Otago University Research Archive

    Data sharing using the X.500 directory

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    Part of the GeoComputation '96 Special Issue 96/25; follow the "related link" to download the entire collection as a single document.Sharing geographical data sets is highly desirable for economical and technical reasons. In this paper the author describes the development of an agency for sharing geographical data which is based on the use of the ISODE implementation of the X.500 Directory Service and a collection of software agents which collaborate with each other to perform the various task associated with sharing data.UnpublishedAnderson, J. S. 1995, ‘Building a Useful GIS Directory: Snohomish County, Washington’, URISA Journal pp. 45-52. ANZLIC 1996, Anzlic guidlines: Core metadata elements version 1, Technical report, Autralia and New Zealand Land Information Council: Working Group on Metadata. Baker, H. 1996, ‘Data Blazes Trail for Metadata Standards’, The Australasian Geographic Information Systems Applications Journal, GIS User (15). CSIRONET 1986, Command Driven Colormap, User’s Guide, 1st edn, CSIRONET Graphics System Section, Canberra. Geo Vision 1986. Data Translation Guide, GeoVision. Ottawa. Geological Survey, U. S. 1990, Digital Line Graphs from 1:2,000,000-Scale Maps, in ‘Data Users Guide’, Vol. 3 of National Mapping Program Technical Instructions, Department of Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. ISODE Volume 8 User’s Guide Directory Services 1994, Technical report, The Dome The Square Richmond TW9 1DT UK. Johnson, B. D., Shelley, P., Taylor, M. M. & Callahan, S. 1996, The findar directory system: a meta-model for meta-data. *http://www.nric.gov.au/nric/publishing/papers/metadata.html Newsome, P. F. J. 1995, Directory of Geographic Databases within Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research, Technical report, Whenua - Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd., Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North New Zealand. Pascoe, R. T. & Penny, J. P. 1990, ‘Construction of interfaces for the exchange of geographic data’, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 4(2), 147-156. Pascoe, R. T. & Penny, J. P. 1993, Transforming geographic data between different concrete representations, in G. Gupta, G. Mohay & R. Topor, eds, ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Australian Computer Science Conference’, pp. 653-663. Pascoe, R. T. & Penny, J. P. 1995, ‘Constructing interfaces between (and within) geographical information systems’, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9(3), 275-291. StoneBraker, M. 1992, Postgres Reference Manual, Version 4.0, University of California, Berkeley. This manual is distributed with the Postgres source code. van Roessel, J., Bankers, D., Connochioli, V., Doescher, S., Fosnight, G., Wehde, M. & Tyler, D. 1986, vector data structure conversion at the EROS data center, final report, phase 1, Technical report, EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57198

    Is Supply Chain Management a Discipline? A Comparative Content Analysis of Academic and Practitioner Knowledge to Determine Disciplinary Identity

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    This thesis holds in tension two perspectives on the conceptual framing of supply chain management (SCM): one as a discipline, the other as a domain of practice. It provides a unique appraisal into the conflict existing within SCM by addressing gaps in previous studies, through employing knowledge management (KM) to inform both academic and practitioner conceptualisations of SCM. Application of the core assumptions and deliberations of Fabian’s disciplinary analysis criteria (coherence, knowledge, and quality) combined with Kuhn’s theory of disciplinary evolution permits examination of academic and practitioner conceptualisations of SCM. The analysis aims to challenge the assumption within previous studies that SCM’s disciplinary identity is ascertainable via one conceptualisation (academia) and through only two of Fabian’s criteria (coherence and quality). This thesis contributes to both theoretical development and analytical methodology by elucidating SCM’s body of knowledge to provide insight into its disciplinary identity through employing content analysis from a pragmatist’s perspective. This research is conducted through content analysis of an archive of 1,371 articles extracted from four representative academic and practitioner publications covering the period from 1998 to 2008. The selected texts represent core developments of SCM knowledge, providing insight into theoretical and practical development over this timeframe from both academic and practitioner perspectives. This approach is unique, as the influence of practice on a discipline’s identity is overlooked in the literature. Subsequently, new opportunities of investigatory scope extend the dialogue on SCM’s disciplinary identity. Fabian’s three criteria form the basis for the disciplinary analysis framework employed within this thesis, examining whether sufficient indicators of these criteria exist within the texts to signify that SCM is a discipline. Specifically, analysis of academic and practitioner conceptualisations as to the degree of coherence, the existence of a unified body of knowledge, and the degree of quality within SCM indicate a fragmented discourse. Academic and practitioner conceptualisations of SCM indicate that highly informative divergent discourses exist, representing a discipline in crisis and a domain of practice that is strategically mature. The potential effects of such divergent conceptualisations are acknowledged as they serve as a warning of the impending disintegration of SCM as a researchable entity. Although SCM is argued to be effectively ‘dead’ as a discipline, future developments in the overall operations field enable opportunities for development, both conceptually and within practice. In reflecting on the research this thesis concludes on an optimistic note, for the potential exists to re-weave the tapestry of ideas represented by the term ‘SCM’ into a new form able to manifest the interests of both academia and practice. Thus, the re-weaving of operations management to be more representative of reality is required to ensure its sustainability. In conclusion, the lesson to be learned from this research is that integration of academic and practitioner conceptualisations through their respective discursive practices is essential for the legitimacy and longevity of a discipline

    Measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care

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    The aim of this paper is to explain a new approach for calculating spatial accessibility to primary health care (PHC) services. New Zealand and World Health Organisation (WHO) rules were used to determine acceptable levels of minimum travel time and distance to the closest PHC facilities via a road network. This analysis was applied to 2369 census areas in the 2001 census release with an average population of 76 people and 32 PHC services inside the Otago region. The best route (shortest time) from residential areas to PHC facilities was calculated using the mean centre of population distribution within each meshblock polygon instead of using simple geometric centroids of the Meshblocks. This study has shown that the central and northern parts of the Otago region have some areas with low accessibility levels to PHC.PublishedNon Peer ReviewedBagheri, N., Benwell, G. L. and Holt, A. (2005). How far are you from help. PostGrad Symposium, Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand. Environmental Systems research Institute (2005). Network Analysis ARC/INFO. User's guide 9.1, ESRI press. Guagliardo, M. K. (2004). "Spatial accessibility of primary care: concepts, methods and challenges." International Journal of Health Geographics 3(3). Haggett, P. and Chorly , R. (1969). Network Analysis in Geography. London, Edward Arnold. Hall, G. B. and Bowerman, R. L. (1996). "Modelling access to family planning services using GIS: A case study of the Central Valley of Costa Rica." ITC Journal 1: 38-48. Kohli, S., Sahlén, K., Sivertun, A., Löfman, O., Trell, E. and Wigertz, O. (1995). "Distance from the primary health center: a GIS method to study geographical access to health care." Journal of Medical Systems 19(6): 425-436. New Zealand Statistics (2005). Defining urban and rural New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand Statistics. New Zealand Ministry of Health (2001). Primary Health Organisation Agreement. V. 17. Wellington, Ministry of Health. Penchansky (1981). "The concept of access: definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction." Medical Care 19(2): 127-140. World Health Organization and UNICEF (1978). Report of the International Conference on Primary Healthcare. Alma-Ata, World Health Organization

    Power and Control: A multiphase mixed methods investigation of prepayment metering and fuel poverty in New Zealand.

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    Fuel poverty, (the inability to afford adequate household energy services, including healthy indoor temperatures) is a significant public health problem currently estimated to affect 25% of households in New Zealand and the cost of electricity is a key driver. Despite widespread international recognition, fuel poverty is not officially defined, measured, or explicitly targeted by government policy in New Zealand. Prepayment metering is an electricity payment method used predominantly by low-income consumers. It carries the risk of users not crediting their electricity meter or ‘self-disconnecting’, which may have serious health implications. Official figures suggest around 3% of households may be using prepayment metering, although there is no routine collection of data. This thesis examines the relationship between prepayment metering, in its present form, and fuel poverty in New Zealand through four discrete phases of research. This multiphase mixed methods programme of research draws from pragmatism, translational research, and socio-technical systems theories. A price comparison analysis found that using prepayment metering for electricity was always more expensive than other payment methods in four cities. A national-level postal survey of 768 electricity prepayment metering consumers was conducted in 2010 (response rate 48%). The survey found that households using prepayment meters are typically on low-incomes, Māori and Pasifika households are over-represented, and 54% of include children. Major findings were that 52% of respondents self-disconnected at least once in the past year; of concern, one third of these respondents were without electricity for ≥12 hrs, and 17% self-disconnected six or more times. A follow-up postal survey with the same cohort in 2011 (n 324, response rate 61%) investigated patterns of self-disconnection over time and home heating practices of this vulnerable group. Key findings were that self-disconnection remained problematic over time, that prepayment metering encouraged restriction of space heating in already cold homes, and over two thirds experienced shivering indoors at least once during the winter. An integrative analysis of the survey results compared the outcomes for households with and without children, responding to policy discussion. This found that households with children experienced greater hardship and were significantly more likely to restrict grocery expenditure in order to afford prepayment meter credit. A final study used qualitative description to explore household management of electricity expenditure and consumption through in-depth longitudinal interviews with 12 households. Extensive descriptions of advantages and disadvantages of prepayment metering, budgeting for electricity and of electricity end-uses, and socio-technical interactions between householders and their prepayment meters were attained. Overall, this research shows prepayment metering consumers are at greater risk of fuel poverty than the general population. Rationing electricity consumption below requirements for maintaining health and wellbeing is a significant problem; yet despite this, self-disconnection remains a consequence of fuel poverty for many households. Government intervention could reduce the risks and capture the benefits of prepayment metering. Other policies could enhance housing energy performance and reduce fuel poverty. An approach to defining and measuring fuel poverty is indicated. Policy recommendations for reducing fuel poverty, with particular attention to prepayment metering, are developed from this research

