University of Delaware

University of Delaware Library Institutional Repository
Not a member yet
    20130 research outputs found

    Lord Byron and the cosmopolitan imagination, 1795-1824

    No full text
    Robinson, Charles E.Following George Gordon, Lord Byron across Britain, Europe, and the Eastern Mediterranean, "Lord Byron and the Cosmopolitan Imagination, 1795-1824" traces Byron's cosmopolitanism to its foundations in Greek Cynical philosophy and to its founder, Diogenes, Byron's self-confessed mentor. The Cynics are commonly regarded as the first cosmopolitans; yet the cosmopolitanism they practiced is quite different from the cosmopolitanism we value today. Instead of stressing a need for social progress and global interconnectedness, the Cynics chose to live outside of society, challenging its conventions and declaring themselves to be citizens of the cosmos. I argue that Byron followed Cynical ideas closely and, as a Cynical cosmopolitan, rejected the theories of cultural unity and social progress that had become popular during the Enlightenment. My first two chapters, which focus on Byron and Anglo-Scottish relations, chart the development of Byron's internationalism in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers and Hints from Horace, two early neoclassical satires rarely studied as cosmopolitan texts. The next two chapters, which focus on Byron's travels in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, explore the limits of universal cosmopolitanism in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Byron's first poem explicitly to adopt a Cynical philosophy. My last chapter focuses on Byron's later years when he internalized the principles of Cynical philosophy in Don Juan and The Age of Bronze. The conclusion brings the full scope of Byron's cosmopolitan into focus by examining the urbane rhetoric of the prose writings he prepared in defense of Alexander Pope in 1820 and 1821.University of Delaware, Department of EnglishPh.D

    The contribution of arm motion during the feet-in-place fall-recovery response

    No full text
    Crenshaw, Jeremy R.Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal, unintentional injury in the U.S. In at-risk groups, such as those with chronic stroke, more than a third of falls are due to externally applied perturbations. In order to maintain stability after such a perturbation, an individual can use different biomechanical mechanisms to regain stability. In this series of studies, we are interested in the mechanism of rotating segments about the center of mass, as commonly done by rapidly moving the arms. We are specifically interested in the ability to recover from a posterior disturbance without taking a step, as this ability has been prospectively related to falls in older adults and can be quantified reliably using single-stepping thresholds. When responding to a posterior disturbance, elevating the arms through shoulder flexion shifts the center of mass anteriorly and applies a reactive moment to the rest of the body that resists rotation of the fall. We do not know, however, if arm motion meaningfully influences the posterior single-stepping threshold measure. For those with chronic stroke, impaired arm function is associated with a greater risk of falls. It is unknown, however, if chronic stroke alters arm rotation during posterior fall recovery. The aims of this project are to specifically 1) quantify how constraints in arm motion alter the response to a posterior postural disturbance, and then 2) determine if individuals with chronic stroke have a diminished, asymmetrical arm response. ☐ To address the Aim 1 hypothesis, ten young, adults with no impairment were recruited for this study. Participants attempted to prevent steps in response to a progressive series of rapid, precise treadmill belt accelerations delivered by a computer-controlled treadmill. The posterior single-stepping thresholds, as represented by the disturbance magnitudes that consistently elicited a step in each direction, were determined for each participant. Kinematics were recorded to quantify the resulting dynamic stability as a means to explain a potential underlying mechanism of hypothesized group differences. When the arms were constrained, lower posterior single-stepping thresholds were observed (p=0.03 Cohen’s d=0.86). When evaluating dynamic stability at the highest disturbance levels, the MoSmin was not different between unconstrained conditions arms–constrained conditions (p = 0.55, Cohen’s d = 0.20). Considering that the unconstrained responses involved larger disturbances, this lack of differences in the minimum margin of stability suggests that the active response to the perturbation were impaired in the arms constrained condition. ☐ To address the Aim 2 hypothesis, ten individuals with chronic completed the same single-stepping threshold assessment, and we compared results to the unconstrained condition of Aim 1. Peak shoulder flexion velocities as well as a symmetry index were compared between groups. Those with chronic stroke displayed more asymmetry than the unimpaired participants (p = 0.005, Cohen’s d=1.34). We did not, however, detect meaningful between-group differences in shoulder motion between unimpaired and impaired individuals (p > 0.20, Glass's Δ < 0.49). ☐ In conclusion, these results demonstrate that arm motion does play a role in posterior fall performance, as characterized by single-stepping thresholds. When applying this concept to those with chronic stroke, a population that has a high fall risk, it was apparent that the arm response was asymmetrical, perhaps altering its contribution to fall recovery. Moving forward, this information justifies consideration of the arm response as a potentially modifiable aspect of the fall recovery response.University of Delaware, Department of Kinesiology and Applied PhysiologyM.S.University of Delaware, Biomechanics and Movement Science Progra

