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    The modern agoras - the relationship between urban open public space and political expression. The case study of the city of Poznań, Poland

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    Contemporary urban public open spaces are stages of political expression, reminiscent of the historical Greek agoras that performed similar functions thousands of years ago. What has clearly changed, however, is the form of political expression. Rather than individual speeches by ancient thinkers and politicians, we are increasingly dealing with collective protests and assemblies presenting the views of the communities involved. Nowadays, public assemblies also take place in a much larger number of public spaces, depending on needs. They are chosen on the basis of three main categories of factors: spatial, semiotic and reception-related, which may overlap. The main objective of this paper is to determine the role of urban public open spaces as places of expression of political views during public assemblies. The study was based on the analysis of data from the Municipality of Poznań, as well as individual in-depth interviews with people involved in the organization of public assemblies in Poznań in 2019 and representatives of local associations.Contemporary urban public open spaces are stages of political expression, reminiscent of the historical Greek agoras which performed similar functions thousands of years ago. What has clearly changed, however, is the form of political expression. Rather than individual speeches by ancient thinkers and politicians, we increasingly deal with collective protests and assemblies presenting the views of the communities involved. Nowadays public assemblies also take place in a much larger number of public spaces, depending on the needs. They are chosen on the basis of 3 main categories of factors: spatial, semiotic and reception-related, which may overlap. The main objective of this paper is to determine the role of urban public open spaces as places of expression of political views during public assemblies. The study was based on the analysis of data from the Municipality of Poznań, as well as individual in-depth interviews with people involved in the organisation of public assemblies in Poznań in 2019 and representatives of local associations

    Policja Państwowa i przestępczość w powiecie wysokomazowieckim w latach 1918–1939

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    The article deals with the background of the formation of police structures in the Wysokie Mazowieckie poviat in the years 1918–1939 and the analysis of crime in the study area. For this purpose, an analysis of the Białystok voivode's report, files of the National Police Headquarters, daily press and specialized press was carried out. The author undertook a qualitative and partly quantitative analysis (comparative to the Białystok voivodship). The most common types of crime were theft and fraud. However, the source materials for the Wysokie Mazowieckie poviat analyzed in the course of the query did not show all types of crimes and offenses that took place in the described area. Artykuł dotyczy kulis formowania się struktur policyjnych na terenie powiatu wysokomazowieckiego w latach 1918–1939 oraz analizy przestępczości na badanym terenie. Wykorzystano w tym celu m.in. sprawozdania wojewody białostockiego, akta Komendy Głównej PP, prasę codzienną i prasę specjalistyczną. Autor podjął się analizy jakościowej i częściowo ilościowej (porównawczo względem województwa białostockiego). Najczęstszymi rodzajami przestępstw były kradzieże i oszustwa. Przeanalizowane w toku kwerendy materiały źródłowe dla powiatu wysokomazowieckiego nie wykazały jednak wszystkich rodzajów przestępstw i wykroczeń, jakie miały miejsce na opisywanym terenie.

    Wspomnienia z okresu wojennego

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    Niniejsze wspomnienia pochodzą z Teczki Okręgowej Delegatury Rządu na Kraj, poświęconej Antoniemu Antczakowi i przechowywanej w Archiwum Fundacji Generał Elżbiety Zawackiej w Toruniu. Zostały one zdigitalizowane i  udostępnione w Kujawsko-Pomorskiej Bibliotece Cyfrowej. W 32. numerze  „Biuletynu Fundacji Generał Elżbiety Zawackiej” udostępniamy je po opatrzeniu przypisami, poprawieniu błędów ortograficznych, interpunkcyjnych oraz rozwinięciu skrótów. Poprawiono tylko część niezręczności językowych, niektóre pozostawiono, aby zachować rytm oryginału

    Primary amenorrhea - where is the issue? A systematic review of literature in search of an answer

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    Introduction and purpose: Primary amenorrhea is not a common problem, but it is a cause for concern to the people who are affected by it as well as for their guardians. There are many factors which lead to this particular condition. Making an accurate diagnosis is pivotal in order to provide the patient with correct professional treatment and restore their health. Aim of the study: Systematic review of the existing evidence on most common reasons which lead to primary amenorrhea.  Brief description of the state of knowledge: Primary amenorrhea is a medical state, defined as a deficiency of primary menstrual bleeding in girls during their adolescence. Primary amenorrhea is diagnosed by meeting the criteria: no period by the age of 14 in the absence of growth or development of secondary sexual characteristics, or no period by the age of 16 regardless of the presence of normal growth and development with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics. There are multiple causes of this condition. Searching for a solution is heavily dependent on additional symptoms. Lack of menarche can be caused by anatomical anomalies of the female genital system, ovaries dysplasia, dysfunction of hypothalamus and pituitary gland, as well as by medical circumstances which are not included in those groups.  Summary: The important thing is to make the proper diagnosis of primary amenorrhea. Menstruation disorders are not only gynecological problems, they can also cause systemic, psychological and sexual difficulties. It might impact the future life of maturing young girls

