University of Angers

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    18298 research outputs found

    Improving complex SMT strategies with learning

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    Satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) solving strategies are composed of various components and parameters that can dramatically affect the performance of an SMT solver. Each of these elements includes a huge amount of options that cannot be exploited without expert knowledge. In this work, we analyze separately the different strategy components of the Z3 theorem prover, which is one of the most important solvers of the SMT community. We propose some rules for modifying components, parameters, and structures of solving strategies. Using these rules inside different engines leads to an automated strategy learning process which does not require any end‐user expert knowledge to generate optimized strategies. Our algorithms and rules are validated by optimizing some solving strategies for some selected SMT logics. These strategies are then tested for solving some SMT library benchmarks issued from the SMT competitions. The strategies we automatically generated turn out to be very efficient

    Penser et construire le bonheur : regards croisés

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    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) in intensive care units: strong correlation with the ESBLE colonization pressure in patients but not same species

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    Sink drains of six intensive care units (ICUs) were sampled for screening contamination with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE). A high prevalence (59.4%) of sink drain contamination was observed. Analysing the data by ICU, the ratio \u27number of ESBLE species isolated in sink drains/total number of sink drains sampled\u27 was highly correlated (Spearman coefficient: 0.87; P = 0.02) with the ratio \u27number of hospitalization days for patients with ESBLE carriage identified within the preceding year/total number of hospitalization days within the preceding year\u27. Concurrently, the distribution of ESBLE species differed significantly between patients and sink drains

    Mandibular bone effects of botulinum toxin injections in masticatory muscles in adult

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    OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin (BTX) is injected into masticatory muscles to treat various conditions. Animal studies have demonstrated bone loss at the condylar and alveolar regions of the mandible after BTX injection into masticatory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate mandibular bone changes in patients who received BTX injections in masticatory muscles. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve adult patients who received BTX injections into masticatory muscles were included in this study. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed before and 12 months after the injection. The condylar and alveolar regions of the mandible were analyzed by using texture analysis of the CBCT images with the run length method. Condylar cortical thickness was measured, and 3-dimensional analysis of the mandible was also performed. Six patients who did not receive BTX injections were used as controls. RESULTS: A run length parameter (gray level nonuniformity) was found to be increased in condylar and alveolar bones. A significant cortical thinning was found at the anterior portion of the right condyle. Three-dimensional analysis showed significant changes in the condylar bone and at the digastric fossa. No changes in mandibular angles were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified mandibular bone changes in adult patients who received BTX injection into masticatory muscles

    Resorcinolic Lipids from Yucatecan Propolis

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    Propolis is a material produced by bees from a combination of plant exudates and wax, used to fill out cracks in the beehive and to defend against intruders and pathogenic microorganisms; it is recognized for its many biological activities and its chemical composition depends on the botanical sources close to the beehive. The objective of this investigation was to isolate and identify metabolites with antioxidant activity present in a propolis sample collected in Yucatan, Mexico. Purification of the bioactive metabolites was carried out using argentation chromatography, while the combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), laser desorption ionization (LDI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and biosynthetic origin data allowed their identification as resorcinolic lipids. Finally, the resin of Mangifera indica was identified as the botanical source of these metabolite

    A proposal for a useful algorithm to diagnose small hepatocellular carcinoma on MRI

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI features for the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and especially for nodules not showing both of the typical hallmarks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixty-four cirrhotic patients underwent liver MRI for 10-30 mm nodules suggestive of HCC. The diagnostic performances of MRI features [T1, T2; diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging signal, enhancement, capsule, fat content] were tested, both individually and in association with both typical hallmarks and as substitutions for one hallmark. The diagnostic reference was obtained using a multifactorial algorithm ensuring high specificity (Sp). RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety-three nodules were analyzed. No alternative features, associations or substitutions outperformed the typical hallmarks for the diagnosis of HCC. For 10-20 mm nodules not displaying one of the typical hallmarks, hyperintensity on DW images was the most accurate substitutive sign, providing a sensitivity of 71.4% and Sp of 75% for nodules without arterial enhancement and sensitivity=65.2% and Sp=66% for nodules without washout on the portal or delayed phases. A new diagnostic algorithm, including typical hallmarks as a first step then the best-performing substitutive signs (capsule presence or DW hyperintensity) in combination with the nonmissing typical hallmark as a second step, enabled the correct classification of 77.7% of all nodules, regardless of size. CONCLUSION: Using MRI, the typical hallmarks remain the best criteria for the diagnosis of small HCCs. However, by incorporating other MRI features, it is possible to build a simple algorithm enabling the noninvasive diagnosis of HCCs displaying both or only one of the typical hallmarks

