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    143167 research outputs found

    Review of next generation hydrogen production from offshore wind using water electrolysis

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    \ua9 2023 The Author(s)Hydrogen produced using renewable energy from offshore wind provides a versatile method of energy storage and power-to-gas concepts. However, few dedicated floating offshore electrolyser facilities currently exist and therefore conditions of the offshore environment on hydrogen production cost and efficiency remain uncertain. Therefore, this review focuses on the conversion of electrical energy to hydrogen, using water electrolysis located in offshore areas. The challenges associated with the remote locations, fluctuating power and harsh conditions are highlighted and recommendations for future electrolysis system designs are suggested. The latest research in polymer electrolyte membrane, alkaline and membraneless electrolysis are evaluated in order to understand their capital costs, efficiency and current research status for achieving scaled manufacturing to the GW scale required in the next three decades. Operating fundamentals that govern the performance of each device are investigated and future recommendations of research specifically for the integration of water electrolysers with offshore wind turbines is presented

    Living well with dementia: An exploratory matched analysis of minority ethnic and white people with dementia and carers participating in the IDEAL programme

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    \ua9 2024 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Objectives: The increasing heterogeneity of the population of older people is reflected in an increasing number of people with dementia and carers drawn from minority ethnic groups. Data from the IDEAL study are used to compare indices of ‘living well’ among people with dementia and carers from ethnic minority groups with matched white peers. Methods: We used an exploratory cross-sectional case-control design to compare ‘living well’ for people with dementia and carers from minority ethnic and white groups. Measures for both groups were quality of life, life satisfaction, wellbeing, loneliness, and social isolation and, for carers, stress, relationship quality, role captivity and caring competence. Results: The sample of people with dementia consisted of 20 minority ethnic and 60 white participants and for carers 15 and 45 respectively. People with dementia from minority ethnic groups had poorer quality of life (−4.74, 95% CI: −7.98 to −1.50) and higher loneliness (1.72, 95% CI: 0.78–2.66) whilst minority ethnic carers had higher stress (8.17, 95% CI: 1.72–14.63) and role captivity (2.00, 95% CI: 0.43–3.57) and lower relationship quality (−9.86, 95% CI: −14.24 to −5.48) than their white peers. Conclusion: Our exploratory study suggests that people with dementia from minority ethnic groups experience lower quality of life and carers experience higher stress and role captivity and lower relationship quality than their white peers. Confirmatory research with larger samples is required to facilitate analysis of the experiences of specific minority ethnic groups and examine the factors contributing to these disadvantages

    A Conserved Ribosomal Protein Has Entirely Dissimilar Structures in Different Organisms

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    \ua9 The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Ribosomes from different species can markedly differ in their composition by including dozens of ribosomal proteins that are unique to specific lineages but absent in others. However, it remains unknown how ribosomes acquire new proteins throughout evolution. Here, to help answer this question, we describe the evolution of the ribosomal protein msL1/msL2 that was recently found in ribosomes from the parasitic microorganism clade, microsporidia. We show that this protein has a conserved location in the ribosome but entirely dissimilar structures in different organisms: in each of the analyzed species, msL1/msL2 exhibits an altered secondary structure, an inverted orientation of the N-termini and C-termini on the ribosomal binding surface, and a completely transformed 3D fold. We then show that this fold switching is likely caused by changes in the ribosomal msL1/msL2-binding site, specifically, by variations in rRNA. These observations allow us to infer an evolutionary scenario in which a small, positively charged, de novo-born unfolded protein was first captured by rRNA to become part of the ribosome and subsequently underwent complete fold switching to optimize its binding to its evolving ribosomal binding site. Overall, our work provides a striking example of how a protein can switch its fold in the context of a complex biological assembly, while retaining its specificity for its molecular partner. This finding will help us better understand the origin and evolution of new protein components of complex molecular assemblies-thereby enhancing our ability to engineer biological molecules, identify protein homologs, and peer into the history of life on Earth

    Cannabinoid treatments in epilepsy and seizure disorders

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    Cannabis has been used to treat convulsions and other disorders since ancient times. In the last few decades, preclinical animal studies and clinical investigations have established the role of cannabidiol (CBD) in treating epilepsy and seizures and support potential therapeutic benefits for cannabinoids in other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we comprehensively review the role of cannabinoids in epilepsy. We briefly review the diverse physiological processes mediating the central nervous system response to cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol, and terpenes. Next, we characterize the anti- and proconvulsive effects of cannabinoids from animal studies of acute seizures and chronic epileptogenesis. We then review the clinical literature on using cannabinoids to treat epilepsy, including anecdotal evidence and case studies as well as the more recent randomized controlled clinical trials that led to US Food and Drug Administration approval of CBD for some types of epilepsy. Overall, we seek to evaluate our current understanding of cannabinoids in epilepsy and focus future research on unanswered questions

    Factors that impact on the quality of life of intestinal failure patients treated with home parenteral nutrition: protocol for a multicentre, longitudinal observational study