    Biological treatment and exercise as an alternative to typical rheumatoid arthritis therapy: pathophysiology and effects

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    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that mainly affects the joints, but extra-articular symptoms may also occur. The global prevalence of RA is approximately 5 cases per 1,000 adults[1]. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease in the treatment of RA has led to the development of more effective treatments. Current drugs include glucocorticoids (GCs) and synthetic and biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Apart from these, the most commonly used analgesics are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). BLMPs work by targeting specific molecules involved in the inflammatory process, not just symptom relief. Purpose: To review the currently available PubMed data on biologics and exercise for RA and their mechanisms in the context of disease pathophysiology and future prospects. Brief description of the state of knowledge: BLMPs are a necessary alternative in patients who have not achieved the treatment goal for 6 months or have experienced side effects during treatment with conventional disease-modifying drugs. We also analyzed the effect of exercise on the course of RA. Conclusions: The introduction of bDMARDs has opened a new era in the treatment of diseases such as RA. However, due to the difficult access to this form of therapy, side effects, contraindications to currently used drugs, and increasingly well-known mechanisms, there is also a need to constantly search for new solutions. A growing body of evidence in recent years suggests that regular physical activity has a positive effect on various aspects of RA, including disease-related outcomes, mental well-being, and cardiovascular health. Also in this non-pharmacological field, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects

    Endometriosis - Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

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    Introduction: Endometriosis is defined as a chronic gynecological disease characterized by endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The condition affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age worldwide and is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Despite its prevalence, diagnosis is usually delayed for many years which postpones the introduction of appropriate treatment. Aim of the study: Summary of the current state of knowledge on endometriosis, analyzing the pathogenesis, the current diagnostic approach, highlighting the problem of fertility in this disease entity and presenting treatment options. Methods and materials: A review of the literaturę available in the PubMed database and GoogleScholar from the last 5years was conducted,using the following keywords: endometriosis”, „endometriosis pathogenesis”, „endometriosis diagnosis”, „infertility in endometriosis”, „endometriosis treatment” Results: Among the etiological factors mentioned are congenital, environmental, epigenetic, autoimmune and allergic factors. The main theory for the formation of the condition is retrograde menstruation through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneal cavity and implantation of endometrial cells. Laparoscopy is nowadays the gold standard for diagnosis, but less invasive methods that can shorten the time to diagnosis are being sought. Current treatment is limited to surgery, hormonal treatment and analgesics which are associated with many side effects. Conclusion: Endometriosis is the cause of infertility, chronic pain and reduced quality of life in many women. Non-invasive diagnostic tests such as imaging studies, genetic tests, biomarkers or miRNAs have diagnostic potential but more analysis is needed to be applied in daily clinical work. Future research should focus on learning and understanding the pathogenesis, identifying subtypes of the disease, and a modern approach to diagnosis and comprehensive treatment taking into account concomitant general symptoms

    Religie i wyznania w Atlasie historycznym Polski XVI wieku

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    The article characterises the content pertaining to religious structures and their presentation methods in the Historical Atlas of Poland (AHP) programme. It identifies the causes and describes the circumstances of changes in the depiction of religious topics at various phases of the project. It also presents the paths of the AHP development, shaped by discussions around the role of historical cartography and socio-religious history, which influenced how religious issues were treated in the AHP programme and publishing series.Artykuł zawiera charakterystykę treści dotyczących struktur religijnych oraz metod ich prezentacji w programie „Atlasu historycznego Polski”. Identyfikuje przyczyny oraz opisuje okoliczności zmian w ujmowaniu tematyki wyznaniowej w poszczególnych fazach rozwoju projektu atlasowego. Ukazuje różne ścieżki rozwojowe AHP, kształtowane przez dyskusje wokół roli kartografii historycznej oraz historii społeczno-religijnej, które wpływały na sposób ujęcia problemów religijnych w programie i serii wydawniczej AHP

    Social determinants of employee selection and interviewing

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    The problem of effective personnel planning was and is an indispensable part of the management of any enterprise. Every owner makes every effort to ensure that the people employed achieve the established goals and strategies of the organization, thereby contributing to the growth of prestige and expansion of capital. A significant capital of any organization is personnel, or human capital, which is why the proper selection of employees is such an important element. For some time now, organizations have been making every effort to ensure that employees are not only properly educated and trained, but are well aligned with the company's mission. Large corporations, want to have an employee as if "on their own," so the goals of both the employer and the employee are important. People for whom professional success is not the most important thing would not be able to find their way in a large international organization. The recruitment and selection process is therefore a key element to check whether a candidate is the right person and in the right place

    Influence winter swimming on post-exercise regeneration and quality of life of people practicing recreational sports

