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    The clinical value of bacteriological tests determining potential burn wound infection-causing pathogens

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    Evaluation of microorganisms in burn wound is important not only in determining potential pathogens present, but also allows diagnosing an infection, evaluating possibility of sepsis, and determining the appropriate time for wound tissue reconstruction. However, there are still many discussions about the optimal wound sample taking method to determine wound microflora or infection, and the opinions about sample taking methods for identification of microorganisms are controversial. We have compared three methods (quantitative swab, semi-quantitative swab, biopsy) and determined significant differences. Similar species of bacteria in the same wounds were most frequently identified by biopsy and the semi-quantitative swab method. The general concordance of the results of these methods was very good. There was a medium correlation of the bacterial amount identified by these methods. However, there was the best concordance of the results in presence of a small amount of bacteria in a wound.In presence of clinical wound infection signs, bacteria and larger number of their species were significantly more frequently identified in the biopsy material. The biopsy method significantly more frequently identified a very large amount (>105 CFU) of bacteria. The semi-quantitative swab method is most appropriate to monitor burn wound contamination with bacteria when there are no infection signs. A clinically determined wound infection was best reflected by the results of biopsy

    Organisation of palliative care for children with terminal cancer: professional experience and approach

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    The objective of the research is to disclose the experience of health care professionals working at the Children’s Department of Oncology and Hematology in providing palliative care services and their approach towards organisation of palliative care services for children with terminal cancer in Lithuania. Research issues: What is the experience of health care professionals in providing palliative care services to children with terminal cancer at the Children’s Department of Oncology and Hematology? What is the approach of health care professionals towards organisation of palliative care services for children with terminal cancer in Lithuania? Research methods. The qualitative descriptive research involving in-depth interview and qualitative inductive content analysis was performed. The research was carried out during the period from November 2012 till February 2013. The total of 12 interviews was completed. 12 professionals participated in the research: three doctors, six nurses, two psychologists and one social worker. The topic analysis method was selected for the processing of the research data. Results. The professionals who participated in the research described and perceived the conception of palliative care for children in a broad sense and discerned the significance not only of medical care, but also of social and psychological help. During the group discussion the opinion that the medical aspect, pain relief and medical nursing are very important in providing palliative care services to children was predominant. The professionals considered palliative care for children as special and imposing high emotional burden on people working in this field. The experience of the professionals and their approach disclosed different possibilities and various methods for providing palliative care services, however it was most emphasized that families and children must choose themselves where to receive this care thus satisfying their needs. Palliative care must be provided by a team, consisting of various experts. The professionals participating in the research discerned the importance of communication and conveyance of information in their work, because while communicating and informing children and families about their disease, course of the disease and prognosis they experience ethical problems. The participants of the research expressed their opinion that palliative care is poorly financed, there is an insufficient number of experts prepared, who could work in specialised teams, and medical institutions have a small number of working psychologist and social workers, who could provide help to the families. Conclusions. Health care professionals perceive and describe palliative care for children in a broad sense and discern the significance not only of medical care, but also of social and psychological help and importance of communication with the patients. The care for children must be organised so that it satisfies the needs of a sick child and his or her family and a team consisting of required professionals is necessary for the provision of the services

    The analysis of food pollution and its results of national food and veterinary risk assessment

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    The aims of the work was to carry out analysis of an official control in food of plant origin in order to evaluate implementation of food safety requirements in Lithuania. It was foreseen to review requirements of legal acts on food safety and to analize organizational chart of the official food control of plant origin in Lithuania and assess results of the food control carried out in 2008 and 2009. Official control in food of plant origin is carried out by State Food ant Veterinary Service, which is responsible for the control of pesticide residues and for drawing up the monitoring programme. The programme was design by taking account of recommendations of the EU Commission, recommendations of the Ministry of Health, risk of pesticide contamination, data of earlier laboratory analysis, information of Plant Protection Service on the amounts of pesticides used. Samples are taken from the products obtained in Lithuania, transported from the EU countries and third countries (import). Samples are selected in accordance with the provisions of Commission Directive 2002/63/EC, which has been transposed into a national legal act approved by the order of the Minister of Health. The analyses were carried out in the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute. In 2007 -509, 2008 – 503 and 2009 – 266 samples on pollutants residues were selected from fruits, vegetables, grains and baby food; of these samples were tested in accordance with the monitoring programme. In most samples the detected level of pesticide was below the tolerable level, but not above MRL; and just by 5 samples in every year the MRL was exceeded. It is recommended to make strengthen capacities of competent authorities in order to ensure competence of Lithuania in food safety and quality