    Development and Validation of Hepamet Fibrosis Scoring System-a Simple, Non-invasive Test to Identify Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty liver Disease With Advanced Fibrosis

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrosis affects prognoses for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several non-invasive scoring systems have aimed to identify patients at risk for advanced fibrosis, but inconclusive results and variations in features of patients (diabetes, obesity and older age) reduce their diagnostic accuracy. We sought to develop a scoring system based on serum markers to identify patients with NAFLD at risk for advanced fibrosis. METHODS: We collected data from 2452 patients with NAFLD at medical centers in Italy, France, Cuba, and China. We developed the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system using demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory test data, collected at time of liver biopsy, from a training cohort of patients from Spain (n=768) and validated the system using patients from Cuba (n=344), Italy (n=288), France (n=830), and China (n=232). Hepamet fibrosis score (HFS) were compared with those of previously developed fibrosis scoring systems (the NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS] and FIB-4). The diagnostic accuracy of the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system was assessed based on area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Variables used to determine HFS were patient sex, age, homeostatic model assessment score, presence of diabetes, levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin, and platelet counts; these were independently associated with advanced fibrosis. HFS discriminated between patients with and without advanced fibrosis with an AUROC curve value of 0.85 whereas NFS or FIB-4 did so with AUROC values of 0.80 (P=.0001). In the validation set, cut-off HFS of 0.12 and 0.47 identified patients with and without advanced fibrosis with 97.2% specificity, 74% sensitivity, a 92% negative predictive value, a 76.3% positive predictive value, a 13.22 positive likelihood ratio, and a 0.31 negative likelihood ratio. HFS were not affected by patient age, body mass index, hypertransaminasemia, or diabetes. The Hepamet fibrosis scoring system had the greatest net benefit in identifying patients who should undergo liver biopsy analysis and led to significant improvements in reclassification, reducing the number of patients with undetermined results to 20% from 30% for the FIB-4 and NFS systems (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using clinical and laboratory data from patients with NAFLD, we developed and validated the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system, which identified patients with advanced fibrosis with greater accuracy than the FIB-4 and NFS systems. the Hepamet system provides a greater net benefit for the decision-making process to identify patients who should undergo liver biopsy analysis

    High prevalence of contamination of sink drains with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 4 intensive care units apart from any epidemic context

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    We report a high prevalence (28%) of sink drains contaminated with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in 4 intensive care units with a history of CPE carriage in hospitalized patients within the previous 5 years, but apart from any current epidemic context. Carbapenemase genes, particularly bla and bla, were identified by polymerase chain reaction in sink drains in which no CPE was detected, but very few data are available in the literature concerning their presence in sink drains

    Targeted molecular characterization shows differences between primary and secondary myelofibrosis

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    INTRODUCTION: In BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelofibrosis (MF) is either primary (PMF) or secondary (SMF) to polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. MF is characterized by an increased risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a shortened life expectancy. METHODS: Because natural histories of PMF and SMF are different, we studied by targeted next generation sequencing the differences in the molecular landscape of 86 PMF and 59 SMF and compared their prognosis impact. RESULTS: PMF had more ASXL1 (47.7%) and SRSF2 (14%) gene mutations than SMF (respectively 27.1% and 3.4%, P = .04). Poorer survival was associated with RNA splicing mutations (especially SRSF2) and TP53 in PMF (P = .0003), and with ASXL1 and TP53 mutations in SMF (P < .0001). These mutations of poor prognosis were associated with biological features of scoring systems (DIPSS and MYSEC-PM score). Mutations in TP53/SRSF2 in PMF or TP53/ASXL1 in SMF were more frequent as the risk of these scores increased. This allowed for a better stratification of MF patients, especially within the DIPSS intermediate-1 risk group (DIPSS) or the MYSEC-PM high risk group. AML transformation occurred faster in SMF than in PMF and patients who transformed to AML were more SRSF2-mutated and less CALR-mutated at MF sampling. CONCLUSIONS: PMF and SMF have different but not specific molecular profiles and different prognosis depending on the molecular profile. This may be due to differences in disease history. Combining mutations and existing scores should improve prognosis assessment

    Retour sur une formule convenue : la Ve République une "monarchie républicaine"

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