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    \ua9 2024 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Background: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) refers to the intravenous administration of macronutrients, micronutrients and fluid. The aims of treatment are to increase survival and improve quality of life (QoL). However, patients struggle with physiological symptoms, time-consuming invasive therapy and an increased occurrence of depression and social isolation. Our aim is to understand how HPN impacts the QoL of patients, and the contribution played by the complications of treatment, for example, liver disease. Methods and analysis: A multicentre, longitudinal, observational study will be conducted using routinely collected clinical data. Participants will also be asked to complete three QoL questionnaires (EuroQol-5 Dimensions, Short Form 36 and HPN-QoL) at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome is mean change in QoL scores over 12 months. Secondary outcomes include how factors including liver function, gut microbiota, number of infusions of PN per week, nutritional composition of PN and nutritional status impact on QoL scores. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained from HRA and Health and Care Research Wales Research Ethics Committee (21/SC/0316). The study was eligible for portfolio adoption, Central Portfolio Management System ID 50506. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at national and international meetings

    “They had clothes on their back and they had food in their stomach, but they didn\u27t have me”: The contribution of parental mental health problems, substance use, and domestic violence and abuse on young people and parents

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    \ua9 2024 The AuthorsBackground: The parental risk factors of mental health problems, substance use, and domestic violence and abuse each individually negatively impacts children\u27s health and developmental outcomes. Few studies have considered the lived experience and support needs of parents and children in the real-world situation where these common risks cluster. Objective: This study explores parents\u27 and young people\u27s lived experiences of the clustering of parental mental health problems, parental substance use, and domestic violence and abuse. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 mothers, 6 fathers, and 7 young people with experiences of these parental risk factors. Transcribed interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were developed, 1) cumulative adversity, 2) the impact of syndemic risk, 3) families navigating risk, and 4) family support. Parents and young people described family situations of stress wherein they experienced cumulative impact of multiple parental risk factors. Parents sought to navigate stressors and parent in positive ways under challenging conditions, often impeded by their own childhood trauma and diminished confidence. Parents and young people spoke of the need for, and benefits of having, support; both as a family and as individuals, to successfully address this trio of parental risks and the related impact. Conclusions: This study highlights the high level of stress families experience and the efforts they go to mitigate risk. Services and interventions need to reflect the complexity of multiple needs and consider both the whole family and individuals when providing support

    Poor reactivity of posterior electroencephalographic alpha rhythms during the eyes open condition in patients with dementia due to Parkinson\u27s disease

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    \ua9 2023 The AuthorsHere, we hypothesized that the reactivity of posterior resting-state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) alpha rhythms during the transition from eyes-closed to -open condition might be lower in patients with Parkinson\u27s disease dementia (PDD) than in patients with Alzheimer\u27s disease dementia (ADD). A Eurasian database provided clinical-demographic-rsEEG datasets in 73 PDD patients, 35 ADD patients, and 25 matched cognitively unimpaired (Healthy) persons. The eLORETA freeware was used to estimate cortical rsEEG sources. Results showed substantial (greater than −10%) reduction (reactivity) in the posterior alpha source activities from the eyes-closed to the eyes-open condition in 88% of the Healthy seniors, 57% of the ADD patients, and only 35% of the PDD patients. In these alpha-reactive participants, there was lower reactivity in the parietal alpha source activities in the PDD group than in the healthy control seniors and the ADD patients. These results suggest that PDD patients show poor reactivity of mechanisms desynchronizing posterior rsEEG alpha rhythms in response to visual inputs. That neurophysiological biomarker may provide an endpoint for (non) pharmacological interventions for improving vigilance regulation in those patients

    eNOS plays essential roles in the developing heart and aorta linked to disruption of Notch signalling

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    \ua9 2024. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. eNOS (NOS3) is the enzyme that generates nitric oxide, a signalling molecule and regulator of vascular tone. Loss of eNOS function is associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis and stroke. Aortopathy and cardiac hypertrophy have also been found in eNOS null mice, but their aetiology is unclear. We evaluated eNOS nulls before and around birth for cardiac defects, revealing severe abnormalities in the ventricular myocardium and pharyngeal arch arteries. Moreover, in the aortic arch, there were fewer baroreceptors, which sense changes in blood pressure. Adult eNOS null survivors showed evidence of cardiac hypertrophy, aortopathy and cartilaginous metaplasia in the periductal region of the aortic arch. Notch1 and neuregulin were dysregulated in the forming pharyngeal arch arteries and ventricles, suggesting that these pathways may be relevant to the defects observed. Dysregulation of eNOS leads to embryonic and perinatal death, suggesting mutations in eNOS are candidates for causing congenital heart defects in humans. Surviving eNOS mutants have a deficiency of baroreceptors that likely contributes to high blood pressure and may have relevance to human patients who suffer from hypertension associated with aortic arch abnormalities


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