    A random utility model of beach use on the East Coastof the United States: per-trip values and hypothetical beach closures

    No full text
    Parsons, George R.Beach recreation is a popular activity on the East Cost of the United States. Individuals travel to the shore to enjoy ocean views, participate in various activities in the water and sand, have a good time on the boardwalk, engage in four-wheel driving on the beach, go fishing, and so on. Given the high volume of beach visitations and their use for recreational purposes, many policy concerns arise when it relates to managing these beaches. Specifically, the issues of compensatory valuation in the event of beach closures due to an oil spill, water contamination or other damage to the site, becomes prominent. In order to address these issues, one needs to asses economic value of beaches. Using the 2015 beach visitation data from the Offshore Windfarm survey, I estimate random utility maximization models of beach recreation. The survey area includes 275 ocean beaches stretching along the shoreline from Massachusetts down to South Carolina. This data set is the largest beach visitation data set for the east coast beaches thus far. The four empirical models of site choice are considered in my dissertation such as standard multinomial logit, multinomial logit with interactive terms, mixed logit and alternative-specific constants logit. All of these models are estimated for the three different trip types: day trips (30 minutes to several hours long) short overnight trips (2 to 4 nights long) and long overnight trips (4 to 30 nights long). The results highlight the importance of considering longer trip types in beach valuation which has not been given enough attention based on the existing literature of beach recreation. The main difference in modelling longer trips lies in the calculation of travel cost which includes lodging and meals and incidental expenses for the short and long overnight models. I pay special attention to the calculation of travel cost as the most important component of the models. I find that short and long overnight trip models produce significantly lower travel cost coefficients which indicates the higher marginal utility of longer trips. Finally, I provide welfare estimates for beach closures based on the results of the econometric RUM modelling. The loss-to-trip ratios for individual beach closures range from 17.7to17.7 to 32.5, 88.8to88.8 to 149.1 and 324to324 to 1865.9 for day, short and long overnight trips, respectively. The aggregate welfare losses for beach closures range from 4.9millionto4.9 million to 70.5 million, 9.8millionto9.8 million to 159.7 million and 11millionto11 million to 2.3 billion for day, short and long overnight trips, respectively.University of Delaware, Department of EconomicsPh.D

    Improving student retention and success of English as second language students at Delaware Technical Community College, Wilmington campus

    No full text
    Archbald, Douglas A.The English as Second Language (ESL) program at Delaware Technical Community College (DTCC) began in 1984. The program offers students, whose first language is something other than English, the chance to improve their proficiency in English. By doing so, they are awarded the English as a Second Language certificate. Incoming ESL students are given individual attention as they go through the admission and application process. ☐ This Executive Position Paper (EPP) focuses on problems with persistence and academic success of the ESL student population at the Wilmington campus of DTCC. Persistence refers to remaining in school each semester with passing grades in courses. Academic success is about achievement and proficiency. Academic success refers to the goal of mastering course content, developing college level language and mathematical skills, and attaining the level of knowledge and skills to qualify for skilled trades and professional jobs. ☐ The goal of this investigation was to improve student persistence and academic success in the ESL program’s courses. A number of questions were explored to help develop recommendations to improve persistence and academic success in the ESL program: 1. What factors predict students’ persistence in the program? 2. What factors affect students’ persistence in the program? 3. What were the course outcomes and completion rates? The data enabled analyses of factors associated with student success measured as follows: • Percentage of students completing the ESL program over the last five years • Time of degree completion ☐ Factors affecting student success are measured by: • Gender, Age, Educational Background and Ethnicity data • Full-time, Part time, and Employment status ☐ I also utilized data from a departmental survey and in addition I met with students in small groups to get feedback on their perceptions of the program – to learn about qualities they perceived as helping their success and enhancing their educational experience as well as, on the other hand, features that were difficult or posed obstacles to success. ☐ Lastly, I reviewed other model ESL programs for insights into how I might improve our program. These programs are nationally recognized for their success in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESOL). • Context-Based Learning Approach at Kingsborough Community College • Theme-Based Approach at Bunker Hill Community College • Accelerated Programs for Academic Purposes at Miami Dade College • PUENTES Mentoring Approach At California Community Colleges • Generation 1.5 Student Assistance ☐ Findings from the analyses in Chapter 2 and 3, along with the models presented in Chapter 4, indicate that student success along with retention may increase if we do five things: (a) improve course level placement, (b) separate the program into two pathways, (c) review curriculum and reduce segmentation, (d) develop more consistency in standards and assessments across courses and sections, and (e) provide more mentor and career counseling. These recommendations are presented in Chapter 5 along with guidance on implementation strategies.University of Delaware, School of EducationD.Ed

