International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS)
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    708 research outputs found

    Development and validation of a functional health literacy instrument in the Philippines

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    Functional health literacy (FHL) involves skills in writing, reading, oral expression, comprehension, and numerical calculations to successfully function and complete health-related tasks. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for measuring FHL in the Philippines using a mixed-method design. FHL-5TEST is an instrument consisting of five questions developed in consultation with local experts, translated to major Philippine languages, and underwent translation analysis, pretesting, cultural adaptation, and validation. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 15-70-year-old Filipino residents to validate the instrument. The FHL-5TEST demonstrated high internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.7690. Across different cut-off values, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument in detecting limited FHL ranged from 60.9% to 86.0% and from 61.6% to 97.2%, respectively. The study demonstrated that the FHL-5TEST is a valid and reliable instrument to measure functional health literacy in the Philippines

    Athletes sleep duration during COVID-19 pandemic and its relationship with health condition

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    During the coronavirus desease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, athletes must be able to adapt to new habits, such as: social restriction, change of competition schedule, and sending back home. This situation has led to an 18.2% increase in sleep disturbances. This study aimed to look at the sleep duration of adolescent athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on athlete’s health conditions. A total of 126 adolescent athletes from 15 sports were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Adequate sleep duration was assessed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Data on health conditions, medical history, injury history, were taken using a questionnaire. Behavioral assessment was assessed through the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. About 80.2% of adolescent athletes had insufficient sleep, and there was a significant relationship between sleep duration and disease incidence with a relative risk (RR) of 3.31 (1.32-8.28) 95% convidence interval (CI). There was no significant relationship between adequate sleep duration and health conditions (p>0.05). Things that may be the cause of sleep disturbances; use of electronic devices (37.6%), environmental conditions (53.4%), and worry (9%). In the end, this indicates adolescent athletes face difficulties in achieving adequate sleep duration during this pandemic and a continuous surveillance system is needed to monitor athletes outside the dormitory

    Applying the health belief model in identifying individual understanding towards prevention of type 2 diabetes

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    Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disorder, which leads to numerous complications. This disease can be prevented by training people and increasing their awareness via the health belief model. This descriptive study aimed to determine the diabetes prevention behaviors based on the health belief model among high-risk individuals. There were 220 randomly selected individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes completed a 65-item questionnaire based on the constructs of the health belief model. Data were analyzed by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). The mean score of knowledge among respondents was 5.54+2.60, which indicated that 50.36% of the participants had gained the maximum score of knowledge. The results indicated that the constructs of the health belief model determined 19% of the variance in type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors. Perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge were the significant positive predictors of diabetes prevention behaviors. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between age, economic status, and education level and some constructs of the health belief model. The results indicated that the high-risk patients obtained moderate mean scores in type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors. These results could improve educational programs with regard to beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors to promote type 2 diabetes prevention and self-care behaviors among at-risk populations.

    A cross-generational comparison of smartphone addiction among Gen X and Gen Y smartphone users in Malaysia

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    This study reported the prevalence of smartphone addiction among Gen X and Gen Y in Sarawak, Malaysia. This study compared the two generations, X and Y, on smartphone addictive behaviour. It is important to understand their addiction to smartphones. Two hundred thirty-six participants were recruited using a Facebook advertisement, consisting of 122 males and 114 females aged 16 to 55. The smartphone addiction scale-malay (SAS-M) was used to assess smartphone addiction. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS. The result shows that Gen Y is more addicted to a smartphone than Gen X for all components of SAS-M, but there is no significant difference between female and male users for both generations in smartphone usage. In addition, there is a significant difference in the cyberspace-oriented relationship between Gen X and Gen Y. Furthermore, Gen Y had lost control of the use of smartphones compared to Gen X, which reflects the overuse and primacy components that lead to daily life disturbances. Positive anticipation and withdrawal were also observed between the two generations. In conclusion, there is a significant difference between Gen X and Gen Y in smartphone addictive behaviour, implying that Gen Y is a more compulsive user than Gen X. It is important to understand this addictive behaviour and provide an intervention measure to ensure that this will not become a psychological issue. The intervention measure is important to improve mental health and psychological wellbeing

    A review of health security and vaccine diplomacy during COVID-19 pandemic

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    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raises several public health concerns that impact various aspects of people's lives. The severity and spread of infection are extremely rapid, spreading out of control globally. Aside from illness and death, it presents a slew of long-term health concerns among the population. Therefore, the pandemic has manifested into a major health security issue, impacting the population globally. Health securitization refers to recognizing the presence of an existential health threat, and authorities can devote resources to manage the risks. Although vaccinations are required for long-term management of this disease, the vaccination procedure is often plagued by access, efficacy, and vaccine prioritization issues. By employing an interpretative social science approach, the article argues that the COVID-19 pandemic needs to be securitized at the state and international levels, and vaccines as public-good should be accessible to everyone without discrimination or prioritization and diplomatic interests. The study found, firstly, that many countries have adopted health securitization and coordinated efforts by international agencies. Secondly, vaccine hoarding by richer countries has created a disparity in the rate and coverage of vaccination in other regions. Thirdly, vaccine donation by richer countries is only a temporary solution. A robust vaccine allocation mechanism is needed for more comprehensive and equitable vaccination coverage

