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    1867 research outputs found

    California Politics: A Primer

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    Understand how California\u27s political system works with this concise text, thoroughly revised for the Sixth Edition. Renee Van Vechten presses the reader to think about how history, political culture, rules, and institutions conspire to shape politics today, and how they will determine the state of affairs tomorrow. From the structure of the state\u27s government to its local representatives, policies, and voter participation, California Politics: A Primer delivers the concepts and details students need.

    Segregation Within Public Schools Still Exists Today. How Brown v. Board of Education and Proceeding Cases Led to Resegregation Within Public Schools

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    This paper focuses on the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision and the subsequent Supreme Court cases that followed the Brown decision that allowed for resegregation to occur within public education. It specifically looks at the rulings made in; Green v. County School Board New Kent County (1968), Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), Milliken v. Bradley (1974), Missouri v. Jenkins (1990), and Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District (2007) with a focus on how these subsequent cases post-Brown have led to resegregation on a De Facto basis within public education. This article also addresses strategies to combat De Facto segregation within public education and further examines the different ways segregation has continued to occur in public education through De Facto methods such has housing polices and within school tracking programs

    Allocating Opportunity: The Role and Impact of School Counselors in Promoting Access to AP Coursework

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    In the K–12 education setting, professional school counselors are uniquely positioned to support high quality educational opportunities for all students. At the secondary level, student participation in Advanced Placement (AP) programming can be viewed as one such example of opportunity. School counselors serve as student advocates by channeling information and creating access to educational opportunity like AP. This important work takes place in the context of a bureaucratic policy environment that necessarily shapes the way AP opportunity is allocated in the local context. Charged with promoting equity and access to educational opportunity for all students, school counselors operate in a space of tension, and even conflict, when district policy, school site policy, and organizational norms related to AP participation signal less-than-open access. In this environment, school counselor advocacy and leadership become increasingly important determinants of opportunity and academic outcomes, particularly for students in the margins. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which school counselors (a) are enabled and/or constrained in their ability to create student access to AP coursework, (b) use discretionary decision making as they navigate local AP course-taking policy, (c) consider efficiency and equity as values associated with policy and counseling practice, and (d) identify and perceive justice in their local context of professional work

    A Critical Policy Analysis of the United States’ Bilingual Education: Challenges and Successes in a Multicultural Context

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    Within the United States, bilingual education has historically been both accepted and restricted. Throughout the context of social and political events, diversity has impacted the educational system of the nation as millions of immigrants have become a part of American society. This continually changing demographic has proven to have a divisive as well as controversial impact on the concurrent political climate. Politicians and policy makers have mirrored the changing dichotomy of the United States nation through legislation that has impacted language minority students who have continually struggled to achieve academic success. Within the research, the author examines the historical background of legislation impacting immigrants and English learners throughout the years. Specific timeframes ranging from an era of linguistic tolerance to an era of linguistic value discuss the response to subsequent diversity. The disparities are examined as well as the changing bilingual program models that have evolved. To examine California’s current educational state, ten pieces of enacted legislation have been evaluated in order to determine if bilingual education has been perceived as a problem, a right, or a resource. By framing the legislation and the impact that it has had, it served to negotiate an understanding of each situation, point to a cause, determine an alternative, and thereby promote change. The author has concluded that California has made strides towards creating an educational system where bilingualism and language diversity are perceived as resources that have led to implementation of increased numbers of dual immersion programs. Cautionary steps and guidelines are discussed, as well as programmatic recommendations for implementation of effective programs that will value and build on a child’s native language rather than rebuke it

    Open, Just, & Sustainable Project: April 2020 Report

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    In an increasingly digital and open-access world, libraries and other scholar communities must reconsider what we mean by the term “value”. The open access (OA) movement and sites such as SciHub and Research Gate have increasingly uncoupled access to scholarship from wealth and academic connections, disrupting the traditional value propositions of publishers and libraries alike. In response, dominant publishers (e.g., Elsevier, Wiley) and publisher-adjacent corporations (e.g., Clarivate, Digital Science) are extracting behavioral data and further entrenching themselves in institutional rankings, hiring and funding decisions, and teaching and learning practices. In turn, libraries must reexamine how their relationships with publishers and their relationships with their parent institutions. The Open, Just, and Sustainable (OJS) Project aims to help the SCELC consortium of libraries explore related concerns, questions, and opportunities. The April 2020 report analyzes publicly-available SCELC documents, a member-librarian survey results, and a November 2019 focus group with the Product Review Advisory Committee

    Role of Work and Family Factors in Predicting Career Satisfaction and Life Success

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    The mediating roles of work-family balance, job satisfaction and family satisfaction in work-family dynamics research has not been explored fully to delineate their probable intervening effects. Using spillover theory as the basis, the current study tests a model to identify the role of these factors in work-family conflict (and work-role ambiguity), career satisfaction and perception of life success. Responses obtained through an online survey from a final sample of 344 academic faculty, across different educational institutions in India, tend to suggest that work-family balance mediated work-family conflict and its potential influence on life success as well as career satisfaction, and also the relationship between work-role ambiguity and both life success and career satisfaction. While job satisfaction also showed similar results except for non-significant mediation between work-role ambiguity and life success, family satisfaction mediated only between work role ambiguity and life success. The importance of job satisfaction and work-family balance is highlighted in the context of reducing the negative impact of work-family conflict and work-role ambiguity on one’s career and life satisfaction. Results and their practical and theoretical implications, and future directions of research to further our understanding of work-family dynamics, etc., are discussed

