University of Central Lancashire

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    23226 research outputs found

    Using Eye-Tracking to Demonstrate Children's Attention to Detail when Evaluating Low-Fidelity Prototypes.

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    This study used eye tracking glasses to better understand how children explore low-fidelity prototypes in the context of user experience studies and to explore the potential of eye tracking in this context. The main research question that was being explored was whether the aesthetic refinement, either wireframe or high-resolution images, would affect children’s self-report and if so, or if not, what could be learned from knowing where children looked when exploring the prototypes. The results showed that the aesthetic refinement had little influence over the children’s overall ratings of the game. The eye tracking data demonstrated that there were no differences in the time spent viewing the prototypes and most of the children focused on both the visuals and text on all the pages. However, there were a higher number of fixations recorded in the wireframe prototype compared to the photo-realistic version. This paper contributes to the design of prototypes through an understanding of how children interact with prototypes, demonstrating the importance of the text along with the visuals when evaluating game concepts with children. Further research is required to understand the differences and whether similar results are replicated with different games

    Challenges and Opportunities in Pesticide Regulations

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    A large amount of the annual food production can be lost due to infestation with pests, with the addition of high temperatures and humidity conditions that would contribute to the multiplication of pests. Hence, applying pesticides to crops is essential to help fight various types of borne diseases and increase crop productivity. However, with the growth of agriculture over the years, there has been uncontrolled use of pesticides, which has led to adverse environmental and health consequences. Increased use of pesticides causes the chemicals to accumulate in the environment and food products to reach high toxic levels, polluting the soil, air, ground, and surface water. Humans can also come into direct contact with pesticides through skin contact, inhalation, or ingestion while handling the chemicals or by being close to the area where pesticides are used. Livestock and animals in the area are also at risk of toxicity through the ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water [1]

    A Contrastive Pragmatics Study of Invitations in British English and Japanese

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    This study offers a cross-cultural pragmatics perspective on invitations. It explores invitation sequences in a symmetrical invitation-refusal situation, performed by 20 female native speakers of British English and 20 female native speakers of Japanese, from a discursive approach using role plays. The qualitative analysis of the data obtained from the adapted version of conversation analysis revealed some similarities and differences in turn designs of the English and the Japanese invitations. Although pre-sequences were highly frequent in the English data, they were more so in the Japanese data. The analysis of the linguistic formats of the invitations in the two sets of data revealed that an approach to handle uncertainty seen in the cases where the invitation was initiated with a preface differed - the English speakers used a syntactic solution whereas the Japanese speakers used a sequential solution. These findings highlight the importance of analysing speech acts in situated interactions

    Criteria and indicators for Centers of Clinical Excellence in stroke recovery and rehabilitation: A global consensus facilitated by ISRRA

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    Background The aim of the International Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Alliance is to create a world where worldwide collaboration brings major breakthroughs for the millions of people living with stroke. A key pillar of this work is to define globally relevant criteria for centers that aspire to deliver excellent clinical rehabilitation and generate exceptional outcomes for patients. Objectives This paper presents consensus work conducted with an international group of expert stroke recovery and rehabilitation researchers, clinicians, and people living with stroke to identify and define criteria and measurable indicators for Centers of Clinical Excellence (CoCE) in stroke recovery and rehabilitation. These were intentionally developed to be ambitious and internationally relevant, regardless of a country’s development or income status, to drive global improvement in stroke services. Methods Criteria and specific measurable indicators for CoCE were collaboratively developed by an international panel of stroke recovery and rehabilitation experts from 10 countries and consumer groups from 5 countries. Results The criteria and associated indicators, ranked in order of importance, focused upon (i) optimal outcome, (ii) research culture, (iii) working collaboratively with people living with stroke, (iv) knowledge exchange, (v) leadership, (vi) education, and (vii) advocacy. Work is currently underway to user-test the criteria and indicators in 14 rehabilitation centers in 10 different countries. Conclusions We anticipate that use of the criteria and indicators could support individual organizations to further develop their services and, more widely, provide a mechanism by which clinical excellence can be articulated and shared to generate global improvements in stroke care

    Policing Domestic Abuse: The onus on first responders

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    The police first responder has a central role in the multi-agency response to domestic abuse in most jurisdictions and is uniquely placed to solicit information from the victim-survivor about the experiences and behaviours they have witnessed first-hand. The College of Policing advises that first response officers have a dual role when attending domestic callouts: to recognise signs of abuse and prevent offences from occurring, and identify criminal offences so that offenders can be brought to justice. The frontline encounter by police is a pivotal moment for myriad reasons. Sharing results and reflections from our experiences of evaluating a number of innovative approaches to the policing of domestic abuse in the UK context, we illustrate the onus placed on the police first responder. In the effort to improve the overall criminal justice response to domestic abuse, we argue that a greater appreciation of this onus is needed amongst all criminal justice and multi-agency practitioners. Furthermore, we argue that greater support for police first responders is needed to improve outcomes for all following this encounter

