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    What impacts library teaching? Meeting the challenges

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    In this presentation, the presenter will share her perspectives on library teaching gained from her decade-long academic librarian journey. As a first-generation immigrant, she has inevitably encountered cultural differences and language barriers at work and must overcome relevant challenges. Her previous teaching experience as a faculty member for engineering and schooling experiences in her home country had forged her mindset in teaching and learning. Switching the role from a single-subject instructor to a library instructor for various disciplines has also imposed different requirements. Therefore, she must make an effort to evolve teaching standards and develop desirable competencies in library teaching over the journey. The following three areas are what she considers significant to the growth of a library educator based on her personal experience: learning theories and approaches, academic research on information literacy instruction, and adaptation to changes and challenges in library teaching

    How Interest Rates Redistribute Income

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    When I read about monetary policy, I have a rule of thumb. Every time I see the phrase interest rate, I replace it with the term wage rate. Then I ask myself whether the discussion still makes sense. Often, it does not. The reason I make this substitution is that in conceptual terms, the interest rate and the wage rate are similar: they are both rates of return. Wages are the return on employment. Interest rates are the return on credit. Now, the important thing about rates of return is that when we change them, we are toying with the distribution of income. Hike wages and we send more income to workers. Hike the rate of interest and we send more income to creditors. Sure, the specifics of this redistribution are open for inquiry. But by definition, rates of return are ‘distributional variables’ — they determine how the income pie gets divvied up. Back to my word substitution. When it comes to wages, the issue of distribution is typically front and center. That’s why talk of a minimum-wage hike prompts businesses (and many economists) to complain about reduced profits. But when creditors hike the rate of interest, talk of income distribution is curiously absent. Instead, we get a barrage of macroeconomic jargon — terms like the ‘natural rate of interest’ and the ‘non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment’. Why the discrepancy? One possibility is that economists know something that we don’t. Perhaps they’ve looked at the evidence and concluded that interest rates have a ‘neutral’ effect on the distribution of income. Another possibility is that the macroeconomic jargon is mostly a distraction. In other words, like wages, the rate of interest is a ‘distributional variable’. But it’s one that mainstream economists prefer to ignore. So which option is true? In this post, I let the evidence speak for itself. Looking at cross-country evidence, I find that interest rates are decidedly non-neutral. As interest rates rise, three things happen: -- the interest share of income increases; -- the labor share of income decreases; -- income inequality increases. In short, the evidence suggests that interest rates play a key role in the game of class warfare. And that makes sense. Interest, after all, is a rate of return. And when it comes to divvying up the income pie, rates of return are always zero sum

    Prioritizing Rhythmic Analysis: Temporal Organization of  ’Are’are Solo Polyphonic Panpipe Pieces

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    The repertoire of polyphonic panpipe music for solo performance, termed “‘au ni aau,” by ‘Are‘are musicians in the southern part of Malaita Island in the Solomon Islands is seemingly unique among musical traditions. As Hugo Zemp showed in 1981 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/851551), solo polyphonic panpipes were designed so that some pairs of adjacent pipes could be sounded simultaneously to produce two or three kinds of dyads within each piece rather than being restricted to single tones as is usual in solo panpipe performance. Whereas Zemp’s analyses understandably focused on aspects of tuning and melodic structure, the present report treats features of temporal organization as its starting point and main concern. As well, in order to draw conclusions that might provide a basis for comparisons with other pieces and performers in the much larger repertoire of solo polyphonic panpipe music, the pieces analysed here are by a single ’Are’are musician, Manamaetare of Takataka in the southeastern part of the island. In this regard, the Centre de Recherche en Ethnomusicologie (CREM) has streamed these pieces to the public (https://archives.crem-cnrs.fr/archives/items/CNRSMH_E_1995_004_001_001_04/dc/ and has graciously made them available to me as individual files for detailed acoustical analysis. Since Zemp’s initial study, software that provides acoustical corroboration of, and elaboration on, what one can hear in the original recordings has become widely accessible, both for free (e.g., Audacity: https://www.audacityteam.org/) or almost free (e.g., Transcribe!: https://www.seventhstring.com/xscribe/overview.html). By means of such software one can trace with precision temporal aspects of the pieces that inform one’s understanding of topics raised in his original analysis. In particular, the pieces’ inter-onset intervals (IOIs), inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), amplitude envelopes, and changing frequency spectra within individual dyads yield information relevant to the pieces’ meters, tempos, segmentations, formal structures, tremolos, and types of articulation, as well as issues concerning their relationship with the performer’s breath control, the layout of the polyphonic panpipe itself, and comparisons with the repertoire of polyphonic music for ’Are’are panpipe ensembles. In the present report, these topics are approached analytically in bottom-up fashion by applications of the Gestalt Grouping Principles of Similarity and Proximity (Wertheimer 1923) as well as the closely related principle of Analogy (http://iftawm.org/journal/oldsite/articles/2011a/Rahn_AAWM_Vol_1_1.htm).AAWM Special Topics Symposium 2023, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York Cit