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    Entry Swimming is a stress factor for the body, depending on the level of adaptation to this stimulus, there may be different reactions of the body. Therefore, the contraindications and risks of immersion in cold water, such as drowning or hypothermia, should be taken into account. The study was aimed at assessing the impact of cold baths on well-being and post-exercise regeneration. Materials and methods The study involved 244 people who regularly practice recreational sports and swim. Conclusions Swimming has a positive effect on well-being and post-workout regeneration. It is important to conduct more research to obtain the data needed to determine the long and short term effects of swimming in the context of recreational activities

    El traslado del cuerpo de Santiago el Mayor

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    There is enough evidence outside Spain on Saint James the Great’s preaching of the Gospel in Hispania. There are also documents of Spanish origin on that evangelization. However, the tradition on the transfer of the Apostle’s body from Palestine to Galicia rests on scarce evidence. The earliest writings on the coming of the Apostle to Spain are two martyrologies composed in Lyon: one by Floro, written between 808 and 838, and the other by Adón, written between 850 and 860. Alphonse III is the first Spaniard who gives some details about this transfer in a writing from 906. Among the medieval texts on this transfer, there is one found in a book written between 1100 and 1139, during the lifetime of archbishop Diego Gelmírez, La historia compostelana or the Gelmírez’s Deeds, however, some historians of the Church consider two or three different transfers more plausible than one. In his lecture on the Apostolic sepulchre, Professor E. Kirschbaum, S.J., an expert on Christian archeology, stated that in the light of the recent archaeological discoveries the transfer of a corpse in Roman times from Palestine to the distant corner of the then known land does not contradict what is known about the traditions on the transfer of corpses of other famous figures in the late antiquity, such as Moses, Alexander the Great or St. Stephen.Sobre la predicación del Evangelio por Santiago el Mayor en España existe bastante documentación extra-hispánica. Existen también documentos de origen hispano sobre dicha evangelización. En cambio, la tradición sobre el traslado del cuerpo del apóstol desde Tierra Santa a Galicia cuenta con escasa documentación. Los escritos más antiguos sobre la venida del apóstol a España son dos martirologios redactados en Lyon: el de Floro, escrito entre 808 y 838, y el de Adón, escrito entre 850 y 860. El primero en España que precisa algo sobre este traslado es el rey Alfonso III en un escrito del año 906. Uno de los relatos medievales más importantes sobre este traslado figura en La historia compostelana o hechos de Gelmírez, escrito entre 1100 y 1139 en vida del arzobispo Diego Gelmírez: La historia compostelana o los Hechos de Gelmirez. Algunos historiadores de la Iglesia consideran más verosímil que haya habido dos o tres traslados diferentes. En una conferencia sobre la tumba apostólica de Santiago a la luz de las excavaciones recientes, el profesor de arqueología cristiana P. E. Kirschbaum, S. J., afirmó que la traslación de un cuerpo en época romana desde Palestina hasta el último ángulo de la tierra conocida entonces no contradice lo que se conoce de las tradiciones sobre traslados de cuerpos de otros personajes célebres en la Antigüedad como el de Moisés, Alejandro Magno o S. Esteban.Przeniesienie ciała św. Jakuba Większego Na temat ewangelizacji św. Jakuba Większego w Hiszpanii istnieje wystarczająca dokumentacja pochodząca spoza źródeł hiszpańskich. Istnieją również dokumenty pochodzenia hiszpańskiego dotyczące tej misji. Z drugiej strony, tradycja przeniesienia ciała Apostoła z Ziemi Świętej do Galicji jest słabo udokumentowana. Najstarszymi pismami są dwa martyrologia napisane w Lyonie: pierwsze z nich, autorstwa Floriusza, zostało napisane między 808 a 838 r., drugie zaś ułożył Adon między rokiem 850 a 860. Pierwszym autorem hiszpańskim wzmiankującym o przeniesieniu ciała Apostoła jest król Alfons III w dokumencie datowanym na rok 906. Jedna z najważniejszych średniowiecznych relacji znajduje się w „La historia compostelana o hechos de Gelmírez”, napisanej między 1100 a 1139 rokiem za życia arcybiskupa Diego Gelmíreza. Niektórzy historycy Kościoła uważają, że bardziej prawdopodobne było dwukrotne lub trzykrotne przeniesienie relikwii Apostoła niż jedno. W wykładzie na temat grobu apostolskiego św. Jakuba w świetle ostatnich wykopalisk, profesor archeologii chrześcijańskiej E. Kirschbaum SJ stwierdził, że przeniesienie ciała w czasach rzymskich z Palestyny na najdalsze krańce znanego świata nie stoi w sprzeczności z tym, co tradycja przekazujee o przeniesieniu ciał innych sławnych ludzi w starożytności, takich jak Mojżesz, Aleksander Wielki czy św. Szczepan

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