    Effects of a text structure intervention for reading and writing in grades 4-5: a mixed methods experiment

    No full text
    Walpole, SharonThis mixed methods experimental study investigated the effects and social validity of a text structure intervention in grades four and five. Eleven teachers in three elementary schools were randomly assigned to deliver a text structure intervention or a comprehension intervention. Quantitative data sources included pretest and posttest measures of students’ text structure awareness, reading comprehension, and writing quality. Qualitative interviews were conducted after the intervention period to understand teachers’ perceptions of the social validity of each intervention. Quantitative measures were analyzed using three-level hierarchical linear modeling. Qualitative data were analyzed typologically. Results were integrated to understand the acceptability of the text structure intervention for upper elementary grades. Quantitative results indicated that the text structure group outperformed the comprehension group on a measure of text structure awareness, a graphic organizer task, and use of ideas and details in informative writing. Qualitative findings revealed that teachers perceived the goals, procedures, and effects of both interventions as socially valid. Integrated results suggest that teachers found the text structure intervention acceptable for teaching text structure and writing, and they were able to implement the intervention consistently and with fidelity. This study contributes to existing research by evaluating the effects of a classroom-based text structure intervention on both reading and writing outcomes compared with an alternative treatment and understanding teachers’ perceptions of its social validity and acceptability.University of Delaware, School of EducationPh.D

    Testing the possibility for photosynthetic compensation in an alga-invertebrate symbiosis under thermal stress: implications for carbon production and translocation

    No full text
    Warner, Mark E.Thermal stress is driving the global decline in reef coral growth and survival. These cnidarians possess different levels of thermal tolerance driven, in part, by the symbiotic dinoflagellates they host. Chlorophyll a fluorescence is often used to assess photo-stress in these symbiotic algae. However, the underlying implications of photo-stress and how it affects downstream carbon production and translocation to the host have yet to be investigated. Active PSII reaction centers were manipulated in a thermally tolerant and thermally sensitive strain of Breviolum minutum by chemical inhibition with DCMU to examine how chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency (α), and maximal photosynthesis (Pmax) changed. These parameters were then used to examine possible compensatory electron flow in steady-state electron turnover through functional PSII reaction centers (1/τPSII). In addition, acute heating response in vitro, as well as chronic heating of intact symbioses, were used to compare the effects of thermal stress and the relationship between PSII reaction center inactivation and other measures of photosynthesis. Values for α and Pmax declined with increasing DCMU more rapidly in the thermally susceptible symbiont strain than in the thermally tolerant strain with similar results seen both in vitro and in hospite. The thermally tolerant symbiont maintained carbon translocation during experimental heating, while translocation decreased in the thermally susceptible symbiont. Manipulation of PSII photochemistry by chemical titration or experimental heating provided evidence that the thermally tolerant symbiont sustained photochemical efficiency better than the thermally susceptible alga by maintaining or increasing compensatory electron flow.University of Delaware, School of Marine Science and PolicyM.S

    Consumer willingness-to-pay for antibiotic claims in ground beef with the implementation of a ban on the use of antibiotics for growth promotion in feed

