University of Quebec at Montreal

Archipel - Université du Québec à Montréal
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    8196 research outputs found

    A Domain Analysis to Specify Design Defects and Generate Detection Algorithms

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    Quality experts often need to identify in software systems design defects, which are recurring design problems, that hinder development\ud and maintenance. Consequently, several defect detection approaches\ud and tools have been proposed in the literature. However, we are not\ud aware of any approach that defines and reifies the process of generating\ud detection algorithms from the existing textual descriptions of defects.\ud In this paper, we introduce an approach to automate the generation\ud of detection algorithms from specifications written using a domain-specific\ud language. The domain-specific is defined from a thorough domain analysis.\ud We specify several design defects, generate automatically detection\ud algorithms using templates, and validate the generated detection\ud algorithms in terms of precision and recall on Xerces v2.7.0, an\ud open-source object-oriented system

    Open Access Mandates and the "Fair Dealing" Button

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    We describe the "Fair Dealing Button," a feature designed for authors who have deposited their papers in an Open Access Institutional Repository but have deposited them as "Closed Access" (meaning only the metadata are visible and retrievable, not the full eprint) rather than Open Access. The Button allows individual users to request and authors to provide a single eprint via semi-automated email. The purpose of the Button is to tide over research usage needs during any publisher embargo on Open Access and, more importantly, to make it possible for institutions to adopt the "Immediate-Deposit/Optional-Access" Mandate, without exceptions or opt-outs, instead of a mandate that allows delayed deposit or deposit waivers, depending on publisher permissions or embargoes (or no mandate at all). This is only "Almost-Open Access," but in facilitating exception-free immediate-deposit mandates it will accelerate the advent of universal Open Access

    Large-scale synchrony of gap dynamics and the distribution of understory tree species in maple-beech forests

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    Large-scale synchronous variations in community dynamics are well documented for a vast array of organisms, but are considerably less understood for forest trees. Because of temporal variations in canopy gap dynamics, forest communities—even old-growth ones—are never at equilibrium at the stand scale. This paucity of equilibrium may also be true at the regional scale. Our objectives were to determine (1) if nonequilibrium dynamics caused by temporal variations in the formation of canopy gaps are regionally synchronized, and (2) if spatiotemporal variations in canopy gap formation aVect the relative abundance of tree species in the understory. We examined these questions by analyzing variations in the suppression and release history of Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. from 481 growth series of understory saplings taken from 34 mature stands. We observed that (1) the proportion of stems in release as a function of time exhibited a U-shaped pattern over the last 35 years, with the lowest levels occurring during 1975–1985, and that (2) the response to this in terms of species composition was that A. saccharum became more abundant at sites that had the highest proportion of stems in release during 1975–1985. We concluded that the understory dynamics, typically thought of as a stand-scale process, may be regionally synchronized

    The Decline of Canadian Science

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    Does shade improve light interception efficiency? A comparison among seedlings from shade-tolerant and -intolerant temperate deciduous tree species

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    • Here, we tested two hypotheses: shading increases light interception efficiency (LIE) of broadleaved tree seedlings, and shade-tolerant species exhibit larger LIEs than do shade-intolerant ones. The impact of seedling size was taken into account to detect potential size-independent effects on LIE. LIE was defined as the ratio of mean light intercepted by leaves to light intercepted by a horizontal surface of equal area. • Seedlings from five species differing in shade tolerance (Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, A. pseudoplatanus, B. pendula, Fagus sylvatica) were grown under neutral shading nets providing 36, 16 and 4% of external irradiance. Seedlings (1- and 2-year-old) were three-dimensionally digitized, allowing calculation of LIE. • Shading induced dramatic reduction in total leaf area, which was lowest in shade-tolerant species in all irradiance regimes. Irradiance reduced LIE through increasing leaf overlap with increasing leaf area. There was very little evidence of significant size-independent plasticity of LIE. • No relationship was found between the known shade tolerance of species and LIE at equivalent size and irradiance

