International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
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    3577 research outputs found

    Mechanistic insights into the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of alcoholic extracts from Curcuma longa

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    Background: Aim of the study was to scientifically validate the traditional Indian claims of Curcuma longa's (turmeric) antinociceptive (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The alcoholic extract of C. longa was tested in three rodent nociceptive models: acetic acid-induced writhing: examines visceral pain, formalin test: evaluates both acute and chronic neurogenic and inflammatory pain and tail immersion test to assess thermal pain. The extract's effects were compared to a control group and morphine (reference drug). Results: C. longa extract significantly reduced abdominal constrictions in the acetic acid test (59.36% inhibition). In the formalin test, the extract significantly decreased paw licking response time in both early (54.12% inhibition) and late phases (78.59% inhibition). C. longa extract significantly increased the tail flick reaction time in the immersion test, indicating pain relief. Conclusions: This study confirms the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of C. longa, providing scientific evidence for its traditional use in pain management

    Combination of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract with metformin on blood glucose and total cholesterol levels of albino rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin

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    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion, often accompanied by hypercholesterolemia. Metformin is a first-line antihyperglycemic drug that is often combined with other antihyperglycemic drugs. Purple sweet potato leaves have been widely studied to reduce glucose and cholesterol levels. Methods: This study was an experimental study using rats induced with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin, which were divided into 8 treatment groups, namely groups given CMC Na 0.5%, Metformin 45 mg/kg BW, Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract (SPLE) 200 mg/kg BW, SPLE 400 mg/kg BW, SPLE 800 mg/kg BW, SPLE 200 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW, SPLE 400 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW, and SPLE 800 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW. Results: After treatment for 28 days with SPLE doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg/kg BW, both single doses and combinations with metformin showed a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels and total cholesterol, which were statistically significantly different (p<0.05) between treatment groups using the one-way ANOVA. The combination of SPLE 800 mg/kg BW with metformin normalized blood glucose levels of 93.50±4.93 mg/dl.Conclusion: The combination of purple sweet potato leaf extract with metformin is more effective in reducing blood glucose and total cholesterol levels compared to the single administration of metformin and SPLE

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of medication adherence in children suffering from epilepsy attending pediatric out-patient department at a tertiary care teaching hospital

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    Background: Epilepsy is a common chronic disease presenting during childhood that requires long-term treatment. Rates of adherence to antiepileptic drugs are variable in children ranging from 25% to 75%. Non-adherent patients are more likely to experience frequent and recurrent seizures which drastically impact the health of the patient. This study was therefore conducted in order to assess the medication adherence of children suffering from epilepsy to the prescribed anti-epileptic drug therapy. Methods: Children diagnosed with epilepsy aged 6-18 years were enrolled in the present cross-sectional questionnaire-based study after prior written informed consent and written informed assent. Children with co-morbidities were excluded from the study (as diagnosed by the Paediatrician). The case record form was filled after interviewing the patients. A questionnaire based on the Morisky medication adherence scale-8 (MMAS) was used to evaluate the quality of life of children. Results: Total 243 patients got enrolled in the study. GTCS was found to be the most common type of epilepsy. Valproate was the most commonly used agent. Out of the 243 patients in total, 201 patients (83%) showed high adherence, 24 patients (10%) showed medium adherence and 18 patients (7%) showed poor adherence to the treatment prescribed. Patients on monotherapy showed higher adherence rates than patients on polytherapy. Medication adherence was highest with Valproate among monotherapy and valproate + carbamazepine among poly-therapy. Conclusions: We conclude that monotherapy with anti-epileptic agents and patient satisfaction is positive predictors of medication adherence leading to a lesser impact of the disease on the child and improved health

    Evaluation of prescription pattern of antimicrobials in the treatment of respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials is a complex and multifactorial problem in developing countries. Prescriptions not adhering to the treatment guidelines, self-medication, inappropriate use of drugs by patients can inadvertently lead to development of antimicrobial resistance. An observational study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial use in pediatric population with respiratory tract infections and its adherence to national treatment guidelines. Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study initiated after taking institutional ethics committee permission. The prescriptions of children diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) were screened. Their demographic profile and details of drugs prescribed were recorded. Results: Out of 230 pediatric prescriptions,155 (67%) were from outpatient department and 75 (33%) from those admitted in ward. Total 145 children were diagnosed with URTI whereas 85 had LRTI. In this study, 60 children with URTI received combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Co-amoxiclav) whereas 66 children with LRTI received Co-amoxiclav,18 ceftriaxone (N=18), 6 vancomycin (N=6) and 18 were prescribed oseltamivir (N=18), either alone or in combination. Other drugs prescribed included, paracetamol for fever and cough syrups. Out of 195 drugs prescribed by brand names, 138 (70.8%) were antimicrobials. Fixed dose combination amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, paracetamol and cough syrups were available from hospital pharmacy. None of the prescriptions had polypharmacy. Conclusions: URTI was treated using single antimicrobial whereas LRTI was treated with more than one antimicrobials or combination of antimicrobial and antiviral agent. The prescriptions were in accordance with the national treatment guidelines