    No full text
    Bernard, John C.There were two main purposes of antibiotics use on farm animals, 1) for growth promotion or improve feed efficiency and 2) prevent or control diseases. The wide use of antibiotics has led to consumers’ concerns about antibiotic resistance and antibiotic residues. Partially in response to this, the FDA banned the use of non- therapeutic antibiotics on farm animals in 2017. This means antibiotics can no longer be used for growth promotion but can still be used to prevent diseases. Previous studies have shown that consumers have a willingness to pay (WTP) premiums for certain antibiotic claims such as ‘Antibiotics Free’ or ‘Certified Antibiotics Use’. By using the regulation changes, there were three main objectives of this thesis: 1) determine consumers’ knowledge about the new ban; 2) examine if different pieces of information about antibiotics use would affect consumers’ WTP and 3) determine the factors that may affect WTP. ☐ This study was a field experiment conducted at three popular local grocery stores in northern Delaware, using the BDM mechanism to elicit consumers’ WTP for ground beef with different versions of labels. The labels were: ‘No Production Labeling’, ‘Certified Responsible Antibiotics Use,’ ‘Raised without Antibiotics,’ ‘USDA Organic,’ ‘Grass Fed’ and ‘Certified Grass Fed’. There were three treatment groups with three pieces of information explaining the ban, the ban plus noting antibiotics can still be used for disease control, and the rules about antibiotic residues, respectively. ☐ For the first objective, by collecting and comparing the answers of the questions regarding antibiotic regulation, it was suggested most consumers were not aware of the new ban on antibiotics for growth promotion. Thus, governmental education would be needed in this case. For the influence of the information, t-tests were used to test if WTPs changed or not after reading the information sheets. However, results were mixed in this case: premiums for the ‘Certified Responsible Antibiotics Use’ label fell significantly after information in two treatments and WTP for ‘USDA Organic’ also declined in one treatment. But there were no significant changes on values on ‘Raised without Antibiotics’ ground beef. This suggests a market demand for no-antibiotic products. Additionally, Tobit model results suggested that treatment did not explain second round WTP. For the third objective, again, another set of Tobit models for WTP differences were used to investigate the relationships between WTP changes and predictors. The results showed that the awareness of the new ban could explain consumers’ WTP changes on different ground beef labels.University of Delaware, Department of Applied Economics and StatisticsM.S

    Three essays on marine natural resources and environmental economics

    No full text
    Parsons, George R.Marine and coastal environment is an import part of the whole ecosystem, which contains near one third of the global population and many economic activities depend on the services provided by these ecosystems. Each of the three essays focuses on a different aspect of marine socioeconomic issues, including recreation loss from near shore oil spill, the impact of ecolabel program on seafood production, and the development of offshore wind farms. ☐ The first essay reports on a damage assessment for a 2014 oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas. It is intended to show how a well-known recreation demand model, the travel cost random utility maximization model, is used in practice for a major oil spill. Its focus is on lost beach-use value. The reporting here stays “true” the actual approach used in the damage assessment and the values as they were presented. The analysis updates a travel cost random utility maximization model estimated in Parsons et al., (2009) and then simulates the model to mimic actual beach closures in the spill event. The baseline estimates for lost value per trip (day trips) is approximately $34. Relaxing restrictions on temporal and spatial substitution patterns suggests that this estimate could be reduced further. ☐ The second essay investigate the effectiveness of MSC ecolabels. There is a growing economic literature on the joint provision of private and public goods. Ecolabels have received wide attention as a tool that can both increase consumer welfare and provide conservation incentives to producers through price premiums. Previous literature has consistently found positive willingness to pay or price premium for environmental product attributes, conveyed through eco-labels, at the retail level. However, there is little evidence that eco-labels can generate price incentives for producers, for example fishermen and processors for seafood. In this study, we explore evidence of a price premium for processors/wholesalers of sustainable seafood certified by Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). We empirically test for a price premium at the intermediate (wholesale) stage in the seafood supply chain for up to eight major Alaska commercial fishery species and three product types with the newly developed Generalized Synthetic Control (GSC) approach. In general, we find evidence of price premium at the wholesale level, but the premium is highly heterogeneous across species, product types, and importing countries. Our results help to shed light on the producer incentive generated from eco-label programs. ☐ In the third essay, we consider anchoring on visual cues in a contingent-behavior study of the effects of offshore wind power projects on beach use on the East Coast of the United States. In an internet-based survey of beachgoers, we show respondents visual simulations of offshore wind projects at three offshore distances and vary the order in which respondents see the visuals: near-to-far versus far-to-near. Respondents are asked how their beach experience and trip taking behavior may be affected by the wind power projects. In parametric and non-parametric analyses, we find strong anchoring in the far-to-near ordering and anchoring, but somewhat weaker, in the near-to-far order. We also find greater anchoring on “first shown” visuals versus “most recent seen” visuals. The size of the anchoring effect has important policy implication insofar as it effects the predicted change in visitation and hence impact of offshore wind power projects.University of Delaware, School of Marine Science and PolicyPh.D