    Honey of different Lithuanian regions and its properties

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    The objective of this work – is to investigate and evaluate honey of different Lithuania regions and its properties. Honey valuable features as a natural product works depends on the origin of the plant and the area it is collected. Only honey is characterized by qualitative and quantitative ratio of chemical elements are in each region to plant flowers. About its origin and environmental pollution in these metals can be inferred from the heavy metal content in honey. Through soil, dust, leaf surfaces heavy metals fall on the flowers. From the flowers falls into the nectar, and with it comes to the honey. Eco-indicator of environmental pollution can be heavy metals in honey. The results showed that a different region of Lithuania harmful trace elements in honey varies: Cd- 0,011-0,013 mg/kg, Pb -0,020-0,075 mg/kg, Cr -0,023-0,045 mg/kg, Cu -0,06-0,76 mg/kg, Zn -1,01-3,54 mg/kg, As- 0,051-0,053 mg/kg, Hg -0,0016-0,0645 mg/kg, but not exceeding Lithuania LSH. One of the most important indicators of quality of the product is moisture. All regions tested honey was mature enough, so that the moisture content does not exceed 20 percent. Diastase enzyme activity is an important indicator of the quality which characterizes the naturalness of honey. This number must be less than 8 units, it can be concluded that honey was a natural. Exploring honey samples matched Lithuania 1466:2004 standard. Reducing sugars, except honey (59.5 percent) from the Žemaitijos region exceeded 60 percent. Sucrose content in honey was not more than 3.45 percent and does not exceed the maximum allowable amount - 5 percent in European Food Code (larger quantities are allowed only for certain types of honey). This indicates that the honey is not adulterated. All the tested samples diastase activity was from 10.1 to 13.3 units Gote. Honey is a natural and unique food with a lot of the beneficial substances. Potassium can even meet the recommended daily intake. The vitamins ascorbic acid is about 2.35 percent of vitamin B6 up to 11 percent of the recommended daily intake. Vitamins in honey from different regions are varied; it is shown by our study: C-2 0.35 to 2, 47 mg/100 g, K-0 .022 to 0, 033 mg/100 g, Nikotatinamidas-0 .122 to 0, 136 mg/100 g

