactions of under-documented, marginalized populations. By demonstrating that people can make architectural contributions even without engaging in the physical construction of buildings, the dissertation promotes a more democratic view of architecture and its significance in everyday life

    Absolute Paleointensity Study of Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Role of Fine‐Particle Grain‐Size Variations

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    Fine‐grained, Ti‐poor titanomagnetite in the ~12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon (TC) Tuff systematically increases in grain size from superparamagnetic (SP) at the flow base to single domain (SD) at a few meters height. This allows us to examine the role of grain‐size variation on paleointensity, within the transition from SP to stable SD. We present magnetic properties from two previously unreported sections of the TC Tuff, as well as Thellier‐type paleointensity estimates from the lowermost ~7.0 m of the flow. Magnetic hysteresis, frequency‐dependent susceptibility, and thermomagnetic data show that sample grain‐size distribution is dominated by SP in the lower ~3.6 m, transitioning upwards to mostly stable SD. Paleointensity results are closely tied to stratigraphic height and to magnetic properties linked to domain state. SD samples have consistent absolute paleointensity values of 28.5 ± 1.94 μT (VADM of 51.3 ZAm2) and behaved ideally during paleointensity experiments. The samples including a significant SP fraction have consistently higher paleointensities and less ideal behavior but would likely pass many traditional quality‐control tests. We interpret the SD remanence to be a primary thermal remanent magnetization but discuss the possibility of a partial thermal‐chemical remanent magnetization if microcrystal growth continued at T \u3c Tc and/or the section is affected by post‐emplacement vapor‐phase alteration. The link between paleointensity and domain state is stronger than correlations with water content or other evidence of alteration and suggests that the presence of a significant SP population may adversely impact paleointensity results, even in the presence of a stable SD fraction

    Applied Behavioral Analysis and Equine Therapy: A Comparative Report

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    According to the CDC, around 1 in 59 children are currently being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder in America (CDC, 2014). When a family has a child diagnosed with autism it can be a very confusing and challenging time as they attempt to navigate through different intervention and treatment options. Using archival research, I looked into two different types of interventions: Applied Behavioral Analysis pioneered by Ivar Lovaas, and Equine Therapy a newer and developing intervention. The goal of this research was to distinguish different techniques and factors that created positive outcomes for children with autism in areas such social skills, communication, and behavior. Using the UWM Library database I researched the development, implementation, and results of these two types of therapies. Keyword searches were used to find case studies, journal articles, and self-reporting from parents and other professionals. By evaluating these two therapies a comparison and contrast of what aspects of the different interventions are effective can be formed. A combination of interventions may be highly effective in creating positive outcomes for this population which can be further explored by looking into other interventions besides ABA and Equine therapy. Because autism exists on a spectrum it is important to know what is different about these interventions. What may produce positive outcomes for one child may not produce the expected outcomes for another. In the future, a combination of working elements from different therapies may be used to create more comprehensive treatment plans. This research could also be used to help create decision making aids for parents to use to decide what treatment plans will work best to reach the goals needed for their families

    Professional Development in a Community-based Internship Program

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    Background & Rationale: The community-based internship program (CBIP) I am apart of is a mixture of hybridized high-impact educational practices. The purpose of this study is to identify professional skills developed during the CBIP through a large public urban university and achieved outcomes of the CBIP. Students in the CBIP engage in personal and group reflection, both in-action, and on-action based on their experiences in the internship. Methods: The course combined with the complementing work experience is aimed at the development of critical thinking and effective communication skills as well as a sense of intercultural competence and individual, social, and environmental responsibility. The goal of the program is not only to provide students with an opportunity to earn their work study award at a non-profit or school, it also seeks to provide a learning experience that develops civic responsibility and prepares students for their future careers. Results: Through this community-based internship program and the supplementary course, I was able to develop professional skills such as communication, team work, leadership, and flexibility. Additionally, through the CBIP objectives I was able to develop a sense of civic responsibility, better preparing me for a career in Social Work. Conclusions: The goal of the program is not only to provide students with an opportunity to earn their work study award at a non-profit or school, it also seeks to provide a learning experience that develops civic responsibility and prepares students for their future careers. My experience at my community-based internship has achieved this goal

    A Reexamination of El Greco’s View and Plan of Toledo as a Question of Sources and Patronage

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    El Greco’s View and Plan of Toledo (c. 1610, Museo del Greco, Toledo) explores multiple ways of representing space by juxtaposing a sweeping view of the city of Toledo with a trompe l’oeil map of the city’s streets. Recent scholarship has shown that that El Greco probably copied the map from a plan of Toledo in the Atlas de El Escorial (1538-45), a royal commission that would have been the first complete atlas of Spain. Significantly, this atlas was likely available to the owner and probable patron of View and Plan of Toledo, the scholar and map collector Pedro Salazar de Mendoza. Although art historians have often seen View and Plan of Toledo as an expression of El Greco’s singular, “self-conscious” skill as a painter and draughtsman, I argue the painting should be read as an intellectual collaboration between the artist and Salazar. In the painting, El Greco gave pictorial form to Toledan geography, theology, history and law, themes that are likewise reflected in Pedro Salazar’s writings and post-mortem inventories. I draw from various seventeenth-century images and texts, including El Greco’s body of work, the work of Cretan icon painters, maps and books from Salazar’s collection, and texts and treatises circulating in the seventeenth century to re-orient contemporary scholarship on the painting and re-illuminate this enigmatic cityscape

