Pepperdine Digital Commons

    Feed My Sheep: The Pastoral and Ecclesial Conclusion to John\u27s Gospel

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    Correlation Between Freezing Sites and Xylem Vessel Diameter for Three Chaparral Species of the Santa Monica Mountains

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    Coastal exposures of the Santa Monica Mountains rarely experience freezing temperatures (0 °C) because of the ameliorating effects of the Pacific Ocean and seawater’s specific heat capacity. In contrast, inland sites of the Santa Monica Mountains frequently experience winter temperatures below -10 °C. This temperature gradient, from coast to inland, may be a major determinate of species distribution patterns. To investigate possible mechanisms by which freezing impacts chaparral distribution patterns, we examined xylem vessel diameter and vessel length of three chaparral species growing at inland freezing sites versus coastal nonfreezing sites (Malosma laurina, Umbellularia californica, and Ceanothus megacarpus). It has been established that vessel size influences freezing-induced embolism and the blockage of xylem water transport from soil to leaves. However, it is not known if this “size effect” is primarily due to vessel diameter, vessel length, or both. We initially hypothesized that matched species-pairs at non-freezing sites would have both longer and wider vessels than at freezing sites. We determined maximum vessel length by injecting air into stems at decreasing segment lengths and mean vessel diameters by using an ocular micrometer in conjunction with a light microscope. Sample sizes were six for each species pairs. For all three species, mean vessel diameters were narrower at freezing than non-freezing sites (P \u3c 0.05) ranging between 13 µm mean differences for C. megacarpus to 20.4 µm mean differences for U. californica. In contrast, we found no significant difference in vessel lengths for any of the species-pairs (P \u3e 0.05). We conclude that reduction in vessel diameter is more significant than reduction in vessel length for protection from freezing-induced embolism of stem xylem. Furthermore, limits in the genetic plasticity of some species to reduce vessel diameter may preclude their survival at freezing sites

    Epidemic Circularity Part 2: From Incapable to Capable Responses

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    If epistemic circularity is not altogether fallacious, it is at least of dubious merit. To determine the reliability of a source of belief, epistemically circular arguments depend on premises which themselves depend on the source in question. The structure of circular reasoning is common to both epistemic circularity and logical circularity, but while it the latter is only ever superficially plausible, it may be asked of epistemic circularity whether it is ever only superficially implausible. The first part of my project consists in framing the problem of epistemic circularity, establishing the broad applicability of the issue and why we should take seriously its ramifications for a skeptical worldview. In the second part, I consider various responses that epistemic circularity has elicited from philosophers, why these responses fail, and what we should look for in a capable response. I argue that we cannot wholly evade epistemic circularity, but nor should we be skeptics about knowledge: where a formidable epistemic response cannot be, a competent pragmatic response must do

    Whitman’s Specter in the Poetry of Pablo Neruda

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    Having discovered the North American poet Walt Whitman in the roaring 20’s, Chilean poet and writer Pablo Neruda frequently lauds and credits Whitman as “the guide that expands his poetic conscience.” Although Neruda was the Nobel Prize winner for literature in 1971, many critics still stigmatize his literary works due to the undeniable presence of Whitmanesque influence in regards to style, theme, and literary technique. Furthermore, Neruda has been claimed as “a Whitman of the South” by The New York Times and has many times been criticized to have “a text very close to Whitman’s in its style” (Delphine Rumeau). At times, the literary work of Neruda seems only as a mere image that reflects the greatly admired works of his “sabio hermano” or “wise brother”, Whitman. It appears as though the young Neruda possessed a voracious appetite for Whitman’s works and attempted to mimic his hero’s every move; however, a deeper analysis negates this assumption. After a comparative analysis of several excerpts from Neruda’s Canto General (General Song) and Residencia en la tierra (Residence on Earth), and Whitman’s Leaves of Grass, I conclude that Neruda was heavily inspired by Whitman but still develops a uniquely Chilean identity and leaves a distinctive mark in world literature

    Thinning of Exfoliated Molybdenum Disulfide by Thermal Oxidation

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    In this work, we demonstrate the thinning of an exfoliated molybdenum disulfide flake by thermal oxidation as first demonstrated by Jumiati Wu et. al. Using this technique we achieve a thinning of an exfoliated flake from 7nm to 2nm. In addition, we attempt to thin a second flake synthesized by chemical vapor deposition initially 3nm thick. Unfortunately the thinning process completely destroyed the synthesized flake as shown by optical microscopy

    The Last Indian War: Reassessing the Legacy of American Indian Boarding Schools and the Emergence of Pan-Indian Identity

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    The purpose of this research is to reexamine the legacy of federally-maintained boarding schools for American Indian children, particularly in regards to its strong connections to the emergence of Pan-Indian identity during the latter half of the twentieth century. The schools have long retained a reputation of one of the most poignant examples of cultural imperialism in history of the United States. The goal of this paper is not to deny the horrors associated with the American Indian boarding school system, but to emphasize the important and ultimately positive outcome of the development of an American Indian identity that transcends tribal identities. The boarding schools played a more nuanced role in the American Indian history and that they served as a catalyst in the emerging American Indian identity, among others. Using accounts from former students particularly associated with the American Indian Movement of the 1960s and 1970s, it is clear that the schools should be considered a crucial step towards many of the movements associated with Pan-Indianism. The story that emerges through this research is one of great irony-in attempting to crush American Indian culture, the schools actually provided a critical shared experience that resonated with people of varying tribes

    Implementing OCLC’s WMS (Web-scale Management Services) Circulation at Pepperdine University

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    This article describes the reasons why Pepperdine University Libraries decided to move to the next-generation technology of WMS as our library system. WMS is an integrated library system hosted by OCLC that is “in the Cloud.” Pepperdine was one of the first libraries to go live with WMS, and in the article we focus on implementation process, circulation, course reserves, and holds. Although WMS is not a perfect system, we believe that libraries are poised to benefit from the next generation of library systems, such as WMS

    No Need to Reinvent the Wheel: Why Existing Liability Law Does Not Need to Be Preemptively Altered to Cope with the Debut of the Driverless Car

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    First, in part I, this article seeks to explore the background of driverless vehicles, including their history, the technology involved, and general issues and potential problems that may arise from these vehicles entering the market. In part II, the article will discuss existing regulations already in place for autonomous driverless vehicles in both state and federal law. Part III will examine two proposals, those for additional laws, or for the adaptation of existing laws to create new liability schemes, and how most of these proposals are either inadequate or overbroad. Part IV will examine liability waiver for accidents, strict liability law for product defects, and the no-fault insurance system, and how the existing laws already in place can cover the introduction of driverless vehicles to market

    Editor\u27s Notes

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    Has the Supreme Court’s Schaffer Decision Placed a Burden on Hearing Officer Decision-Making Under the IDEA?

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    This article provides a systematic examination of the BOP in hearing officer decisions both before and after Schaffer. Part II examines the legal basis for the BOP both before and after the U.S. Supreme Court decision, resulting in the questions for this study. Part III explains the method used to collect and analyze the data, and Part IV presents the results that answer the specific research questions. Part V discusses those results and the implications of the findings for special education dispute resolution and provides recommendations for further study
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