    What makes a good neighbour? Drivers of facilitation in alpine cushion plant communities

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    Species interactions, whether facilitative or competitive, play key roles in structuring plant communities. Research into these associations has focused on competitive interactions, however recently, facilitation research has increased in popularity. Using cushion plants as a model, the objective of this thesis is to determine the effect of abiotic drivers on species interactions as well as on the morphology and reproduction of a potential facilitator. Results from a New Zealand cushion species, Donatia novae-zelandiae found in mosaic alpine environments and oceanic sea-level sites were compared to those from a widespread Northern Hemisphere cushion species, Silene acaulis. Alpine (~1000m) D. novae-zelandiae cushions produced three times as many flowers and seven times as many seeds per capsule than at sea-level, but leaves were larger at sea-level. Cushion compactness was greatest at alpine sites. After two seasons of artificially warming 1.8°C, significant decreases in seed production (35%), leaf length (5%), and width (13%) were observed in the cushions. Donatia novae-zelandiae modestly increased species richness at the sea-level sites (1.4 ± 0.5 more species), but no species was specifically limited to growing within the cushions. Most species showed no significant association, although Dracophyllum longifolium, D. prostratum, Phyllachne colensoi, Rhacomitrium pruinosum, and Coprosma cheesemanii showed significant negative associations with Donatia novae-zelandiae at the alpine sites. Donatia novae-zelandiae may marginally increase species diversity locally, but diversity is not affected at the community level. At alpine sites, D. novae-zelandiae decreased species richness (2.5 ± 0.8 fewer species) compared to open areas. Removing neighbours growing within the D. novae-zelandiae resulted in significant heat stress to the cushions, reducing seed production, compactness, and leaf size. Donatia novae-zelandiae, unlike other cushion species, does not appear to be acting as key a facilitator regardless of whether they grow in an alpine community, or in a more mesic, low altitude habitat. D. novae-zelandiae may in fact benefit from their association with neighbouring plants. Unlike D. novae-zelandiae, Silene acaulis fitness at a high elevation site (2560 m) was reduced compared to the lower site (2317 m); female flower production decreased by 40%, seeds per fruit by 11.6%, and leaf size by 24% at the high site. Strong facilitators, hermaphroditic Silene acaulis individuals supported a greater number of plant species than females (hermaphrodites: 4.2 ± 0.3, females: 3.5 ± 0.2). Facilitative effects also significantly increased with elevation (2560 m: 2.1 ± 1.6, 2317 m: 3.2 ± 1.8). The typical ‘cushion model’ so often reported in the facilitation literature does not accurately represent the cushion plant functional type as a whole. D. novae-zelandiae is not a facilitator, but may rather be acting as a competitor, particularly in alpine cushion mosaic communities. This is likely driven by the peat substrate, typical of cushion mosaic communities. In comparison, cushions growing on more skeletal substrates, such as Silene acaulis are important facilitators. Results of this thesis stress the importance of studying cushion facilitation over a broader spectrum of cushion life forms and habitats