    A qualitative analysis of gilts and castrates fattening and meat properties

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    The main requirements of modern pig production are high productivity of pigs, high quality of meat with biological value and good fattening and carcass traits. Various factors have impact on meat quality: age, sensitivity to stress, breed and gender. The aim: To evaluate the fattening of gilts and geldings, and their carcass traits, and to identify key differences between these two groups. Objectives: 1. To evaluate the fattening intensity of different breeds gilts and geldings. 2. To determine the meat succulence rates of different breeds gilts and geldings. 3. To determine productivity differences between gilts and geldings by comparative assesment. The work was carried out at the State Pig Breeding Station, Baisiogala in 2009-2010. Control period - from 30 to 90 kg (maximum 95 kg). At the end of the monitoring period, i.e. the fattening properties of pigs at 90 kg before the control slaughter were assessed for these indicators: age at 100 kg of live weight (days), average daily gain in g, and feed costs for Mr. V. 1 kg of gain. During control slaughter, the carcass meat quality assessment was carried out from the left carcass halves after 24 hours of slaughtering, carcass after chilling at 0 - 4 ° C temperature. These meat quality parameters has been evaluated: the length of carcass halves in cm, the area of cross-sectional loin muscle in cm2, the thickness of back fat behind the last rib in mm, ham weight in kg. The data was processed using the Windows operating system Excel spreadsheet. The arithmetic mean (X), the error (m) and the coefficient variation (CV) of the arithmetic mean was calculated. The confidence (P) was determined using Student test. Data were considered statistically reliable at p <0.05, but not significant at p <0.05. The analysis of fattening performance showed the highest maturation ratio differences between the genders in the Pietrain breed, where the eunuch reached 100 kg, 16.75 days faster (P <0.05) than gilts. The maximum difference of the average daily gain and feed costs ratios, was found between the genders of the Lithuanian White breed, where the eunuch a gained 62.0 g more weight and used 0.11 p.v less feed than gilts during the day. The evaluation of meat characteristics showed the highest differences of the carcass halves length between the sexes of Landrace breed, where carcass halves of gilt were 0,52 cm longer than that of geldings (data was not significant). The back fat thickness at the last rib of Pietrain breed gilts was 5.65 mm less (P <0.05) and cross-sectional area of loin muscle – 2.61 cm higher than of geldings (data not significant). Significant differences of ham weight between the sexes, among the breeds evaluated, were not detected. In general, the fattening results of all breeds eunuchs were better than of gilts. Geldings 100 kg reach was in 5.4 days faster, the gain of weight was 38.94 g/day faster and feed costs was 0.02 kg lower than of gilts (data was not significant). However, the calculated rates of meat quality were better of gilts: the carcass halves were 0.15 cm (0.16%) longer, the thickness of fat at the last rib 1.96 mm (12.53%) thinner, the cross-sectional area of loin muscle was 0.25 cm2 (0.62%) bigger and ham weight 0.04 kg (0.34%) higher than of geldings. Finally, our research findings allow making these conclusions: 1. The assessment of fattening properties of pigs showed the higher maturation rate difference between the genders of the Pietrain breed, where eunuchs reached 100 kg in 16.75 faster than gilts (P <0.05), and daily gain and feed efficiency – of Lithuanian White breed, where eunuchs gained 62.0 g more weight and used 0.11 p.v less feed than gilts (P <0.05). 2. The major differences of rates of meat quality indicators were determined for the Pietrain breed: the fat layer of gilts was 5.65 mm thinner (P <0.05), the cross -sectional area of loin muscle and ham weight were 2.61 cm² and 0.12 kg higher than of geldings, respectively (data statistically unreliable). 3. In general, the fattening results of all breeds eunuchs were better than of. They reached 100 kg in 5.4 days faster, gained 38.94 g more weight and consumed 0.02 less of feed than gilts (data statistically unreliable). 4. The meat quality results of all breeds gilts were better than of geldings: carcass halves were 0.15 cm longer, fat layer was 1.96 mm thinner, the cross-sectional area of loin muscle 0.25 cm ² bigger and ham weight 0.04 kg greater than of geldings (data statistically unreliable)