    The New Dialectics of Nature

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    Generic Model Refactorings

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    Many modeling languages share some common concepts and principles. For example, Java, MOF, and UML share some aspects of the concepts\ud of classes, methods, attributes, and inheritance. However, model\ud transformations such as refactorings specified for a given language\ud cannot be readily reused for another language because their related\ud metamodels may be structurally different. Our aim is to enable a\ud flexible reuse of model transformations across various metamodels.\ud Thus, in this paper, we present an approach allowing the specification\ud of generic model transformations, in particular refactorings, so\ud that they can be applied to different metamodels. Our approach relies\ud on two mechanisms: (1) an adaptation based mainly on the weaving\ud of aspects; (2) the notion of model typing, an extension of object\ud typing in the model-oriented context. We validated our approach by\ud performing some experiments that consisted of specifying three well\ud known refactorings (Encapsulate Field, Move Method, and Pull Up Method)\ud and applying each of them onto three different metamodels (Java,\ud MOF, and UML)

    A new exact algorithm for the multi-depot vehicle routing problem under capacity and route length constraints

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    This article presents an exact algorithm for the multi-depot vehicle routing problem (MDVRP) under capacity and route length constraints. The MDVRP is formulated using a vehicle-flow and a set-partitioning formulation, both of which are exploited at different stages of the algorithm. The lower bound computed with the vehicle-flow formulation is used to eliminate non-promising edges, thus reducing the complexity of the pricing subproblem used to solve the set-partitioning formulation. Several classes of valid inequalities are added to strengthen both formulations, including a new family of valid inequalities used to forbid cycles of an arbitrary length. To validate our approach, we also consider the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) as a particular case of the MDVRP, and conduct extensive computational experiments on several instances from the literature to show its effectiveness. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm is competitive against stateof-the-art methods for these two classes of vehicle routing problems, and is able to solve to optimality some previously open instances. Moreover, for the instances that cannot be solved by the proposed algorithm, the final lower bounds prove stronger than those obtained by earlier methods

    Managing understory light conditions in boreal mixedwoods through variation in the intensity and spatial pattern of harvest: A modelling approach

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    In the context of partial harvesting, adequately managing post-harvest light conditions are essential to obtain a desired composition of tree species regeneration. The objective of this study was to determine how varying the intensity and spatial pattern of harvest would affect understory light conditions in boreal mixedwood stands of northwestern Quebec using the spatially explicit SORTIE-ND light model. The model was evaluated based on comparisons of observed and predicted light levels in both mapped and un-mapped plots. In mapped plots, reasonably accurate predictions of the overall variation in light levels were obtained, but predictions tended to lack spatial precision. In un-mapped plots, SORTIE-ND accurately predicted stand-level mean GLI (Gap Light Index) under a range of harvest intensities. The model was then used to simulate nine silvicultural treatments based on combinations of three intensities of overstory removal (30%, 45% and 60% of basal area) and three harvest patterns (uniform, narrow strips, large gaps). Simulations showed that increasing overstory removal had less impact on light conditions with uniform harvests, and a more marked effect with more aggregated harvest patterns. Whatever the harvest intensity, uniform cuts almost never created high light conditions (GLI > 50%). Gap cuts, on the other hand, resulted in up to 40% of microsites receiving GLI > 50%. Our results suggest that either a 30% strip or gap cut or a 45–60% uniform partial harvest could be used to accelerate the transition from an aspen dominated composition to a mixedwood stand because both types of cut generate the greatest proportion of moderately low light levels (e.g., 15–40% GLI). These light levels tend to favour an accelerated growth response among shade-tolerant conifers, while preventing excessive recruitment of shade-intolerant species. A better understanding of how spatial patterns of harvest interact with tree removal intensity to affect understory light conditions can provide opportunities for designing silvicultural prescriptions that are tailored to species’ traits and better suited to meet a variety of management objectives


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