    Latino Milwaukee: A Statistical Portrait Study Highlights

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    Sequencing Multiple-Spreader Crane Operations: Mathematical Formulations and Heuristic Algorithms

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    ABSTRACT SEQUENCING MULTIPLE-SPREADER CRANE OPERATIONS: MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS AND HEURISTIC ALGORITHMS by Shabnam Lashkari The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2020 Under the Supervision of Professor Matthew E.H. Petering Maritime container shipping is one the oldest industries and plays a key role in transporting freight all around the world. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) reports that more than 90% of international trade across the world is carried by sea. This method of transportation is by far the most cost-efficient among rail, road, air, and water transportation. Today most overseas shipping of finished consumer goods is done via 20-, 40-, or 45-foot long steel containers aboard deep-sea container vessels. Every day, tens of thousands of containers are moved between different countries all around the world. In addition, the amount of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, and general foodstuffs shipped in refrigerated containers continues to increase. As the volume of freight shipped via steel shipping containers grows, it is becoming increasingly important to improve the operational efficiency of the port facilities where containerships are unloaded and loaded. In this research, we consider several new mathematical problems inspired by the unloading of a containership. These problems are inspired by the recent development of a new kind of quay crane—a multi-spreader quay crane—that can lift more than one 40-foot container from a containership at the same time. This new crane has an extra strong steel structure that allows heavier lifts to be performed. In contrast to traditional cranes, this new crane may deploy two or three spreaders simultaneously. Multi-spreader quay cranes have the potential to significantly increase the productivity of seaport container terminals. However, due to a paucity of scheduling approaches for such cranes, this potential has not been fully realized. This motivates our research. In this dissertation, we define new mathematical problems that are inspired by the scheduling of double-spreader and triple-spreader quay cranes. These problems are called the dual-spreader crane and triple-spreader crane scheduling problem respectively. We formulate the above problems as integer linear programs and develop fast methods for computing lower bounds on the optimal objective value in each case. In addition, we devise simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, and dynamic programming methods to produce high quality solutions for small, medium, large, and very large problem instances in a short amount of time. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed methods in attacking these important logistics problems. Chapter 1 starts with introducing container shipping history and how it has developed through the years. We then discuss how modern container shipping has dominated world trade and review some statistics to show how this industry affects the global transportation system. Finally, we discuss related academic and industrial literature. In Chapter 2, we investigate the problem of scheduling a dual-spreader crane that can perform single container lifts and dual container lifts (in which the crane lifts two adjacent containers). This chapter presents a mathematical model of the dual-spreader crane scheduling problem (DSCSP) and describes a fast method for computing a lower bound on the optimal objective value. Then, we introduce a simulated annealing heuristic method that tries to find good solutions to instances of the DSCSP within a short time. Finally, we describe the experimental setup and discuss the experimental results for two solution methods—standard integer programming and the simulated annealing—on a set of 120 problem instances. Chapter 3 discusses the triple-spreader crane scheduling problem (TSCSP). A triple-spreader crane can operate in three modes: single, double, and triple. When in (single, double, triple) spreader mode, the crane can lift (1, 2, 3) adjacent containers respectively. The TSCSP is formulated as an integer linear program. Later in the chapter, a method for calculating a lower bound on the optimal objective value is introduced, a genetic algorithm that uses two different gene generating subroutines is explained in detail, and the experimental setup and the experimental results for a set of 120 problem instances are discussed. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses final conclusions and future work

    Designing and Investigating a Novel Biodegradable-Nontoxic Mg-Mn-Zn-Na-K Alloying System

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    Magnesium has been studied extensively due to the promising potential of using magnesium alloys in different applications, especially for biomedical implantation devices and other medical applications. This growing interest is due to the abundance of magnesium metal in the Earth\u27s crust, as well as the fact that magnesium is 37% less dense than aluminum, has good mechanical properties, and is a nontoxic element with good biocompatibility. However, most Mg-based alloys contain alloying elements that are added to improve the mechanical properties but have toxic characteristics. At the same time a number of these alloys are still used in medical applications. This proposed work focuses on designing and investigating a novel biomedical-biodegradable-nontoxic Mg-Mn-Zn-Na-K alloying system. Each of these alloying elements were selected based on two criteria. First, they fulfil the desired combination of biomedical-biodegradable-nontoxic alloying systems. Second, they improve the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of relative to un-alloyed magnesium. Additionally, highly controlled melting and rapid cooling systems were developed for this study to reduce the processing defects and attain alloys with optimum properties. Furthermore, this work includes studying the effect of various cooling rates on the performance of pure magnesium made by casting in addition to investigating the effect of alloying elements. The fabrication of the alloys will be followed by four main characterization methods to determine the mechanical properties, corrosion performance, microstructure, and composition of the alloying systems. The current study intends to develop a roadmap to analyze the effective factors in improving the performance of Mg alloys, starting from the selection of alloying elements and followed by the casting and solidification procedures. While the focus is on biomedical applications, developing casting and alloying systems for Mg alloys could be applied to other applications such as the automotive and aerospace industries due to the light weight and abundance of Mg
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