    Butch

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    “Butch” is a 7-minute romantic comedy following the trials of Butch, a large left boob who struggles with his masculinity, as he works to impress his new crush in unfortunately toxic ways. Butch may or may not end up getting the girl, but in trying he goes through anxiety, humiliation, and a transcendental experience. Shot entirely on green screen with an iPhone and animated to within an inch of its life using scraps from the internet, this film examines the tensions of normative transmasculinity from the perspective of one of its exiled subjects, the breast

    Exploring Youths' Understanding of Intimate Relationships Through the Education Sector: An Institutional Ethnography

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    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for youth across the world. It is a period of new learnings with opportunities to understand and develop perspectives on health and well-being. With youth beginning to engage in intimate relationships at an earlier age in the 21st century, concentrating on the learning opportunity they have in school is paramount. The nature of what has been deemed important to teach in schools has changed throughout history, and focus has shifted from home/family skills to teaching youth how to be competitive in the job market. Amidst this emphasis, opportunities for them exist to learn about building healthy intimate relationships, one of the foundational elements of most people’s lives. Using an Institutional Ethnography (IE), I trace the lived experiences of youth in how they understand intimate relationships, and how their learning experience is organized through the high school Health and Physical Education (H&PE) course. I provide an empirical exploration of how the work of teachers and youth is socially organized by a biomedical, employment-related, and efficiency-based discourse. Through interviews with teachers and youth, I trace the control those ruling relations such as institutional expectations, performance reports, and timetabling enact over the experience of teachers and youth. My findings show how texts such as the H&PE curriculum, the Ontario College of Teachers (OCT) guidelines, Ministry of Education Performance Reports, and the timetable organize the day-to-day activities of teachers and students and reproduce different disjuncture for youth. This disjuncture includes some of their experiences being subordinated, difficulty relating to curriculum, and an experience of healthy living discussions being skimmed over across sites. My findings show that the experience of youth in learning about healthy intimate relationships is not akin to the espoused vision outlined in the H&PE (2015) curriculum policy. These findings have implications for policymakers, activists, and school administration alike, which call for an investigation into who is in power when it comes to youth’s learning needs, and a restructuring of existing institutional practices that allow for the flexibility required to broach the topic of healthy intimacy in a comprehensive manner

    Transfer Success on the Linda Problem: A Re-Examination Using Dual Process Theory, Learning Material Characteristics, and Individual Differences

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    The Linda problem is an intensely studied task in the literature for judgments where participants judge the probability of various options and frequently make biased judgements known as conjunction errors. Here, I conceptually replicated and extended the finding by Agnoli and Krantz (1989) that when participants are explicitly trained with Venn diagrams to inhibit their heuristics, successful transfer of learning is observed. I tested whether transfer success was maintained: (1) when the purpose of the training was obscured; (2) after controlling for individual differences; and (3) when learning materials did not include visual images. I successfully replicated their finding, identifying transfer success when the purpose of the training was masked and after controlling for individual differences. Furthermore, the effects of individual differences on transfer success depends on both the kind of learning material used and whether the purpose was masked. Hence, these findings support claims that education can inhibit biases

    A New Place at the Table: Ancient Cadential Patterns for Modern Improvision and Aural Skills Training

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    Contemporary efforts to integrate improvisation practice into institutional music education are many and varied, but lack of improvisatory skill remains an ongoing problem, especially in classical music instruction. Drawing on artisanal training, in which a corpus of memorized repertoire becomes a stylistic knowledge base, source of cognitive schemata and raw material for creative variation, a useful set of historically-derived “standards” can be found in the three introductory cadences used in the Neapolitan conservatory partimento tradition (It. Cadenza Semplice, Cadenza Composta, Cadenza Doppia) of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Referencing music cognition research, music theory sources and improvisation discourse, this paper argues that intervallic suspensions in these schemata (4-3, 7-6) can be seen as a simple demonstration of error perception and correction, a cognitive process that can be deployed to develop and strengthen both aural and creative skills. Integration of these cadences into beginner training also suggests a reassessment of the order of introduction of musical elements found in formal music instruction, which privileges the chord as a discrete entity, and relegates intervallic suspension, schemata and counterpoint to intermediate, advanced, or supplementary study. These cadences concisely synthesize and demonstrate contrapuntal interplay and voice leading between bass and treble voices, basic syncopation and rhythmic division, and the concept of dissonance/consonance within linear parameters as an integral aspect of musical form. A series of beginner to intermediate exercises for use in vocal and instrumental training are presented. The dissertation recommends that intervallic suspensions be given a renewed “place at the table,” once again taking their former role as primal examples of compositional structure and aesthetic possibility

