Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne. Seria Literacka

    Zofia Wojnarowska. Poetka dla dzieci – poetka miłości – poetka rewolucji

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    The article discusses Zofia Wojnarowska’s (1881-1967) biography and poetry which were representative of the life path and artistic career of many other active Polish poetesses at the turn of the 19th  century. The output of Wojnarowska, who made her debut in the period of Young Poland and reached her artistic maturity in the interwar period, expresses a typical situation of an artist–epigone whose mediocre talent looks for its own expression and place in the literary Parnassus in the time of, important for the national community, political, economic and cultural changes. Political facts like the country’s occupation, World War I and a difficult process of the restoration of an independent country influenced the judgments of Polish critics who rarely applied esthetic criteria to the evaluation of poetesses’, including Wojnarowska’s, output and instead appreciated their subordination to the following functions: didactic (in children’s poetry), expressive (in love poetry) and ideological (in the poetry of proletarian revolution). The situation in which systemic and individual factors like the emancipation of women, the crystallization of literary professions literary critics’ lenient approach to the artistic output of women and the ease of writing overlapped, the need of success and ideological engagement, on the one hand, made it difficult for women writers to improve their own work, to function in higher mainstream and to play the roles of culture creators and, on the other hand, made it easier for them to function in the popular mainstream and play a role of literary craftsmen.The article discusses Zofia Wojnarowska’s (1881-1967) biography and poetry which were representative of the life path and artistic career of many other active Polish poetesses at the turn of the 19th  century. The output of Wojnarowska, who made her debut in the period of Young Poland and reached her artistic maturity in the interwar period, expresses a typical situation of an artist–epigone whose mediocre talent looks for its own expression and place in the literary Parnassus in the time of, important for the national community, political, economic and cultural changes. Political facts like the country’s occupation, World War I and a difficult process of the restoration of an independent country influenced the judgments of Polish critics who rarely applied esthetic criteria to the evaluation of poetesses’, including Wojnarowska’s, output and instead appreciated their subordination to the following functions: didactic (in children’s poetry), expressive (in love poetry) and ideological (in the poetry of proletarian revolution). The situation in which systemic and individual factors like the emancipation of women, the crystallization of literary professions literary critics’ lenient approach to the artistic output of women and the ease of writing overlapped, the need of success and ideological engagement, on the one hand, made it difficult for women writers to improve their own work, to function in higher mainstream and to play the roles of culture creators and, on the other hand, made it easier for them to function in the popular mainstream and play a role of literary craftsmen

    Pisarz w archiwum. Prace nad poznańskim Archiwum Włodzimierza Odojewskiego

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    The article is a collection of thoughts that transpired during the work at the Archive of Włodzimierz Odojewski. The aim of the authors was to identify and indicate the potential ways to study the life and works of the writer, and the expected result of the research is a biography of Odojewski. The research was based on the exploration of the writer’s private collection: unpublished documents, manuscripts, typescripts, personal papers, correspondence, family and estate papers and photographs. The authors focused on a number of issues. One, the biographical facts that influenced Odojewski’s output – World War II, frequent relocations, censorship and a ban on publishing in Poland, emigration, the relation with the Polish Institute in Maisons-Laffitte and working at Radio Free Europe’s editorial office. Two, the analysis of literary works including hundreds of typescripts in many variants (related to the phases of the genetic history of a literary work through the stages of Odojewski’s life) which allowed for describing Odojewski’s writing techniques. Three, ‘The writer’s map’ which points out places important for the author – Poznań, Gniezno, Kłecko, Podole,Szczecin, Warsaw, Paris, Berlin, Munich. Four, the correspondence (personal and cultural) which can be used as an important source of knowledge of the history of Polish post-war emigration. One of the most interesting parts of the collection is a collection of letters from Jerzy Giedroyć that show Polish culture outside the Iron Curtain.The article is a collection of thoughts that transpired during the work at the Archive of Włodzimierz Odojewski. The aim of the authors was to identify and indicate the potential ways to study the life and works of the writer, and the expected result of the research is a biography of Odojewski. The research was based on the exploration of the writer’s private collection: unpublished documents, manuscripts, typescripts, personal papers, correspondence, family and estate papers and photographs. The authors focused on a number of issues. One, the biographical facts that influenced Odojewski’s output – World War II, frequent relocations, censorship and a ban on publishing in Poland, emigration, the relation with the Polish Institute in Maisons-Laffitte and working at Radio Free Europe’s editorial office. Two, the analysis of literary works including hundreds of typescripts in many variants (related to the phases of the genetic history of a literary work through the stages of Odojewski’s life) which allowed for describing Odojewski’s writing techniques. Three, ‘The writer’s map’ which points out places important for the author – Poznań, Gniezno, Kłecko, Podole,Szczecin, Warsaw, Paris, Berlin, Munich. Four, the correspondence (personal and cultural) which can be used as an important source of knowledge of the history of Polish post-war emigration. One of the most interesting parts of the collection is a collection of letters from Jerzy Giedroyć that show Polish culture outside the Iron Curtain

    Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna mniej więcej znana

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    The article is the analysis of the place of Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna in contemporary literary discourse. The author of the article claims – using Pierre Bayard’s theory – that the poetess is known “more or less”: she is remembered as someone who got prizes and recognition but at the same time she is impossible to read nowadays. There is political ambiguity and antiquity in her texts that keep her in the past. Marzec points at four areas of literary studies, where Iłłakowiczówna is still present: 1. Poetics: Iłłakowiczówna uses an original and unusual type of the Polish tonic verse. The author of this article analyses it using tools of psychoanalysis. 2. Religious discourse: Iłłakowicz.wna is interpreted as the author of religious poetry but Marzec argues with such interpretations. 3. Post-dependence studies: Iłłakowiczówna has not been analysed in terms of post-dependence studies yet but she is mentioned in the Polish borderlines discourse. 4. Feminist literary criticism: Iłłakowiczówna used to be studied as the author of androgynous poetry, but Marzec points out other motifs such as miscarriage, infanticide or problems of the new woman, like work at government institution, contestation of vitalism and bureaucracy. The aimof this article is to show that writing of Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna needs to be read in terms of the history of literature which is devoid of evaluation and judging. Such analysis means going back in terms of modern literary studies which have undergone multiple turns that changed the tools accessible to contemporary critics.The article is the analysis of the place of Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna in contemporary literary discourse. The author of the article claims – using Pierre Bayard’s theory – that the poetess is known “more or less”: she is remembered as someone who got prizes and recognition but at the same time she is impossible to read nowadays. There is political ambiguity and antiquity in her texts that keep her in the past. Marzec points at four areas of literary studies, where Iłłakowiczówna is still present: 1. Poetics: Iłłakowiczówna uses an original and unusual type of the Polish tonic verse. The author of this article analyses it using tools of psychoanalysis. 2. Religious discourse: Iłłakowicz.wna is interpreted as the author of religious poetry but Marzec argues with such interpretations. 3. Post-dependence studies: Iłłakowiczówna has not been analysed in terms of post-dependence studies yet but she is mentioned in the Polish borderlines discourse. 4. Feminist literary criticism: Iłłakowiczówna used to be studied as the author of androgynous poetry, but Marzec points out other motifs such as miscarriage, infanticide or problems of the new woman, like work at government institution, contestation of vitalism and bureaucracy. The aimof this article is to show that writing of Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna needs to be read in terms of the history of literature which is devoid of evaluation and judging. Such analysis means going back in terms of modern literary studies which have undergone multiple turns that changed the tools accessible to contemporary critics