    Formulation and evaluation of herbal hair serum-a review

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    In the mammalian system the hair follicle is known to the most significant organ that determine, appearance, gender distinction, provides intense temperature protection and plays a role in self-defence. The younger generations have begun to suffer extreme hair loss problem due to many reasons. The hair loss is not temporary in most cases. but it results in alopecia. Many people suffering from hair loss is in search of multiple treatments due to extreme anxiety and tension. To improve hair growth and to prevent hair loss, hair root activation is required. Citrus sinensis is used to antidandruff protection hair care. It’s had antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Nigella sativa improves the shine, strength, volume, and texture of hair. Flax seed is full of fatty acids and antioxidants that tend to remove pollutants and dead cells from the scalp. Coconut oil may help to moisturise and seal hair. They can help to prevent dry, flaky scalp and dandruff. This review article focuses on the materials required for the formulation of hair serum and various evaluation tests to evaluate hair serum

    Comparison of microvascular endothelial function as measured by laser Doppler flowmeter among non-smoker and smoker males

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    Background: To understand the role of smoking in influencing endothelial function as assessed by LDF among non-smoker and smoker males. Methods: The LDF measurement for a total of 35 non-smokers and 16 smokers was done in the central research laboratory after written informed consent. The change in LDF signal in response to acetylcholine 100 µl, which was delivered to the forearm skin by iontophoresis, was measured as perfusion units (PU). Results: The pre-ACh LDF signal were statistically not significant between the groups. The increase in LDF signal was more prominent in non-smoker group. The LDF signal parameters such as differences in minimal response pre and post-ACh; difference in mean response pre and post ACh; the difference in maximal response pre and post ACh was not statistically significant between groups. However, the difference in the area under curve (AUC) pre and post-ACh (PU.min) (non-smoker 20089.34 (3438.92) vs smoker 13220.72 (3379.52); p=0.16) showed a trend towards statistical significance. Conclusions: Microvascular endothelial function as assessed by LDF signal among smokers (pack-years;1.9±1.44) and non-smokers is statistically insignificant. However, lower microvascular endothelial function is observed among smokers

    Case series of macroalbuminuria and toe-brachial index in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Diabetes mellitus is a growing health problem with a significant global disease burden. The complications and mortality rate associated with diabetes are increasing. Albuminuria is one of its complications and evidence of established nephropathy. Low toe–brachial index (TBI) is more strongly associated with albuminuria and may be a suitable tool for evaluating peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study evaluated the association between macro albuminuria and low toe brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients to identify those who need specialized foot care and adequate renal protection

    Assessment of KaraShieldTM properties in supporting the immune health of healthy subjects: a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

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    Background: This study aims to investigate whether a novel herbal extract blend, KaraShieldTM could be used to help build a healthy immune system that could reduce the number of incidences or severity of common upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Methods: A randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study of 60 days was done on 120 healthy subjects allocated to a treatment arm (500 mg/day, KaraShieldTM) or placebo arm (500 mg/day). Results: A 500 mg daily dosage of KaraShieldTM significantly improved the subjects' immune health as measured by parameters such as the frequency and severity of upper respiratory tract conditions, the serum IgG level, mean ISQ raw score, WURSS scale score, CRP level in the serum and WHOQOL-BREF score at the end of the study period of sixty days from the baseline compared to that of the placebo. The investigated product was found to be safe and well tolerated by the subjects. Conclusions: KaraShieldTM may represent a promising safe and effective formulation for building a healthy immune system that could then counteract URTIs

    Teplizumab: a new glimmer of hope for type 1 diabetic patients

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    Teplizumab is the first monoclonal antibody used to delay the onset of stage 3 type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a highly selective, a CD3-directed monoclonal antibody, given parenterally that was approved in November 2022, for delaying the onset of Stage 3 type 1 diabetes in adults and paediatric patients aged 8 years and older with stage 2 type 1 Diabetes. It binds to the immune cells that destroy the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and inactivates them thereby leading to decreased rate of reduction in insulin production and subsequently delay in the onset of stage 3 type 1 diabetes

    Anti-diabetic potential and safety profiles of Tephrosia purpurea on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes in rats

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    Background: Tephrosia purpurea was traditionally used for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Tephrosia purpurea extracts against STZ-Nicotinamide induced diabetes in rat. Methods: This preclinical study was done to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of whole plant extract of Tephrosia purpurea in STZ- Nicotinamide induced diabetic rats, which produced a significant difference in blood glucose, lipid profile, renal and liver profile in comparison to untreated rats. In this study, the animals were divided into five groups and diabetes was induced by administering STZ-Nicotinamide and animals with blood sugar level >200 were enrolled in the study. Further the animals are grouped into Group I control (0.1% CMC), Group II, diabetic control and Group III reference control received glibenclamide. Group IV and V, diabetic rats treated with Tephrosia purpurea extract 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively. All the test drugs were administered for 30 days. Results: In diabetic rats, treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg of Tephrosia purpurea blood glucose level significantly lowered on 10th day (p<0.05) and 5th day (p<0.01) respectively as compared to untreated rats. At the end of 30th day there is significant reduction in blood glucose treated with TP 400 mg/kg (p<0.001). Safety assessment shows the protective effect of TP (400 mg/kg) on lipid profile TC, TG (p<0.001), HDL (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.001) and VLDL (p<0.01). It also shows protective activity against AST (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.01), ALP (p<0.001) and Renal functions BUN (p<0.001), Creatinine (p<0.001). Conclusion: The anti-hyperglycaemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea is brought out in the study by its significant reduction in the blood glucose level. The safety and efficacy is established based on the protective effect of Tephrosia purpurea in lipid profile, renal and hepatic function of diabetic rats


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    International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
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