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    22148 research outputs found

    Doing curriculum reform in Japan: how are new teaching practices developed and disseminated through public schools?

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    Refreshing the emergency medicine research priorities

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    open access articleThe priorities for UK emergency medicine research were defined in 2017 by a priority setting partnership coordinated by the Royal College of Emergency Medicine in collaboration with the James Lind Alliance (JLA). Much has changed in the last 5 years, not least a global infectious disease pandemic and a significant worsening of the crisis in the urgent and emergency care system. Our aim was to review and refresh the emergency medicine research priorities

    A Consideration of the Dimensions of Servant Leadership in Inter-cultural Contexts: A Focal Case Study of a UK Executive in Japan

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    A range of emergent studies have explored the idea of a renewed human-centered society, termed ‘Society 5.0’, and the role therein, of servant leadership. In this regard, in East Asian cultural contexts, existing scholarship does not yet provide sufficient theoretical and practical guidance for intercultural contexts, such as, for example, when a predominantly individualistic UK business culture interacts with generally collectivist Japanese culture. This is an important gap because if Society 5.0 is to be realized then a more in-depth intercultural contextual appreciation and understanding are required. The study examines the UK/Japan setting and adopts a social constructivist epistemology and case study approach to illustrate dimensions of servant leadership (DSLs) manifesting in the lived experience of a United Kingdom business leader in Japan. Connections to business leader training are drawn and the importance of intercultural dyad specificity is highlighted. The study is also important because recent widespread exposure of various global corporate scandals creates a view that many business leaders care only for themselves or organizational profits, especially in individualistic-orientated societies. This original case study research herein commences the process of developing detailed and focal studies on underpinning drivers and raises hope that ethical behavior, as comprised in the DSLs, can potentially manifest in an individualistic UK/collectivist Japan intercultural dyad context. Keywords: Society 5.0, Servant leadership, United Kingdom, Japan, Cross-cultural management; inter-cultural leadership; international business, case study

    Questioning the business model of sustainable wine production: The case of French “Vallée du Rhône” wine growers

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    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.ABSTRACT This study develops and examines novel insights into attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable wine production and the Business Model (BM) concepts surrounding them. It employs multi-methods – two focus groups, survey (n=350) and seven in-depth interviews. The aim is to analyse sustainable wine production and consumption in a specific context in order to better understand challenges, opportunities and expectations facing wine producers and the conditions in which they operate. Equally, the paper identifies emerging trends in the sustainable value chain. This research is highly important as the wine industry constitutes a major global industry with substantial environmental impacts. The research findings show the need for: integrated strategic vision; diversification into wine-related services; and marketing communications to inform and educate consumers, in line with BM innovation. Given the current paucity of research in this field, the present study provides novel and valuable insights and implications for business managers, policy makers and scholars. Keywords: Business Model, sustainable value chain, wine industry, barriers, benefits, Franc

    Medical occupation preference under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic: The role of risk and altruistic preferences

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    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.We examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical occupation preference, focusing on Wuhan, China. We conducted a survey of 5686 respondents in China regarding the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical occupation preference. We also conducted a complimentary survey in the UK with 1198 respondents, as well as a field experiment in Wuhan with 428 first and second-year medical students. We find a significant negative impact of the pandemic on the willingness to let a loved one choose a medical occupation. Individuals who were heavily influenced by the pandemic, that is, Wuhan residents, especially medical workers, express significantly lower medical occupation preference. Further analysis from Sobel-Goodman mediation tests reveals that around half of the total negative effect can be mediated by enhanced risk aversion and reduced altruism. The UK survey and the field experiment with medical students in Wuhan reinforce these findings. Our results suggest a shift in medical workers' risk- and altruistic-preferences has led to a reduced medical occupation preference. Non-medical workers and students who are more altruistic and risk-seeking are more likely to choose a medical occupation

    Hydroxy-xanthones as promising antiviral agents: synthesis and biological evaluation against human coronavirus OC43

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    open access articleA number of synthetic hydroxy-xanthones related to isolates from the plant genus Swertia (family Gentianaceae) were prepared and their antiviral activity assessed against human coronavirus OC43. Overall, the results of the initial screening of the test compounds in BHK-21 cell lines show promising biological activity, with a significant reduction in viral infectivity (p≤0.05). In general, the addition of functionality around the xanthone core increases the biological activity of the compounds compared to xanthone itself. More detailed studies are needed to determine mechanism of action, but favourable property predictions make them interesting lead compounds for further development as potential treatments for coronavirus infections