    Tekstowy wszechświat Leśmiana

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    The article discusses Żaneta Nalewajk’s book Leśmian międzynarodowy. It presents the Leśmian’s work read in the context of the work of Poe, Ukrainian folklore, Ruthenian perennials as well as French and Russian symbolism. The author takes note of the numerous qualities of the dissertation. She is pointing at several advantages of this work; its analytical reliability and the methodological consequence. The author shows also on the important position of the publication in the research on the poetry of Bolesław Leśmian. She notices one essential lack which is an omission of important continuations of Leśmian’s poetics in Polish modern poetry.The article discusses Żaneta Nalewajk’s book Leśmian międzynarodowy. It presents the Leśmian’s work read in the context of the work of Poe, Ukrainian folklore, Ruthenian perennials as well as French and Russian symbolism. The author takes note of the numerous qualities of the dissertation. She is pointing at several advantages of this work; its analytical reliability and the methodological consequence. The author shows also on the important position of the publication in the research on the poetry of Bolesław Leśmian. She notices one essential lack which is an omission of important continuations of Leśmian’s poetics in Polish modern poetry

    Historie alternatywne − pomiędzy pisarstwem historycznym a fantastycznym, czyli czasem tertium est datur…

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    The aim of this article is to define alternative history genre (branch of fantastic literature) as a participating in the historical writing formula (H. White). The author juxtaposes literary studies, literature and history as neighboring branches of humanistic knowledge. Alternate history genre could be displaced as displaced by both, the history and literary studies. This genre, as a type of fantastic literature, is understood as dangerous phantasm, because of fictional abilities. In this article historiography and literary studies are diagnosed as forming a sisterhood relationship. When the opportunity arises, it is shown that the idea of postmodern history is no novelty, since until the decline of the 18th century history did not stand in oppossition to literature. Actually, the way of thinking about history as an (literary) art has a splendid tradition rooted in antiquity. It is shown that, in fact, there is no essential difference between alternate history (as a branch of fantastic literature) and counterfactualism as a methodology of history. It drives the author to a conclusion − by comparison of the methodologies of history and literary studies in the field of narrativity, and, according to Hayden White, comprehends history as a type of fiction, historio-graphia, literary artifact, or historical writing – that the alternative history novel could be understood as a third path to reconcile literary studies and historical studies. The participation of popular culture, where the alternate history genre and fantastic literature traditionally belongs, makes the history and literary studies more transgressive, widely open for the contemporary forms of communication and more hearable.The aim of this article is to define alternative history genre (branch of fantastic literature) as a participating in the historical writing formula (H. White). The author juxtaposes literary studies, literature and history as neighboring branches of humanistic knowledge. Alternate history genre could be displaced as displaced by both, the history and literary studies. This genre, as a type of fantastic literature, is understood as dangerous phantasm, because of fictional abilities. In this article historiography and literary studies are diagnosed as forming a sisterhood relationship. When the opportunity arises, it is shown that the idea of postmodern history is no novelty, since until the decline of the 18th century history did not stand in oppossition to literature. Actually, the way of thinking about history as an (literary) art has a splendid tradition rooted in antiquity. It is shown that, in fact, there is no essential difference between alternate history (as a branch of fantastic literature) and counterfactualism as a methodology of history. It drives the author to a conclusion − by comparison of the methodologies of history and literary studies in the field of narrativity, and, according to Hayden White, comprehends history as a type of fiction, historio-graphia, literary artifact, or historical writing – that the alternative history novel could be understood as a third path to reconcile literary studies and historical studies. The participation of popular culture, where the alternate history genre and fantastic literature traditionally belongs, makes the history and literary studies more transgressive, widely open for the contemporary forms of communication and more hearable

    Eseiści kondycji żydowskiej – po Zagładzie: Maurice Blanchot i Bogdan Dawid Wojdowski

