USC Research Bank - University of the Sunshine Coast

    Back to the future: What do accident causation models tell us about accident prediction?

    No full text
    The prediction of accidents, or systems failure, should be driven by an appropriate accident causation model. Whilst various models exist, none is yet universally accepted, but elements of different models are. The paper presents the findings from a review of the most frequently cited systems based accident causation models to extract a common set of systems thinking tenets that could support the prediction of accidents. The review uses the term “systems thinking tenet” to describe a set of principle beliefs about accidents causation found in models proposed by Jens Rasmussen, Erik Hollnagel, Charles Perrow, Nancy Leveson and Sidney Dekker. Twenty-seven common systems thinking tenets were identified. To evaluate and synthesise the tenets, a workshop was conducted with subject matter experts in accident analysis, accident causation, and systems thinking. The evaluation revealed that, to support accident prediction, the tenets required both safe and unsafe properties to capture the influences underpinning systematic weaknesses. The review also shows that, despite the diversity in the models there is considerable agreement regarding the core tenets of system safety and accident causation. It is recommended that future research involves applying and testing the tenets for the extent to which they can predict accidents in complex systems

    The effect of pre-entry information on relational outcomes in franchising: Model conceptualisation and gender comparison

    No full text
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how pre-entry franchising information (i.e. franchisor-provided) influences the confirmation (or not) of franchisees' pre-entry expectations and their subsequent assessment of trust in their franchisor. Relationships with outcome variables, such as perceived conflict and relational satisfaction, are also examined. Finally, the authors compare their hypothesised model across male and female franchisees and different patterns of relationships result. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via a mail survey administered to a sample of 3,000 franchisees in Australia, which resulted in the collection of 339 useable responses (11 per cent response rate). The conceptual model was tested via structural equation modelling using AMOS 17.0 and all paths were significant, as hypothesised. However, when the sample was split across gender, some clear differences emerged. Findings: The findings reveal that male and female franchisees use pre-entry informational sources in different ways in formulating their expectations and trust in their franchisors. Furthermore, in terms of relational outcomes, perceived conflict plays a very different role in regard to overall relational satisfaction when examined across gender. Originality/value: This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by examining the dynamics of information dissemination in influencing franchisees' pre-entry expectations of, and trust in, their franchisors. In addition, gender differences in pre-entry information dissemination, expectations (dis)confirmation and relational outcomes, not yet explored, are also reported. The results prompt significant implications and suggestions for future research in this under-researched area of franchising inquiry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited

    Effects of Biochar on Nitrogen Cycling and Plant Ecophysiology in Cropping Systems

    No full text
    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients regulating plant growth. However, soil degradation due to agricultural intensification has resulted in poor soil fertility including loss of N. Biochar is a promising soil additive to reduce N loss and improve soil fertility. The interaction between biochar and soil changes N dynamics in different ecosystems. Many studies have investigated dynamics of soil inorganic N (SIN), the available N forms for plant uptake, following biochar application but their results are contradictory. To date, there has not been a synthesised study (meta-analysis) to assess the overall effects of biochar on SIN. There is also a paucity of information on how biochar affects soil microbial community structure, especially the taxonomic groups involved in N in long term, because important N processes in soil are mediated by microbes. Few studies to date have explored long-term field effects of biochar or how repeated applications of biochar affect soil microbial diversity. Also, since plants take up N from soil and N is an essential element of plant tissue as well as photosynthesis machinery, biochar is expected to influence plant ecophysiology and photosynthesis. Yet, the mechanisms of those influences are poorly studied. Biochar has been reported to benefit both soil and plants; however, applying biochar at high rates is not economically viable. Thus, options such as nutrient-intense and slow N release biochar fertilisers need to be explored.Submitted in the fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of the Sunshine Coast, 2017

    Community resilience to long-term tourism decline and rejuvenation: a literature review and conceptual model

    No full text
    Studied for decades in disciplines such as ecology, psychology, engineering and sociology ‘resilience’ can be defined as a system's ability to withstand and respond to change. The tourism literature has embraced the concept of community resilience by harnessing concepts of adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Many of these studies have focused on the tourism system's ability to respond to short-term disasters and hazards. With the growth of resilience studies in tourism, it is timely to take stock of the core premise of resilience as it is applied to tourism and to identify key gaps in current research. Consequently, this research aims to identify the core concepts of community resilience, with a focus on its application within tourism. The findings reveal that many studies have been conceptual, although there are an increasing number of empirical studies underpinned by resilience theory. Therefore, a conceptual model is presented to broaden existing resilience research and to guide future research into community resilience to tourism decline and rejuvenation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

    Trends and patterns in sustainable tourism research: a 25-year bibliometric analysis

