National Institute of Amazonian Research

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    Atriadops macula (Wiedemann) inhabiting the canopy: The first record of Nemestrinidae (Diptera) in the Amazon Basin

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    This is the first record of the family Nemestrinidae in the Amazon Basin, based on three females identified as Atriadops macula (Wiedemann, 1824). The specimens were collected in the canopy using flight interception traps. This species was previously known to inhabit understory open areas. The canopy, the new habitat record, is an open area stratum with higher insolation, higher temperature and less humidity. As the adults of A. macula have the mouthparts greatly reduced, they probably do not feed and their occurrence in the canopy probably is more likely related to the distribution of their hosts as well as the environmental factors. Copyright © 2020 Magnolia Pres

    Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and its coinfection with epstein-barr virus in adult residents from manaus: A population-based study

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    Introduction: This study assessed the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, associated factors, and Epstein-Barr virus coinfection among adult residents of Manaus. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected blood samples from 136 individuals in a household survey in 2016. Prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. Results: Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus seroprevalences were 67.6% (95% CI: 9.7-75.6%) and 97.8% (95% CI: 95.3-100.0%), respectively. Coinfection was observed in 66.2% (95% CI: 58.1-74.2%) of participants. Bivariate analysis showed no statistical association. Conclusions: Seroprevalences were high among participants and approximately 7 out of 10 individuals had cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus coinfection. © 2020, Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. All rights reserved

    Aliens in the backyard: Did the American bullfrog conquer the habitat of native frogs in the semi-deciduous atlantic forest?

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    The American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus has a natural distribution in North America, but was spread by human activities in different regions around the world. It is listed as the most invasive amphibian species, affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the community of native species. In addition, the American bullfrog is extensively associated with lethal pathogens, with high correlation of the presence of this species with population declines and extinctions. Here we test if this alien species has spread through the landscape, establishing populations at new locations. We used diverse methods including georeferencing of satellite images, ethnobiological interviews and field data to evaluate the dispersion and effects of L. catesbeianus introduction on amphibian composition, species number, and density of individuals in forest fragments in an Atlantic Forest landscape. We did not find any relationship between density of individuals, number of species or composition of the native anuran assemblages in forest fragments in relation to the presence or proximity of American bullfrog introduction points. Additionally, we found that the dispersion potential of this species in the studied landscape is zero, as it was only found in those fragments where it was specifically introduced 15 years ago. The species has not established new populations in the landscape. Although exotic, L. catesbeianus thrives in lentic habitats and has no apparent effect on the structural metrics of the native anuran assemblage. Despite this alien species exhibiting a capacity to adapt and survive at the point of introduction, its potential for propagation is limited probably by the fragmented terrestrial landscape and regional stream network. © 2020, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved

    A Guide to Carrying Out a Phylogenomic Target Sequence Capture Project

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    High-throughput DNA sequencing techniques enable time- and cost-effective sequencing of large portions of the genome. Instead of sequencing and annotating whole genomes, many phylogenetic studies focus sequencing effort on large sets of pre-selected loci, which further reduces costs and bioinformatic challenges while increasing coverage. One common approach that enriches loci before sequencing is often referred to as target sequence capture. This technique has been shown to be applicable to phylogenetic studies of greatly varying evolutionary depth. Moreover, it has proven to produce powerful, large multi-locus DNA sequence datasets suitable for phylogenetic analyses. However, target capture requires careful considerations, which may greatly affect the success of experiments. Here we provide a simple flowchart for designing phylogenomic target capture experiments. We discuss necessary decisions from the identification of target loci to the final bioinformatic processing of sequence data. We outline challenges and solutions related to the taxonomic scope, sample quality, and available genomic resources of target capture projects. We hope this review will serve as a useful roadmap for designing and carrying out successful phylogenetic target capture studies. © Copyright © 2020 Andermann, Torres Jiménez, Matos-Maraví, Batista, Blanco-Pastor, Gustafsson, Kistler, Liberal, Oxelman, Bacon and Antonelli

    Quaternary climate changes as speciation drivers in the Amazon floodplains

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    The role of climate as a speciation driver in the Amazon has long been discussed. Phylogeographic studies have failed to recover synchronous demographic responses across taxa, although recent evidence supports the interaction between rivers and climate in promoting speciation. Most studies, however, are biased toward upland forest organisms, while other habitats are poorly explored and could hold valuable information about major historical processes. We conducted a comparative phylogenomic analysis of floodplain forest birds to explore the effects of historical environmental changes and current connectivity on population differentiation. Our findings support a similar demographic history among species complexes, indicating that the central portion of the Amazon River basin is a suture zone for taxa isolated across the main Amazonian sub-basins. Our results also suggest that changes in the fluvial landscape induced by climate variation during the Mid- and Late Pleistocene drove population isolation, leading to diversification with subsequent secondary contact. Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC)

    Levantamento da qualidade ambiental do córrego capim puba no município de Goiânia - GO

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    Water is an essential natural resource for the maintenance and life of humans, however, anthropogenic actions have disrupted aquatic ecosystems and threatened freshwater sources. The objective of this work was to verify the environmental quality of the Capim Puba stream, located in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, during the rainy season of 2016. The samples were collected in three sampling points distributed along the course of the creek: 01 located at the source, point 02 at the site of greater anthropic occupation of the stream banks and point 03 at the confluence with the Botafogo Stream. Environmental quality was investigated through the identification of domestic and industrial effluent release points, level of silting, presence of erosion, debris, flora, solid residues and liquid residues, as well as analysis of physical and chemical variables of the aquatic environment. It was possible to notice greater environmental degradation in point 02 due to anthropic occupation. In addition, the adverse impacts were less intense when compared to previous years, revealing a capacity of the autodepuration stream. © 2020 Centro Universitario de Anapolis. All rights reserved

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