    Horses slaughted for food meat quality

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    The main of the work is to evaluate the quality of slaughted horses meat.Attention is paid to effectiveness of preslaughting and afterslaughting check; diagnosing infections and non-infections deseases; evaluate horse-flesh chemical and morphological indicators. The goals are: to analise the quantities of the latest years slaughted horses; ascertain changes of carcass and internal organs during after slaughting checking; evaluate horse-flesh energetic and nutrition value, as well as physical and chemical indicators. The research work was done in 2011-2013 at Lithuania‘s Health Science University, Veterinary Akademy, Department of food safety and quality, animals nutrition department, KTU Chemical institute laboratory and UAB „Agrovet“ Following a reglament (EB/No 854/2004 and expertise methodics of animal‘s postslaughting (Januskeviciene,Mleckiene,1998), trere was conducted horse‘s pre and after slaughting checking at UAB „Agrovet“shambles and evaluated found changes.Technological process of horses slaughtering was being watched and a sanitary inspection of the tachnological process was done.Flesh test for physical and chemical researches taken from 10 years old M.longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus(ST) horse‘s 0.5 kg muscles. Researches of flesh nutritions and energetic value were conducted at LSMU VA Animals nutrition department, Forage research laboratory, biogenious amins established at KTU Chemical research laboratory. Investigations of quality were conducted 48 hours after slaughtering, the flesh kept at +4 temperature.Meat pH measured on M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M.semitendinosus(ST) muscles in a shambles cooling of room. PH was ascertained after 45 min (pH45), 24 and 48 hours by pH meter „INOLAB 3“, which has got a contact electrode after 45 min, 24 and 48 hours. To fulfill the goals we used accepted methods and kept all requirements and standarts.We got results from conducted observations, pre and after slaughting checking, biochemical and morphological researches and biogenious amins amount in different horse flesh muscles. The number of slaughted horses at UAB „Agrovet“ is decreasing every year: 2433 was slaughted in 2009 and in 2011 – 1939 horses, that is 20.50% less. Checked animals had such main problems: respiration pathology- 9.16% (phneumonija, emphizema), liver pathology- 8.4% (distrophinical calcinosis), heart patology- 4.01%(heart dilation).The main problem of technological process was dirty horses addressed for slaughtering. The longest back muscle (LD) pH45 was 6.84% and hip‘s half-vein muscle(ST) pH45 1.01% less (p0.05). Differences of muscles temperature were greater, after slaughting ST temperature was 33.8 C 1.4 degree higher than LD tenperature (p0.05); 3.58 nonalbumen materials having less nitrogen (p0.05)

    Investigation of silage nutritional value and quality on physiological state, productivity and milk microbiological parameters in dairy cows

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    Objectives: 1. To define the effect of fermentation inhibitors and stimulators and raw material of different wilting on the process of silage in rolls fermentation and nitrogen compounds decomposition as well as on the level of its variety. 2. To define silage aerobic stability in rolls and its changes during storage. 3. To define silage microbiological composition in rolls and its changes during storage. 4. To compare the effectivity of fermentative inhibiting and stimulating supplements and their effect on the process of silage fermentation under laboratory and industrial conditions. 5. To define the effect of fermentative inhibiting and stimulating supplements on cows‘ productivity, milk chemical composition and its microbiological quality when cows are fed investigated silage. 6. To define the effect of fermentative inhibiting and stimulating supplements used in production of silage rolls on the clinical and physiological state of cows and digestive processes. Complex investigation and comparison of silage produced in rolls nutritional value and quality was carried out for the first time, taking into consideration botanical composition of raw material, different level of wilting and the effect of fermentation inhibiting and stimulating supplements. What is more, was studied the effect of silage produced in rolls on clinical and physiological state of cows, their productivity, milk microbiological parameters and digestive processes. Different effectivity of used fermentation stimulator and inhibitor in silage rolls produced under laboratory and industrial conditions was stated, as well as decreased fungal population in silage during a long-term storage, what ensure improved silage hygiene quality and high milk productivity of cows, its microbiological quality without negative effect on clinical and physiological state of cows and digestive processes. It is also the first time by the method of thermovision analyzes was measured by aerobic processes exuded heat in silage rolls. Conclusions: 1. Botanical composition of the ensilaged material, different wilting time, fermentation stimulator and inhibitor effected silage fermentation processes in dependence of factors interaction. 2. During aerobic incubation all types of experimental silage in rolls were distinguished by low aerobic stability due to intensive aerobic dissociation. 3. The effect of fermentation stimulator and inhibitor supplements remained unchanged on organic matter aerobic dissociation intensity and heat production in silage rolls in summer and winter. 4. Longer wilting time of raw material (P0.05) if to compare to the control group of cows fed silage without supplements. 10. Organic matter digestibility parameters studied in vitro in the experimental groups of cows fed silage with fermentation stimulator and inhibitor differed inconsiderably (P>0.05) if to compare to the parameters from control group of cows. Proposal: when silage is ensilaged in rolls in Lithuanian conditions, it seems purposeful to use fermentation chemical supplement. It limits propagation of yeast, microscopic fungi and Clostridium spp. from saccharolytic and pro-teolytic groups of bacteria, improves silage hygiene quality and has no negative effect on clinical and physiological state of dairy cows and digestion processes if to compare to fermentation stimulator. It is advisable to make silage rolls thermovision analysis for evaluation of silage density and presses used for production of silage