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    The main object of the author’s reflection is the Jewish situation after the Holocaust expressed in the genre of literary essay. The thoughts of Maurice Blanchot and Bogdan Dawid Wojdowski – both prominent essayists – are taken into consideration as an example. Whereas the French writer’s reflections on the Jewish situation are part of his observations about the category of infinity, the Polish essayist’s realizations are intermingled with his own tragic fate as a Jew. Blanchot and Wojdowski wrote after the Holocaust, which is an unique turning point in history for the Jews and their diaspora as well as for the Mediterranean culture.The main object of the author’s reflection is the Jewish situation after the Holocaust expressed in the genre of literary essay. The thoughts of Maurice Blanchot and Bogdan Dawid Wojdowski – both prominent essayists – are taken into consideration as an example. Whereas the French writer’s reflections on the Jewish situation are part of his observations about the category of infinity, the Polish essayist’s realizations are intermingled with his own tragic fate as a Jew. Blanchot and Wojdowski wrote after the Holocaust, which is an unique turning point in history for the Jews and their diaspora as well as for the Mediterranean culture

    Wstęp

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    Wstę

    „Śmierć Romka” (poznański Czerwiec w prozie Janusza Krasińskiego)

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    The article reconstructs and analyses the image of Poznań 1956 protests in the well known novel cycle by Janusz Krasiński. For the protagonist, Szymon Bolesta, the death of Romek Strzałkowski is particularly painful, an event extensively reconstructed in the conclusion of Niemoc , one of the novels. The execution of Romek and the propaganda lies about it, are for Bolesta the key examples of the criminal nature of the communist regime, and the Black Thursday he interprets as an unsuccessful national uprising.The article reconstructs and analyses the image of Poznań 1956 protests in the well known novel cycle by Janusz Krasiński. For the protagonist, Szymon Bolesta, the death of Romek Strzałkowski is particularly painful, an event extensively reconstructed in the conclusion of Niemoc , one of the novels. The execution of Romek and the propaganda lies about it, are for Bolesta the key examples of the criminal nature of the communist regime, and the Black Thursday he interprets as an unsuccessful national uprising

    Piotra Chmielowskiego argumenty przeciw poetom i poezji (w Zarysie literatury z ostatnich lat szesnastu)

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    The article discusses the arguments against poetry that were used in Piotr Chmielowski’s Zarys literatury polskiej z ostatnich lat szesnastu [An outline of the literature of the last sixteen years] by its author. The critic’s intention was to diminish the significance of poetry and, in effect, to push poetry to the margin of literary life. To achieve that, Chmielowski presented a number of examples where modern poetry was not capable of grappling with the problems and challenges of the modern world. Chmielowski also instilled a vision in which writing poems itself appeared to be atavistic and as a relic of an earlier stage of evolution. Since lyric poetry made a particular core of literature, to challenge its position in literature in the name of progress made it possible to question all traditional “authorities”. The author of Zarys indicated examples testifying to the vitality of the novel and future possibilities in the development of this particular genre, whereas his formulated accusations against poetry and poets included their general bad condition (physical, mental and psychical). In addition, Chmielowski accused poetry of insincerity and untruthfulness. With regard to the poetics of the discussed poems, Chmielowski just limited himself to briefly formulated allegations and objections of their rhetoricality and epigonic character

    Gotycyzm/gotycyzmy – rekwizyty i metamorfozy

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    The article deals with phenomena of the Gothic the most often described as a set of often-linked elements rather than a fixed genre. The text presents a variety of cultural incarnations of the convention: from the eighteenth century novel by horror movies to subcultural style of Goths. This essay also examines the basic Gothic concepts, like the uncanny and the abject, which determine the worlds depicted in Gothic narratives, especially characters who remain in close connection with the space formed as a labyrinth. Finally, the article is an attempt to answer the question about the source of the expansion of the aesthetics of the Gothic in the contemporary culture.The article deals with phenomena of the Gothic the most often described as a set of often-linked elements rather than a fixed genre. The text presents a variety of cultural incarnations of the convention: from the eighteenth century novel by horror movies to subcultural style of Goths. This essay also examines the basic Gothic concepts, like the uncanny and the abject, which determine the worlds depicted in Gothic narratives, especially characters who remain in close connection with the space formed as a labyrinth. Finally, the article is an attempt to answer the question about the source of the expansion of the aesthetics of the Gothic in the contemporary culture
    Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne. Seria Literacka
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