    No full text
    In the quarter of a century since the release of the 1987 Brundtland Report, sustainable tourism has emerged as the dominant paradigm in tourism development. However, the debate, discourse, and criticism of this subfield of tourism research continues. To address such concerns the purpose of this paper is to explore trends and patterns in sustainable tourism research over the past 25 years. A 25-year bibliometric analysis was conducted for the four highest ranked journals in the tourism field. Results indicate that the growth in sustainable tourism research has been remarkable, with 492 papers published in these four journals and almost half of these in the last two years of the analysis. The largest proportion of papers published on sustainable tourism was case studies, empirical studies, and critical reviews. This study found that while the theoretical and methodological approaches appear to have matured over time, the subjects and themes in sustainable tourism research, with some exceptions, have remained constant. However, the field is clearly maturing with a move away from definitional and conceptual papers to papers focused on testing and applying theory through empirical research. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis

    Chemical investigation of drug-like compounds from the Australian tree, Neolitsea dealbata

    No full text
    Two of the four parameters in the 'rule of five', molecular weight and log P, which can be detected and predicted by mass spectrometry and compound retention on reversed-phase HPLC, were used as guidelines in natural product isolation. A new aporphine alkaloid, (6aR)-normecambroline (1), was isolated from the bark of Neolitsea dealbata (R. Br.) Merr. Its structure was determined on the basis of NMR, MS and CD analysis. It is the first time the absolute configuration of the roemerine-N-oxide was assigned for both roemerine-N α-oxide (3) and roemerine-Nβ-oxide (4). Physico-chemical property evaluation demonstrated all alkaloids had no Lipinski violation. Compound 1 inhibited selectively against cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with an IC50 of 4.0 μM. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    The Intergenerational Transference of Addiction

    No full text
    In addiction literature, various genetic and environmental theories have been proposed for the transfer of problems such as alcoholism, substance use, and gambling. However, these theories have resulted in a number of unanswered questions regarding the extent that such factors influence the transmission of addictive behavior. It is therefore suggested that specific cognitions related to addictions are fundamental in determining future problematic behavior. Expectancy theory is one cognitive construct that has shown to be predictive of the quantity and frequency of addiction whereby positive expectations of the ensuing effects initiate the behavior, and successive confirmation of these expectancies maintain the behavior. However, an individual's self-efficacy, or the perceived ability to refuse a substance or participate in behavior in a specific situation, has also been shown to greatly contribute to the individual's risk of persistent problem behavior. Acting together, these two constructs form the foundations of the transfer of addictive behavior between generations, and has repeatedly been demonstrated in alcohol, smoking, and gambling research. The independent roles of expectancies and refusal self-efficacy have great implications for the prevention and treatment of problematic and addictive behaviors rather than current overarching remedies

    A cognitive model for the intergenerational transference of alcohol use behavior

    No full text
    A family history of alcoholism has shown to be one of the greatest consistent risk factors in the intergenerational transference of alcohol problems. Whereas a large number of studies have attempted to identify the processes responsible for this interfamilial transfer, the mechanisms remain unclear. Family, twin and adoption studies, and environmental theories have resulted in a number of unanswered questions regarding the extent that these factors influence the transmission of alcohol behavior. Recently, cognitive theories have suggested that the observation of parental drinking habits contributes to the child's beliefs and expectations of alcohol's effects. A hypothesised cognitive model will be proposed suggesting that the mechanism for the transference of particular drinking styles from parent to offspring may be further explained by the transference of alcohol cognitions, in particular, alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. This review focuses on research of bio/psycho/social factors that perpetuate alcohol misuse across generations, and will delineate the proposed cognitive mechanisms for the interfamilial transference of alcohol problems and discuss the implications of the proposed model

    Mature franchise systems use multiple unit franchising to leverage learning economies and sustain systemwide growth

    No full text
    Purpose – This paper aims to extend current understanding of organisational choice theory through examining to what extent firm-level factors influence the growth of franchisee-owned mini-chains within Australian franchise systems. In particular, this study examines how the age of the system, corporatisation of management processes, plurality of distribution, levels of intra-firm conflict and franchise system complexity influence multiple unit franchising adoption. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative methodology was adopted to gain a clearer picture of the salient issues influencing multiple unit franchising adoption from the franchisor's perspective. Findings – The research reveals that mature franchise systems in Australia use sequential methods of multiple unit franchising expansion in order to minimise adverse selection costs and leverage learning economies derived from previous experiences in managing intra-firm channel relationships. Research limitations/implications – Industry-specific influences and differences in managerial orientations may limit the predictive application of this study to all franchise systems. However, on balance the reflections offered by the participants provide a rich and valuable source of information about the factors influencing their willingness to encourage this growth strategy. Practical implications – Franchisors need to consider upfront whether they are ready and able to encourage multiple unit ownership within their systems. Less experienced franchisors may need to corporatise operations, minimise channel conflict and introduce administrative support procedures to ensure the recruitment of suitable franchisee candidates who will assist in realising the franchisor's goals, thus promoting a harmonious franchising relationship. Originality/value – Whereas, previous research has investigated motivations for encouraging multiple unit franchising, this paper supplements that literature by examining multiple unit franchising within Australia. © 2007, Emerald Group Publishing Limite
    USC Research Bank - University of the Sunshine Coastis based in AU
    Do you manage USC Research Bank - University of the Sunshine Coast? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Dashboard!