    Safety and efficacy study of the recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for prevention of neutropenia and neutropenia-related complications in women with metastatic breast cancer receiving docetaxel/doxorubicin

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    BACKGROUND: We evaluated efficacy and safety of recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rGCSF) used as primary prophylaxis to prevent neutropenia and neutropenia-related complications induced by docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three centers in Lithuania enrolled 36 patients who received rGCSF (5 microg/kg/d) on day 2 of each 21-day chemotherapy with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) (AT) starting in the first cycle. Treatment regimen was repeated for up to six cycles. RESULTS: Leukocytosis, bone pain, and headache were the most frequent adverse events, with incidence rates of 22%, 19%, and 8%, respectively. Adverse events were typical for rGCSF in this patient population. Overall incidence rate of febrile neutropenia was 14%. The mean duration of febrile neutropenia episodes across cycles was 2.14 days. Incidence of chemotherapy delay was 2%. There was no reduction in chemotherapy dose due to expected toxicity or side effects. Intravenous antibiotics for the treatment of febrile neutropenia were needed in 19% of cases. Quality-of-life assessment shows a significant improvement in emotional functioning and a significant decrease in pain score. The efficacy profile of rGCSF observed in the present study was comparable with that of other rGCSF products previously described in the published scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: The primary prophylaxis of neutropenia and its complications by rGCSF was safe and effective for women with metastatic breast cancer who received chemotherapy with docetaxel and doxorubicin

    The possibility of using rations with different amount of proteines in foddering nutria

