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    Evaluation of Acid Etching of Limestone

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    Ephemeral Puerto Rican Placemaking in the Rural Midwest

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    In this essay, I examine Puerto Rican placemaking from the vantage point of rural-to-rural migration between a central region in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Midwest. I focus on the towns of Jayuya, Puerto Rico, and Rantoul, Ilinois, due to the 2007 labor recruitment that shaped the towns’ future relationality. Specifically, I explore two independent experiences—2007 labor and leisure and 2017 solidarity action posthurricanes and earthquakes in Puerto Rico and Mexico—that show how placemaking can vary between tensions and ties, over time, and by different people experiencing broader ethnoracial dynamics across factories, churches, and social space. Ultimately, I emphasize the hyperlocal Brown and Black experiences in local, rural spaces that form ephemeral, nonrepetitive placemaking practices in which people learn themselves and places anew

    A case history of petroleum exploration in the southern Forest City basin using gravity and magnetic surveys

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    Three geophysical surveys were conducted in Johnson and Douglas counties in Kansas. The first two projects were gravity surveys each covering nearly 50 mi2 (130 km2). In all three surveys, readings of the gravity or magnetic fields were taken along county roads at 1/4-mi (.4-km) intervals. Normal data reductions and corrections were applied to the data. The data were displayed as contoured Bouguer gravity maps and a diurnal tide-corrected magnetic map. The Bouguer gravity maps indicated gravity anomalies with 0.20-1.20 mgal closures. Many of the closures were elliptical with their long axes paralleling local structural trends. Some of the gravity anomalies corresponded to known oil and gas fields. In particular, the Gardner oil dome near Gardner, Kansas, is associated with a 0.80-mgal gravity anomaly. The magnetic map indicated closures of 60-80 gammas. Some of the magnetic data corresponded well with the gravity data. Like the gravity data, some of the magnetic anomalies corresponded to known oil and gas fields. Several wildcat wells were drilled on or near gravity or magnetic highs. The first notable find was the discovery well of the Little Wakarusa Creek oil field. Oil is now being produced from 14 wells in this field from a 15-ft (4.5-m)-thick Cherokee sandstone at a depth of about 700 ft (210 m). The oil field is located in southeastern Douglas County nearly 5 mi (8 km) south of Eudora, Kansas. Initial flush productions varied between 10 and 40 bbls of oil per day. The magnetic and gravity data were interpreted to be related to deep basement structures. The deeper structures (.5-3 mi [.8-4.8 km] in depth) influence near-surface structures in the Cherokee Group of Pennsylvanian rocks. The structures provided trapping mechanisms for hydrocarbon accumulation in the Cherokee sandstones

    Doublespeaking American Immigration: The Language and Politics of Asylum-Seeking in Imbolo Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers

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    Drawing illustration from Imbolo MBue’s Behold the Dreamers, this paper demonstrates that postindependence socioeconomic and politico-cultural disillusionment caused by the rise in a crop of populist or strongmen African leaders, conflicts, dictatorship and the general failure of governance have exacerbated poverty and African youths have been “dying to reach Europe” by hazardously crossing the Libyan Desert, the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The paper argues that once in Europe or the US, African immigrants encounter convoluted immigration laws and nonchalant employers that doublethink and doublespeak them into disenfranchisement and marginalization thereby rendering their asylum seeking difficult and in most cases, impossible. The paper concludes that immigration to Europe or the US both kindles and kills hope and (re)builds and destroys lives and that the coming to power of leaders such as Donald Trump (with very strong anti-immigration policies) has proven that the US border is gradually becoming as unsafe as the sweltering heat of the Libyan Desert and the tempests of the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean

    Africana Annual: Editorial Introduction

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    Editorial introduction to the issue

    A Study of the Joint Patterns in Gently Dipping Sedimentary Rocks of South-Central Kansas

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    The two most prominent joint sets in Butler and Cowley counties and in parts of Greenwood, Chase and Marion counties, Kans., have consistent regional orientation regardless of the age of the rocks containing them. Set I strikes northeast, whereas Set II strikes northwest. The angle between the sets averages 93°. Both sets occur either as single or compound groups. Set III joints cluster around the two major sets and are subordinate in number with less consistent orientation. Most of the joints studied are vertical. On the basis of physical characteristics, joints of Sets I and II are shear joints, whereas Set III joints are tension joints. The joints are believed to have formed after the major development of the anticlinal folds in the region but may have developed simultaneously with later readjustments of the folds. The joints show no relation to subsurface faults but are closely aligned with the "en echelon" belt of faults of Oklahoma. Because most joints are vertical to the bedding, the jointing and regional tilting may be contemporaneous products of the same deformational period. The age of the joints is determined to be between post-lower Permian and pre-lower Cretaceous time. The joints may have formed as a result of north-West, horizontal, compressive forces generated by wrench-fault tectonics during initial Ouachita Mountain uplift. These forces were coupled with an opposite force, possibly from the Rocky Mountain region. Evidence shows that at least two separate but inter-related joint systems may exist in the midcontinent region

    Features in Kansas cyclothems seen by high-resolution seismology

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    Accurate quantitative modeling of stratal sequences requires verification of model results by means of comparisons with known stratigraphic intervals, and in many cases seismic data provide the best or only means toward that end. In eastern Kansas the scale of variability within Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian units is of the order of meters. Unraveling the stratigraphy and thereby verifying models at such a scale requires high-resolution seismic data. Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian cyclic sequences (cyclothems) are seen as just a few wiggles on standard petroleum exploration reflection seismogram sections with frequency responses of <80 Hz. For instance, the Kansas City and Lansing Groups cannot be distinguished. However, the use of high-resolution reflection seismology, with frequencies up to 500 Hz, allows the detection of thin-bed members of the individual groups and formations to approximately 2-m (7-ft) thickness. Geologic cyclicity and reflection seismology harmonize, and carbonate units are seen as peaks and siliciclastic units (mostly shales) as troughs. Seismic response becomes sensitive to phenomena such as the presence of intrabed sandstone lenses in the shales and the surface roughness (diffusivity) of lithologic interfaces. Complex trace analysis aids the interpretation of bed thickness and the nature and continuity of geologic boundaries. Reflection strength helps determine which geologic boundaries form strong reflectors and therefore have clean, flat interfaces. Instantaneous phase complements reflection strength by showing strong trace-to-trace coherence and by emphasizing stratal truncations, indicating intrabed structure and sandstone channel presence. Instantaneous frequency indicates (1) intrabed structure and sandstone channel presence when it displays a chaotic pattern and (2) the dominant frequency of the reflector response when coherent. Dominant frequency of the reflector response is frequently useful in determining bed thickness

    Modeling of tidal rhythmites using modern tidal periodicities and implications for short-term sedimentation rates

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    Within Carboniferous strata cyclical variations in lamina thickness have a modern counterpart in tidal systems. These lamina thickness cycles can be equated to several types of neap-spring periodicities and longer-term seasonal periods. The various hierarchies of cycles within the ancient tidal deposits can be modeled using modern tidal station data. This type of fine-scale modeling indicates how the various tide-producing parameters of the earth-moon-sun system can be encoded in ancient tidal deposits. Based on relationships of lamina cycles to known tidal periods, inferred cycle periods indicate that such sections underwent rapid, localized, vertical accretion. Large discrepancies are evident when such short-term rates are compared to long-term rates of formation-level accumulation. Such comparisons indicate that long-term accumulation rates are many orders of magnitude slower than actual rates of deposition produced by tidal sedimentation

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