    Microbial adhesion to maxillary obturator materials

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    Maxillofacial prosthetics includes restoration of maxillary defects resulting from resection of palate and naso-sinus neoplasms with obturator prostheses, which may be colonised by microorganisms and function as a reservoir of infection. These patients commonly also require radiotherapy that can result in changes in oral flora and in saliva quality and quantity. The altered microflora, in individuals immunocompromised from cancer therapy, increases patient risk of prosthesis-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial adhesion to, and colonisation of, maxillary obturator materials. The influence of saliva on adhesion of bacteria and yeasts to obturator materials was also investigated. This study involved clinical and laboratory components. Clinically, microbial colonisation of obturator prostheses and adjacent tissues was investigated in patients referred for restoration of maxillary defects. This was undertaken at various stages of prosthodontic treatment by taking obturator and tissue swabs, saliva samples and reviewing tissue health. In the laboratory, RAPD PCR was used to identify bacteria and CHROMagar Candida was used to detect yeast species. DNA-DNA checkerboard analysis was also used for microbial detection. Microbial adhesion to obturator materials, and the influence of saliva on adhesion was investigated using static and flow adhesion assays. The analysis of salivary proteins affecting C. albicans adhesion to obturator materials was investigated using Western blot and blot overlay techniques. Identification of possible protein receptors for C. albicans adhesion to obturator materials was carried out by mass spectrometry analysis of the PAGE-separated protein bands. Clinically, obturator prostheses and adjacent tissues in all patients investigated were colonised by Candida, with C. albicans identified in 14 out of 15 patients, at all stages of treatment. Microbial colonisation increased with the age of the prosthesis; the number of microorganisms colonising obturators only reduced following a reline or delivery of a new prosthesis. C. albicans colonisation increased significantly during radiotherapy. All patients with C. albicans colonisation greater than 1x105 colony forming units (cfu) per swab after one-week of radiotherapy subsequently required antifungal therapy and/or hospitalisation to manage oral complications during radiotherapy whereas those with C. albicans colonisation less than 1x104 cfu per swab after one-week didn’t require antifungal treatment. This suggests early obturator colonising levels may be a predictor for patient susceptibility to increased morbidity from head and neck radiotherapy. In the laboratory, Staphylococcus epidermidis and C. albicans were identified from swabs of obturators and tissues. S. epidermidis and C. albicans attached to all obturator materials and tended to attach more readily to surfaces with a greater surface roughness and surface energy. Saliva reduced adhesion of S. epidermidis to obturator materials compared with uncoated materials, in contrast, saliva promoted adhesion of C. albicans. Saliva from irradiated patients promoted more adhesion of both S. epidermidis and C. albicans than saliva from controls. Salivary proteins were selectively adsorbed to obturator materials and C. albicans bound to salivary proteins eluted from the same materials. The protein SPLUNC2 was shown, for the first time, to be associated with Candida adhesion to acrylic and may provide receptors for C. albicans adhesion to obturator materials

    An investigation of the coelomic fluid and coelomocytes in a New Zealand sea urchin (Kina) Evechinus chloroticus

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    Abstract Sea urchins fulfil a vital role as a simple scientific model organism and as such have remained a well-used tool in the study of embryonic development and immunology. Sea urchins are known to be immunologically complex, at the level of innate immunity, and have been shown to respond to environmental stresses in a manner similar to the immune response in other animals. Most of the studies have been based on species such as Strongylocentrotus purpuratus or Paracentrotus lividus, while New Zealand’s sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus (commonly known as kina), has yet to be thoroughly studied. Evechinus chloroticus is one of the largest sea urchin species and is valued culturally and commercially for its edible gonad, or roe. Investigating the stress response of E. chloroticus would provide a greater understanding of their immune system, knowledge that could prove beneficial for potential aquaculture projects involving E. chloroticus. Investigating E. chloroticus would help to elucidate the similarities and differences between E. chloroticus and species already studied such as S. purpuratus and P. lividus. To carry out this investigation into E. chloroticus, samples of sea urchin body fluid, the coelomic fluid, and the coelomocyte cell populations that are found within it, were analysed to elucidate their protein content. To ensure that the immune response was activated, subsets of sea urchins were subjected to environmental stress (prolonged exposure to cold) before samples were taken for analysis. One-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D and 2D-PAGE) were used to generate protein displays, of sea urchin samples, that allowed a visual comparison of the protein differences between samples. Two-dimensional PAGE (large format) was used for comparative analysis of stressed and unstressed samples of cell-free coelomic fluid and total coelomocytes. Spots were selected, from the protein spot displays, for in-gel enzymatic digestion with trypsin and plated for analysis by mass spectrometry (MALDI –TOF). The peptide sequences generated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were searched against online protein databases, SwissProt and NCBI Echinodermata, for homology with known proteins that could provide putative identities for the unknown proteins. This research identified a number of peptide sequences with homology to known proteins. Proteins were identified as or homologous to proteins related to immune response, cell-to-cell adhesion, iron binding, retinol binding, lipid binding, serine/threonine protein kinases, cell cycle regulation, cellular metabolism, DNA/RNA processing, cytoskeletal interaction, clotting and membrane localisation. The proteins that were identified have provided greater insight into many aspects of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus

    Passive dynamics in animal locomotion

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    For decades, biologists believed that animals walk because the brain calculates motion trajectories for their limbs. However, an alternative hypothesis on animal locomotion suggests the opposite. The animal framework is built to walk “naturally” and the dynamics work without relying on controls. Instead, the walking gait is simply generated by the interaction of gravity and inertia, establishing a stable, naturally emerging limit-cycle known as passive dynamic walking. The feasibility of passive dynamic walking has been demonstrated for a biped system consisting of only a pair of legs. This thesis examines full-body passive dynamic walking models with simple and animal-like mechanical linkages that can generate walking gaits using only gravity that are able to recover from small perturbations without the need for controller input. The contribution of a torso to the stability and efficiency of passive biped walking is also addressed. When an upper-body is added, passive dynamic walking takes place on level ground but for energetic reasons, it is unstable. The second part of the thesis looks at how to stabilize the passive walking trajectory on level ground in a physically feasible and biologically relevant way. Findings suggest that the role of locomotion control is to provide stability, rather than drive the limb onto a pre-calculated trajectory

    Production, Identity and Inherited Aesthetics: Digital Technology, Authenticity and Location in Independent Music Practice

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    I combine an ethnographic study with the construction of a varied, reflexive theoretical framework for exploring the role of digital technology in independent music practice. I argue that independent musicians’ use of digital technology is inextricably bound to issues of place, authenticity, and social interaction. Specifically, I assert that Dunedin musicians’ use of digital technology manifests a range of reactions to historically grounded classifications of their musical practice, as occasionally propagated by media and promotional organisations. I investigate their preference for production methodologies that foreground live performance, and their intrinsic desire for self-determination. I suggest that they are particularly aware of their agency towards the technologies that they deploy, and the aesthetic significance of their musical, and extra–musical constructions of identity online. I explore the economics shaping independent Dunedin musicians’ use of digital technology, both in terms of their often-fraught relationships with established industry structures, and in the political economy of their move away from a focus on the production of manufactured physical objects. In seeking to understand the complex relationships between authenticity, location and technology use, this thesis argues against utopian and deterministic conceptions of the ‘democratising power’ of digital technology. It also critiques similarly couched assertions that Internet use contributes to the ‘disembodiment’ of music. Rather, I assess musicians’ online presentation and distribution methodologies as attempts to foster closer relationships with their diverse audiences. I further suggest that artists’ use of specific online technologies gives rise to opportunities for music promotion to move away from industrially and geographically circumscribed models. In evidencing these claims, this thesis maintains a clear focus on the actions, rather than the products of independent musicians’ technology use. Above all, it seeks to delineate a productive understanding of the nexus between independent music practice, digital technology use, history and location

    Managerial Incentives Behind Fixed Asset Revaluations: Evidence from New Zealand Firms

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    This study investigates the underlying management incentives of the upward fixed asset revaluation behaviour of New Zealand listed companies over the period 1999 to 2003. Prior research conducted in Australia (e.g. Whittred and Chan, 1992; Brown et al., 1992) and the U.K. (e.g. Lin and Peasnell, 2000a and 2000b) provided empirical evidence that upward fixed asset revaluation decisions were used to reduce contracting costs, political costs and information asymmetry. This study provides evidence to support the findings of earlier research with regard to the political costs only. That is, larger firms are found to be more likely to revalue their assets in order to mitigate political costs. In addition, this study finds that most revaluation activities of New Zealand companies were conducted regularly by independent valuers. 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"Discussion write-offs: manipulation or impairment?" Journal of Accounting Research. 34: 171-177
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