    Laser-Induced Graphene-Based Transient Circuits for Flexible and Recyclable Electronics

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    Transient electronics are electronic devices with the ability to disintegrate/dissolve in a programmable manner, usually over a short period of time. Their by-products, after any dissolution, are usually harmless and benign, and hence they are an attractive approach to the global e-waste problem, especially for low-cost, one-time-use devices such as RFID tag antennas. This thesis focuses on designing and fabricating transient circuits with descent mechanical and electrical properties. To aim this, a laser is used to carbonize thin films made of nature-derived Lignin and graphene oxide. SEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy are used to study morphology and chemical composition of the films. Having optimized the material composition and laser parameters using four-point probe measurement, an RFID tag is designed and fabricated as a proof-of-concept. In the end, the transient property of the circuit is tested by dissolving the tag in water

    3D Printed Smart Materials of Continuous Wire Polymer Composites for Sensing Applications

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    Smart material with sensing capability is an exciting new technology that will impact many applications, including structural health monitoring, biomedical implants, wearable sensors, and actuators. Internal damage in polymer composites is usually hard to predict, and they need to be continuously monitored for any sign of internal damage for safety issues and to increase the life cycle. In this study, continuous wire polymer composites (CWPCs) were 3D-printed using the fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique to produce functional smart materials with different sensing capabilities like strain and thermal sensing. Here, the integrated wire within the conductive polymer composite structure acts as a sensing element. For strain sensing characterization, different design parameters such as matrix type, wire type, and loading condition were investigated to study the effect of these parameters on the efficacy of the CWPC sensor. The different matrices used have different mechanical properties representing rigid (polylactic acid) and flexible (thermoplastic polyurethane) structures to widen the range of applications of CWPCs as strain sensors. The change of the electrical resistance of the integrated wire within the CWPCs was measured under tensile loading and plotted against the applied strain. The results of this electromechanical testing demonstrate the ability of CWPCs to be used as strain sensor for either rigid or flexible structures. To check the reliability and reversibility of CWPCs structure as strain sensor, the electromechanical behaviour was investigated under fatigue/cyclic loading. The results of this work demonstrate the reverse piezoresistance behaviour of the CWPC sensor. From thermal sensing standpoint, different design parameters like wire type, matrix type, and sensor thickness were studied to investigate the application of CWPCs as temperature and heat flux sensors which can be readily designed and adapted to suit unique and bespoke thermal applications. The change of the electrical resistance of the integrated wires was correlated to the applied temperature to measure the heat conducted through a surface. A prototype of a real-world application was designed for the heat flux measurements using CWPC sensor. Generally, this study demonstrates the applicability of FFF technique to print sensors with continuous integrated wire with tuneable properties for different sensing applications

    Fabrication of Novel In-Situ Remediation Tools for Unconventional Oil Contamination

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    The aftermath of unconventional oil (UO) accidents highlights the lack of preparedness of governments to deal with UO emergencies. Because bioremediation is considered slow process, physicochemical treatment processes are necessary in removing contaminants to constrain the spread of oil. In preliminary phase of study, bed systems for adsorption of oil compounds packed with modified dolomite were applied as pre-treatment for bioremediation systems. The high affinity of oil molecules to the active sites due to hydrophobic nature of dolomite surface, as well as low solubility of oil in water, resulted in rapid process of oil adsorption on external surface of modified dolomite. UO contaminated site contain high concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, the final phase of study focused on finding enzyme mixture for biodegradation of PAHs contaminated sites for water and soil treatment. In this regard, screening of indigenous bacteria, identification of involved enzymes, and biodegradation tests were carried out. Several combinations of the pre-selected strains were used to create most prompting consortium for enzyme production. To mimic in situ application of enzyme mixture, bioremediation of pyrene contaminated soil was carried out in soil column tests. The average values of pyrene removal after 6 weeks indicated that the enzyme cocktail can be an appropriate concentration for soil enzymatic bioremediation in the soil column system. A bioinspired device was fabricated as a sustainable remedial method. Our results showed that after 200 seconds of circulating the enzyme solution 100% of anthracene in 1.5 L of 4.6 mg/L was removed from the beaker side. In addition to the circulation of PAH degrading enzymes in hollow fiber lumens, aliphatic degrading enzymes confined in multilayer nanofibrous membrane systems play an important role in the removal of oily compounds. Based on our studies, modified polyimide aerogels were suitable to support enzyme immobilization. The degradation tests clearly showed that immobilized enzymes had biodegradation ability for model substrate in contaminated water. Our results confirmed that immobilization of cocktail enzyme mixture enhanced their storage stability, more than 45% of its residual activity at 15 ± 1 ºC for 16 days. This study could set the guideline for the enzymatic bioremediation of aromatic pollutants especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in highly contaminated soil and water body

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