    Transferability of Human and Environmental Microbiome on Clothes as a Tool for Forensic Investigations

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    Considering the growing importance of microbiome analyses in forensics for identifying individuals, this study explores the transfer of the skin microbiome onto clothing, its persistence on fabrics over time, and its transferability from the environment and between different garments. Furthermore, this project compares three specific QIAGEN microbiome extraction kits to test their extraction efficiency on fabric samples. Additionally, this study aims to check if these extracts contain human DNA, providing a chance to obtain more information from the same evidence for personal identification. The results obtained show: (1) variations in the skin microbiome between the volunteers, potentially due to their different sex; (2) differences in microbial composition between worn and unworn clothing; (3) the influence of the environment on the microbial signature of unworn clothing; (4) the potential use of certain phyla as biomarkers to differentiate between worn and unworn garments, even over extended periods; (5) a tendency towards extraction biases in the QIAampMP® DNA microbiome kit among the three tested ones; and (6) none of the extraction kits allow for the typing of human genetic profiles suitable for comparison. In conclusion, our study offers supplementary insights into the potential utility of time-transferred microbiome analysis on garments for forensic applications

    Oral tradition, ancient history and religious tourism knowledge

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    Religious tourism is one of the most longstanding forms of leisure related travel in the world with a history dating back to antiquity. However, there has been a hesitation amongst many tourism scholars to critically assess the role of ancient religious texts to understand the attitudes and behaviours of religious tourists and tourism destinations. With reference to literature on oral traditions, the aim of this exploratory paper is to critically consider the insights that can be derived from the Christian Bible for the management and scholarly understanding of contemporary religious tourism. This paper suggests that Christianity’s oral traditions and their ensuing written representation in the Bible provide an important means of understanding religion ‘as lived’ in the ancient world. Religious tourists are often driven by a pilgrim’s mentality to tread in the footsteps of the first apostles and other religious leaders. From a historical perspective, the oral formulation of the New Testament and its subsequent influence on the formation of the Bible as a religious text offers religious tourists an insight into such people and the places/ experiences that were important in the faith of the early church

    Universality in eye movements and reading: A replication with increased power

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    Liversedge, Drieghe, Li, Yan, Bai and Hyönä (2016) reported an eye movement study that investigated reading in Chinese, Finnish and English (languages with markedly different orthographic characteristics). Analyses of the eye movement records showed robust differences in fine grained characteristics of eye movements between languages, however, overall sentence reading times did not differ. Liversedge et al. interpreted the entire set of results across languages as reflecting universal aspects of processing in reading. However, the study has been criticized as being statistically underpowered (Brysbaert, 2019) given that only 19-21 subjects were tested in each language. Also, given current best practice, the original statistical analyses can be considered to be somewhat weak (e.g., no inclusion of random slopes and no formal comparison of performance between the three languages). Finally, the original study did not include any formal statistical model to assess effects across all three languages simultaneously. To address these (and some other) concerns, we tested at least 80 new subjects in each language and conducted formal statistical modelling of our data across all three languages. To do this, we included an index that captured variability in visual complexity in each language. Unlike the original findings, the new analyses showed shorter total sentence reading times for Chinese relative to Finnish and English readers. The other main findings reported in the original study were consistent. We suggest that the faster reading times for Chinese subjects occurred due to cultural changes that have taken place in the decade or so that lapsed between when the original and current subjects were tested. We maintain our view that the results can be taken to reflect universality in aspects of reading and we evaluate the claims regarding a lack of statistical power that were levelled against the original article

    Medicines and other factors causing deaths in English and welsh care homes: five-years of preventing future death reports by coroners

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    Background Whilst information has been published on the impact, severity and causes of incidents involving medicines in care homes, it has not been systematically described. This review explored whether coroners’ Preventing Future Death (PFD) reports involving medicines for people living in care homes could add to this evidence base. Methods PFD reports made publicly available between 2017 and 2021 classified as ‘care home-related deaths’ were reviewed. Reports describing medicines and/or medicines processes were identified. Contributory factors within these reports were then identified. Results Within the timeframe, 156 reports were published, and 25 described medicines (n = 27) or medicines processes (n = 5) concerning people living in care homes. The impact of medicines and/or medicines processes was quantified as no impact (n = 7), contributory (n = 6) and direct (n = 14) per report. Two key themes emerged. Four deaths had an association between their falls risk, prescribed anticoagulants, and the failure of the service to seek timely emergency care following a fall and two deaths concerned endocrine medicines, where people refused insulin or blood sugar monitoring and staff did not seek timely advice. Conclusion This study demonstrated PFD reports provide an insight into the potential association between medicines, and other aspects of the person’s care in causing harm

    Refugees and asylum seekers in East Asia: Perspectives from Japan and Taiwan

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    Offers an interdisciplinary approach to the theme of refugees/asylum seekers Integrates the overlooked cases of Japan and Taiwan in scholarship on refugees/asylum seekers Views refugees and asylum seekers’ experiences in East Asia through a human security lens This book is open access, which means that you have free and unlimited acces

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