    Consumer engagement with modern luxury direct-to-consumer brands on social media: a study of Glossier

    No full text
    Kim, Hye-ShinThe purpose of this study was to examine how consumers engage with modern luxury, direct-to-consumer (ML-DTC) brands on social media. Using qualitative research methods, this study examined the cognitive, emotional, behavioral and reported offline elements of consumer engagement with ML-DTC brands on social media. Brodie et al.’s (2013) consumer engagement model served as the conceptual framework. A series of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with social media followers of the ML-DTC brand Glossier. Through a detailed analysis of Glossier’s consumer engagement with the ML-DTC brand on social media, this study offers insight into how social media allows ML-DTC brands to effectively connect with consumers and the new strategies used by modern luxury brands in relation to social media. The findings support Brodie et. al’s (2013) conceptual framework on consumer engagement and expand its understanding on how brands on social media contribute to the sense of belonging and support among users in a social media community. There is limited information on the social media strategies of ML-DTC brands. This study expands understanding of how ML-DTC brands have evolved from the traditional marketing approach of luxury brands and offers insight into new ways social media is leveraged to distinguish the brand and engage with consumers.University of Delaware, Department of Fashion and Apparel StudiesM.S

    Urbanization impacts on red maple (Acer rubrum L..) in deciduous forests embedded in cities

    No full text
    Trammell, TaraThe urban forest should be viewed as living ‘public health’ and an environment ‘bio-recording’ infrastructure in urban environments. This infrastructure is extremely vital to achieving ‘greener’ cities, as the globe becomes more urbanized. However, plant data supporting urban plants as environmental mitigating infrastructures are sparse, inconsistent, and not long-term in approach. Moreover, the lack of data on the physiology, biochemistry, morphology, and long-term stress adaptation of plants in urban environment is a current gap in urban plant-ecology research. Cities are a natural ‘open lab’, and city size can be a proxy for multiple co-occurring impacts on plants that determine productivity and acclimation to better assess plant effectiveness. The FoRests Among Managed Ecosystem (FRAME) network was used to investigate urbanization (e.g., city size) impacts on the physio-biochemistry and morphology of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) in urban forests in a small (Newark, DE) and large (Philadelphia, PA) city. In addition, a manipulated field experiment was used to decipher above- and below-ground urbanization impacts on the physio-morphology of red maple (A. rubrum) saplings in urban forests. I measured health indicating pigments, nutrient ions, stress signaling metabolites, and morphological traits that can integrate multiple stress impacts and provide insight into urban forest trees’ ability to effectively mitigate urban conditions. I found greater chlorophyll, free amino acids and spermine, nutrient ions (N, P, K), and stomatal size in red maples in Philadelphia forests relative to Newark forests suggesting these traits are good indicators and integrators of multiple co-occurring stress impacts on plant growth, productivity, and acclimation in the large city. The results indicate cities as a surrogate and red maple as a biomonitor for urbanization impacts can be a good model system to study urban plant physiology and long-term stress mitigation-adaptation. The findings showing greater physio-biochemical and morphological response in the large city suggest theoretical models that do not account for physiological acclimation are overestimating deciduous forest tree mitigating potential in urban environments. ☐ Keywords: Acclimation, Acer rubrum L., Amino acids, Biomonitor, Chlorophyll, City size, Heavy metal, Nitrogen deposition, Nutrients, Polyamine, Stomate size, Subcanopy soil, Urban forests, Urban heat island, UrbanizationUniversity of Delaware, Department of Plant and Soil SciencesPh.D

    0

    full texts

    20,130

    metadata records
    Updated in last 30 days.
    University of Delaware Library Institutional Repository is based in United States
    Access Repository Dashboard
    Do you manage Open Research Online? Become a CORE Member to access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard! 👇