    Social capital, civic capital: local churches organize for popular democracy

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    This paper was to written about 2008 for an edited volume on churches engaged in building community -- a volume that never appeared. It uses the lens of social capital to describe the efforts of church groups in two cities to help poor communities take change of their own destinies. It traces the work of Communities Organized for Public Service ( COPS ) and Metro Alliance in San Antonio, Texas to empower people in the city\u27s poorer neighborhoods to demand their fair share of city services. It also describes the work begun at Dolores (Catholic) Mission in East Los Angeles to empower its largely Latino lay members to confront -- and then work with -- police, immigration officials, and other authorities. It concludes with some reflections on the effects such activities have for the development of both social and civic capital

    An Assessment of the Representation of Ecosystems in Global Protected Areas Using New Maps of World Climate Regions and World Ecosystems

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    Representation of ecosystems in protected area networks and conservation strategies is a core principle of global conservation priority setting approaches and a commitment in Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) explicitly call for the conservation of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Accurate ecosystem distribution maps are required to assess representation of ecosystems in protected areas, but standardized, high spatial resolution, and globally comprehensive ecosystem maps have heretofore been lacking. While macroscale global ecoregions maps have been used in global conservation priority setting exercises, they do not identify distinct localized ecosystems at the occurrence (patch) level, and instead describe large ecologically meaningful areas within which additional conservation planning and management are necessary. We describe a new set of maps of globally consistent climate regions and ecosystems at a much finer spatial resolution (250 m) than existing ecological regionalizations. We then describe a global gap analysis of the representation of these ecosystems in protected areas. The new map of terrestrial World Ecosystems was derived from the objective development and integration of 1) global temperature domains, 2) global moisture domains, 3) global landforms, and 4) 2015 global vegetation and land use. These new terrestrial World Ecosystems do not include either freshwater or marine ecosystems, but analog products for the freshwater and marine domains are in development. A total of 431 World Ecosystems were identified, and of these a total of 278 units were natural or semi-natural vegetation/environment combinations, including different kinds of forestlands, shrublands, grasslands, bare areas, and ice/snow regions. The remaining classes were different kinds of croplands and settlements. Of the 278 natural and semi-natural classes, 9 were not represented in global protected areas with a strict biodiversity conservation management objective (IUCN management categories I-IV), and an additional 206 were less than 8.5% protected (half way to the 17% Aichi Target 11 goal). Forty four classes were between 8.5% and 17% protected (more than half way towards the Aichi 17% target), and only 19 classes exceeded the 17% Aichi target. However, when all protected areas (IUCN management categories I-VI plus protected areas with no IUCN designation) were included in a separate global gap analysis, representation of ecosystems increases substantially, with a third of the ecosystems exceeding the 17% Aichi target, and another third between 8.5% and 17%. The overall protection (representation) of global ecosystems in protected areas is considerably less when assessed using only strictly conserved protected areas, and more if all protected areas are included in the analysis. Protected area effectiveness should be included in further evaluations of global ecosystem protection. The ecosystems with the highest representation in protected areas were often bare or sparsely vegetated and found in inhospitable environments (e.g. cold mountains, deserts), and the eight most protected ecosystems were all snow and ice ecosystems. In addition to the global gap analysis of World Ecosystems in protected areas, we report on the representation results for the ecosystems in each biogeographic realm (Neotropical, Nearctic, Afrotropical, Palearctic, Indomalayan, Australasian, and Oceania)

    Listening Her Way to an Historic Victory: On Hillary Clinton’s 1999-2000 Senate Campaign

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    This chapter examines Hillary Clinton’s contested yet ultimately successful 1999-2000 New York State Senate campaign in which Clinton used her outsider status—as a woman and a new NYS resident—and the listening tour strategy to inspire voters and win handily at the polls.

    Addressing the Wicked Problem of English Learner Disproportionality by Examining Speech-Language Pathologists’ Beliefs: Applying Q Methodology to Special Education

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    The attribution of academic failure to an educational disability instead of a lack of English proficiency is one factor contributing to the disproportionate representation of English learners (ELs) in special education. As gatekeepers to special education, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) must ensure that ELs found eligible for special education under the category of Speech and Language Impairment are truly those with an impairment due to Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) or another developmental disability, not children exhibiting differences from standard English use due to cultural or linguistic differences or lack of English proficiency. However, many SLPs’ ongoing reliance on invalid procedures to make a determination about an EL’s language learning ability makes their ability to make appropriate determinations of special education eligibility problematic. This exploratory study hypothesized that factor(s) besides the lack of knowledge or resources as previously documented may be presenting a barrier to the fidelity with which SLPs perform bilingual assessments. This study utilized Q methodology, a unique gestalt procedure whose aim is to reveal how configurations of themes are interconnected among a group of participants. A set of California school-based SLPs sorted a set of subjective statements about linguistic diversity, bilingualism, ELs’ learning potential, and the use of EL language assessment best practices. Sorts were intercorrelated and revealed 4 distinct profiles defined by their beliefs and attitudes. While areas of consensus among the 4 profiles were discovered, the profiles diverged in their beliefs about the importance and value of using EL assessment best practices, their perceptions of social pressure to utilize these best practices, their perceptions of ELs situated in either strengths-based or deficit thinking, and their perceptions of the degree of control they have over using EL assessment best practices. Results shed new light on the association of SLPs’ assessment practices with the issue of EL disproportionality and suggest ways to enhance the ability of pre-service educators, professional development providers, and school administrators to create targeted remedies for the “wicked” problem of EL disproportionality in special education


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