    COVID-19 awareness among undergraduates in a private university

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    Since the first declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, the pandemic has brought some significant lifestyle changes among the people across the globe. There might be some underestimation in the severity level of COVID-19 among younger people, specifically around the age group of undergraduates. This study evaluated the awareness level of Malaysian undergraduates towards COVID-19 in Malaysia via an online survey hosted in a COVID-19 awareness roadshow event. This study highlighted the importance of high awareness level of the pandemic among undergraduates and their impact towards managing the spread of the pandemic to the vulnerable population. The respondents were information technology (IT) undergraduates from Multimedia University Melaka Campus, Malaysia. The overall awareness level of the undergraduates is high. Most respondents had a clear understanding on the effects of personal hygiene and personal protective equipment to avoid getting infected with COVID-19, as well as where to go if they got infected with the coronavirus. Most respondents also showed decent knowledge in identifying the basic symptoms of COVID-19. These findings give an insight into the COVID-19 awareness level among undergraduates and may help the policymakers and university managements to control the spread of COVID-19 and other emerging infections

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever vulnerability assessment in Gorontalo Regency using analytic hierarchy process and geoinformation techniques

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    One method of reducing the spread of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is to provide a map of DHF-prone locations based on spatial analysis. The major way to prevent the spread of DHF is to manage and control its vector by focussing on specific regions of localisation and removing appropriate breeding circumstances. Spatial analysis can detect DHF clusters that are larger than expected based on the underlying data. This research aimed to identify and map DHF vulnerability zones based on many parameters within the scope of the analytical hierarchy and geographical information systems (GIS). We found that the consistency ratio of 0.079 for analytic hierarchy process (AHP) factor weights was judged to be satisfactory. The population density, distance to the road, and distance to health facilities were shown to be the most relevant factors in determining DHF vulnerability. Gorontalo Regency is dominated by low vulnerability classes with an area of 139,493.5 ha or 65.08% of the total area. The GIS-AHP process could be used to assess transmissible DHF vulnerability zonation, which would aid in improving surveillance strategies for DHF and other vector-borne diseases in order to encourage prevention and control actions

    Quality of life and its demographic predictors among workers at a plastic factory in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

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    Quality of life (QOL) is an individualized measure that reflects a person’s subjective feelings towards the different aspects of his or her life and incorporates them into his overall health evaluation. The WHOQOL-BREF is a QOL measurement tool that has been validated in worldwide and local studies, with good reliability and sensitivity. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to evaluate the QOL of 89 workers at a plastic factory in Selangor, Malaysia. These were compared using t-test and Spearman’s bivariate correlation test to assess for significant correlations and predictors of performance in the different domains. The performance of the sample, both overall and for individual domains, was significantly lower than reported in previous studies. Local workers, highly educated workers, workers with shorter employment, and workers who did not take overtime performed significantly better than their respective counterparts. Also, lower education, foreign nationality, longer employment at the factory, overtime, and crushing jobs were associated with lower QOL scores. Studies evaluating QOL in industrial workers in Malaysia are scarce. Our sample is more diverse than the previous similar studies from Malaysia, and hence it offers new insights into the QOL of plastic industrial workers in the country

    The determinants of adolescent smokers in Indonesia

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    In Indonesia, the prevalence of adolescence smokers is high. The situation might be worse during the epidemiological transition. This study aimed to estimate the sociodemographic factors related to tobacco use (light, moderate, and heavy) among adolescent in school age in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study used the raw data from the secondary data of Indonesia Global Youth of Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2019. This study only included the 9,992 adolescent smokers in school age as the sample. School was selected based on the proportional probability based on the number of students. The class was selected by random sampling method and the students in that class were eligible to join the survey. This current study only selected those who smoked at the time of survey. The univariate, bivariate (Chi-square and t-test), and multivariate (ordinal logistic regression) has been tested in this study. The prevalence of tobacco uses among adolescent in Indonesia in 2019 was 19.2%. The determinants of tobacco use mostly related to pocket money, having products with cigarettes logo, and can purchase near the school. The role of sociodemographic, factors related to current tobacco use is very important to arrange the policy. The policy is very important to prevent and control tobacco use, especially among adolescence

    Holistic self-management behavior among urban patients with type 2 diabetes

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    This study aimed to measure the self-care practices of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients managed in an urban hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. An observational cross-sectional study was performed. The adherence of self-care practices was measured by using the Condition-specific Recommendations and Adherence scale. Among 165 T2DM patients, nobody adhered to all self-care practices. The average number of adhered behavioral recommendations was 6.0 (SD=1.6). Gender, education and overweight/obesity were associated with self-care practice adherence. Repeated educational sessions should be provided to patients, especially male patients, and those with low education levels, overweight/obese, to improve their self-care ability


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    International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) is based in Indonesia
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