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    Wild animal breeding is a branch of economy that has existed for a long time, therefore, it is necessary for the global economy. Wild animal farming is necessary, because it not only produces exceptionally natural products, but also enables to ecologically utilize the waste produced by the food industry. In Lithuania, the wild animal breeding farms use about 30 thousand tons of the waste of animal origin. The furs of 40-50 million of furry animals are produced each year. At present, the biggest fur industry companies keep up to 30 thousand females, and medium farms keep about 10-20 thousand females. Lithuania is the only country in Eastern Europe where small, family-owned wild animal breeding farms are established, as such farms have been only in Poland for many years. Furry animal breeding business is the branch of agriculture that is most subject to the economic and political processes going on in the world. At present, there are about 20 large wild animal breeding farms in Lithuania. On the other hand, individual breeders are also more and more involved in the wild life breeding industry. The animal breeding business in Lithuania started more than 50 years ago. In the European Union, there are no restrictions for this kind of business, except for environment protection ones. Many nutrias are bred in the United States of America. They were brought to the state of California in 1899 for the first time. 20 nutrias were brought to the state of Louisiana in 1938, and in 1962 their population already reached 20 million. In 1950, 95 per cent of all the nutrias of the USA were bred in this state. Nutrias are mostly spread in South and North Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa. The aim of the Thesis is to evaluate the affect of the food ration with different amounts of protein upon the indices of the growing, development and health of nutrias; to evaluate the nutritional and energy values of the meat of nutrias according to the amount of protein in the food rations. The tasks of the Thesis are the following: 1. to submit the nutritional and energy values of food rations with different amounts of proteins; 2. to follow the change of the weight of nutrias during different growth periods; 3. to calculate the makeweight of the day in different growth periods and during the whole time; 4. to establish the bio-chemical indices of the blood; 5. to submit the energetic and nutritional value indices of the nutria meat. Having generalized the gained results, we can state that the amounts of protein in the food ration have influenced some parameters under analysis more, and other parameters less in certain cases. The nutritional material in the food rations of nutrias: the ratio of protein : fat : carbohydrate: in the 1st group under analysis, the ratio was 21.6 : 2.9 : 57.0, respectively; in the 2nd group under analysis, it was 25.2 : 3.1 : 53.8, and in the third group – 28.8 : 3.5 : 49.6, respectively; the nutrias were fed on the food rations that had 21, 25 and 29 per cent of proteins, respectively. The mass of the body of males at the age of 8 months was 5.83 – 5.58 – 6.10 kg, that of females was 4.46 – 4.98 – 5.20 kg. The most intensive growth of the body mass of males was at the age of 3-4 months, i.e. 32.14 – 42.14 g; the biggest growth of females was also at the age of 3 4 months, i.e. 25.28 – 36.43 g. During the period of six months, the makeweight of the day of the males in the 1st group was 23.90 g, or bigger by 28.70 per cent, if compared to that of females; the 2nd group – 22.42 g, or 12.10 per cent as bigger, and the 3rd group – 24.78 g, or bigger by 28.13 per cent, if compared to the makeweight of the mass of females’ body per day. The output of the carcass, as calculated per live weight, was the highest of those males that had 29 per cent of protein in their food ration 3355 g, or more by 66.00 274.00 g (p<0.001), if compared to the 1st and the 2nd groups; the output of the carcass of females was the highest in that group that had 29 per cent of protein in their ration, as well, i.e. 2885 g, or 249.00 104.00 g more (p<0.001), if compared to the 1st and 2nd groups. The output of the meat of males, if calculated per live weight, was 31.6 – 32.2 per cent, and that of females was 28.8 – 30.9 per cent. Smaller amounts of humidity were detected in the meat of males. In the meat of males of the 3rd group, there was 31.43 per cent of dry material found, or more by 2.22 per cent (p<0.05), if compared to the 1st group, and more by 1.29 per cent, if compared to the 2nd group; the largest amount of proteins – 25.46 per cent – was found in the meat of the nutrias of the 3rd group, or by 1.88 per cent as more (p<0.001), if compared to the 1st group; there was 2.01 per cent of fat found in the meat of the nutria of the 3rd group, or by 0.18 per cent as more (p<0.001), if compared to the 2nd group of the nutrias; the biggest amount of the dry material in the meat of the females was found in the meat of the nutria of the 3rd group; bigger amounts of proteins and fat were also found in this group. The food energy of the meat of males was 6.36 – 6.87 MJ kg-1; that of females was 6.08 – 6.25 kg-1. The tendency of the increase of proteins was found in the blood composition from 48.12 g L-1 up to 48.86 g L-1, of bilirubin – from 5,62 μmol L-1 up to, 6,24 μmol L-1, the tendencies of the decrease of sugar, cholesterol and urea were noticed

    Chemical composition, antiradical and antimicrobial effect assessment of Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) herbal raw material

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    Objective: To assess chemical composition and biological effects of meadosweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) Objectives: To determine the most suitable extraction method and the optimum extraction conditions; evaluation of quantitative composition dynamics of flavonoids, tannins and ascorbic acid during the growing season; antimicrobial effects evaluation of herbal ingredients against nine microbial cultures; evaluate dependence antiradical activity on the growing stage of the plant and to determine whether there is a relationship between quantity of flavonoids, tannins and ascorbic acid in the herbal raw material and its antiradical effect. The maceration by ultrasonic bath using 70 %. V / V ethanol was selected for extraction . For total flavonoids determination the spectrophotometric method was applied for total flavonoid content. For total tannin content and content of ascorbic the pharmacopoeial titration methods were applied. The antimicrobial effects were evaluated by infusing different concentrations of extractives to agar and observing microorganisms growth. The antiradical activity determined using the ABTS radical scavaning method. The highest total flavonoid content was found in massive flowering period. In the first half of the phenological development ascorbic acid content was higher than the average of the entire period of growing (> 0.025 %.). The peak of total tannin content was reached before massive flowering stage of meadowsweet (16.80 %). The ethanol extractives of meadowsweet were characterized by a slightly higher antimicrobial activity than the aqueous extractives, especially against E. faecalis and B. subtilis. The amount of quenched free radicals from the beginning of the growing to the massive flowering stage increased steadily and reached its peak at massive flowering of meadowsweet (95.33 ± 0.16 %.). The average correlation was found between total flavonoid content and the antiradical activity
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