    Exploring ethics and human rights in artificial intelligence – A Delphi study

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    open access articleEthical and human rights issues of artificial intelligence (AI) are a prominent topic of research and innovation policy as well as societal and scientific debate. It is broadly recognised that AI-related technologies have properties that can give rise to ethical and human rights concerns, such as privacy, bias and discrimination, safety and security, economic distribution, political participation or the changing nature of warfare. Numerous ways of addressing these issues have been suggested. In light of the complexity of this discussion, we undertook a Delphi study with experts in the field to determine the most pressing issues and prioritise appropriate mitigation strategies. The results of the study demonstrate the difficulty of defining clear priorities. Our findings suggest that the debate around ethics and human rights of AI would benefit from being reframed and more strongly emphasising the systems nature of AI ecosystems

    3D-printed biomimetic bone implant polymeric composite scaffolds

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    open access articleThis research introduced a new poly-ether-ether-ketone calcium hydroxyapatite (PEEK-cHAp) composite for a convenient, fast and inexpensive femur bone-implant scaffold with different lattice structures to mimic natural bone structure. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) was used to print a hybrid PEEK-based filament-bearing bioactive material suited for developing cHAp. Using FDM, the same bone scaffold PEEK will be fabricated, depending on the shape of the bone fracture. The scaffolds were examined for in-vitro bioactivity by immersing them in a simulated bodily fluid (SBF) solution. Furthermore, in-vitro cytotoxicity tests validated the suitability of the composite materials employed to create minimal toxicity of the scaffolds. After spreading PEEK nanoparticles in the grains, the suggested spherical nanoparticles cell expanded over time. The motif affected the microstructure of PEEK-cHAp in terms of grain size and 3D shape. The results established the proposed optimum design and suitable material for prospective bone implants, as required for biomimetic artificial bone regeneration and healing

    Elderberry extract improves molecular markers of endothelial dysfunction linked to atherosclerosis

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    open access articleEndothelial dysfunction (ED), secondary to diminished nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress, is an early subclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Reduced NO bioavailability enhances the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and promotes atherosclerosis. Elderberry extract (EB) is known to contain high levels of anthocyanins which could exert vascular protective effects. Specifically, we investigated the functional capacity of EB on various markers of ED. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were pretreated with EB 50 μg/mL and stimulated with TNF-α 10 ng/mL. Cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress; eNOS, Akt, Nrf2, NOX-4, and NF-κB at the protein level were measured. A co-culture model was used to determine whether EB could prevent the adhesion of monocytes (THP-1) to HUVECs. Moreover, the expression of adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured. It was demonstrated that EB prevented TNF-α induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in HUVECs. Additionally, EB upregulated Akt and eNOS activity, and Nrf2 expression in response to TNF-α, whereas it decreased NOX-4 expression and NF-κB activity. EB prevented the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs, as well as reduced IL-6 and MCP-1 levels, which was associated with inhibition of VCAM-1 expression. Our results demonstrate that EB upregulates key cellular markers of endothelial function and ameliorates markers of ED. EB could be used as a potential nutritional aid for preventing atherosclerosis progression

    How do community organizations develop successful strategies of resistance? Revisiting institutional embeddedness and agency

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    open access article This study is a spin-off from a two year evaluation funded by the AHRC and its partners of citizen participation in the city of Peterborough, as a part of the Research Councils’ Connected Communities Research Programme in partnership with the RSA. The research for this paper itself was funded by De Montfort University through an internal Research Investment Fund award. The author gratefully acknowledges the support of both parties and of all the partners in the Citizen Power in Peterborough projectThe capacity for resistance is an essential component of the principles and practice of liberal democracy. Critical policy scholars agree that unwelcome interventions in local communities by the state meet resistance, but disagree on whether such efforts can be successful in any meaningful sense. This paper identifies an optimistic turn in the literature, and derives from this a workable definition of successful resistance, which it then applies to an original piece of research into the ‘Save The Green Backyard’ campaign in Peterborough in the UK. Theory driven, it takes two basic concepts from the new institutionalism, embeddedness and agency, and demonstrates how a conceptual framework developed from these can expose the underlying mechanisms driving the successful resistance observed in the case study. The final section of the paper considers how forms of embeddedness worked together to provide a context for successful resistance; the nature of the agency in the case study; and how popular and invited spaces impacted differentially on the community organization in terms of embeddedness and agency. It also draws out some implications for institutionalist theory and methodologies, and for community organizations seeking to protect themselves against unwelcome state interference


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