3034 research outputs found

    Goat milk powders enriched with grape pomace seed extract: Physical and techno-functional properties

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    This study aimed to evaluate the physical (particle size and ζ-potential) and techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming) of goat milk powders enriched with grape pomace seed extract (TME), as promising food ingredients in the formulation of functional food. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, along with advanced chemometric tools were employed as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for analyzing TME powders. All powders exhibited a unimodal particle size distribution and ζ-potential values more negative than −36 mV. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopies combined with principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated distinct separation among skimmed goat milk (M), thermally treated skimmed goat milk (TM), and TME powders in different spectral regions (amide I, II, III, and fingerprint region). This separation resulted from the applied thermal treatment, the presence of phenolic compounds and their complexes with goat milk proteins, and the formation of Maillard reaction products. SEM analysis confirmed the different morphology and shapes of M, TM and TME powders. The 0.1% solutions of M, TM and TME exhibited good emulsifying properties (emulsion activity index and emulsion stability index) but showed poor foaming properties, except for the M sample. Solution concentrations higher than 0.1% for all samples (0.5% and 1.0%) displayed poor techno-functional properties. In summary, a schematic representation of the arrangement of casein micelles in 0.1% M, TM and TME samples, on oil/water and air/water surfaces was provided. The production of TME powders represents an innovative strategy for waste recovery in the production of functional food ingredients with good emulsifying properties

    Diving into the interface-mediated Mars-van Krevelen (M−vK) characteristic of CuOx-supported CeO2 catalysts

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    The unique interface synergistic catalytic properties for metal oxide-supported catalysts have long been explored in several critical heterogeneous catalytic processes (e.g., CO oxidation reactions). However, interfacial synergistic catalysis is still a hitherto undescribed mechanism due to the lack of direct evidence at the atomic level. Thereinto, the CuOx-supported CeO2 (CuOx/CeO2) catalyst is a typical case. Herein, a combination study including representative theoretical calculations, in situ DRIFTS spectra and tailored molecular probe experiments supports a new carbonate-interface mediated Mars-van Krevelen (M−vK) mechanism for CO oxidation, i.e., CO molecules form carbonate intermediate species directly between spatial proximity (2.99 Å) double lattice oxygen sites with low oxygen vacancies formation energy (EformOv = 0.82 eV/0.83 eV) at the copper−ceria interface. The reaction energy barrier of this process is 0.32 eV, much lower than the 1.23 eV of the conventional M−vK mechanism. Besides, the spatial effect of double oxygen vacancies (Ov) generated by the depletion of intermediate carbonate species promotes the sustained and dynamic activation of O2, hence facilitating the efficient operation of the M−vK mechanism at low temperatures

    Emotions and Food Consumption: Emotional Eating Behavior in a European Population

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    Emotion can reflect in the perception of food consumption. An increase in food intake during emotional and psychological conditions may have a negative impact on human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between food consumption, emotional eating behavior, and emotional conditions such as stress, depression, loneliness, boredom eating, maintaining vigilance and alertness, and emotional food consolation. We used a Motivations for Food Choices Questionnaire (Eating Motivations, EATMOT) to determine the emotional aspects of food consumption in 9052 respondents living in 12 European countries between October 2017 and March 2018. Ordinal linear regression was used to identify the associations between the emotional eating behavior and emotional conditions such as stress, depression, loneliness, emotional consolation, and reasons to improve physical and psychological conditions. The regression models confirmed the associations between food consumption, emotional conditions, and emotional eating behavior. Associations were found between the emotional eating behavior and stress (odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.60, p = 0.010), depressive mood (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.40–1.43, p < 0.001), loneliness (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.58–1.62, p < 0.001), boredom (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.36–1.39, p < 0.001), and emotional consolation (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.54–1.57, p < 0.001). Emotional eating was associated with an effort to improve physical and psychological conditions, such as controlling body weight (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.10–1.12, p < 0.001), keeping awake and alert (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.19–1.20, p < 0.001) and consumption to feel good (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.21–1.22, p < 0.001). In conclusion, emotions might provoke emotional eating behavior. The appropriate way to handle stress, depression, or other emotional states is important in conditions of being emotionally overwhelmed. The public should be educated on how to handle different emotional states. The focus should be moved somehow from emotional eating and the consumption of unhealthy food to healthy lifestyle practices, including regular exercise and healthy eating habits. Thus, it is necessary to halt these negative health effects on human health through public health programs

    Effect of the Deposition of Vanadium-Oxide on the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanotubes and Its Photodiode Performance Interfaced with CH3NH3PbI3 Single Crystal

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    In this study, we report the influence of vanadium oxide (VO), as a photosensitive component, on the photoactivity of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs). A series of TNTs of varying tube diameter were synthesized by the anodization of titanium foils at different voltages, while vanadium oxide was deposited on TNTs by wet chemical deposition. An improvement in the optical properties of nanotubes was observed after the deposition of vanadium oxide. An improvement in the optical properties (redshift in UV-Vis spectra) of TNTs and TNT/VO was noted. The photocatalytic activity was improved with increasing tube diameter, while it was weakened after the deposition of VO. Furthermore, photoactivity was investigated in photodiodes based on TNTs or TNT/VO and single crystals of CH3NH3PbI3. The photoelectric measurement revealed that different TNT diameters did not influence the I-V characteristic of the photodiodes, while the deposition of VO improved the photocurrent for smaller TNTs

    Design of Pt-Sn-Zn Nanomaterials for Successful Methanol Electrooxidation Reaction

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    This work highlights the potential for the synthesis of new PtSnZn catalysts with enhanced efficiency and durability for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in low-temperature fuel cells. In this research, PtZn and PtSnZn nanoparticles deposited on high surface area Vulcan XC-72R Carbon support were c

    Incompatible pollen tubes in the quince style and their impact on fertilization success

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    Self-incompatibility presents one of the challenges in modern fruit production. It can be correlated with a lower yield of self-incompatible cultivars which also demand the planting of the pollinisers. The aim of this work was to investigate the phenomenon of incompatibility and its influence on fertilization success in quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), using the cultivars ‘Leskovacka’, ‘Vranjska’, ‘Morava’, ‘Pazardzijska’, ‘Hemus’, ‘Asenica’, ‘Portugal’ and ‘Triumph’. Incompatible pollen tubes were determined by using fluorescence microscopy. In two types of pollination (self-pollination and open pollination) pollen tubes showed signs of incompatibility, mostly in the upper third of the style. The most common sign of incompatibility is the formation of swelling at the tip of a pollen tube. Also, sometimes twisted, bifurcated, and short and thickened pollen tubes along their entire length are formed. The incompatibility was significantly more pronounced in the self-pollination than in the open pollination variant in all tested cultivars. The highest number of incompatible pollen tubes in both pollination types was present in the cultivar ‘Pazardzijska’, while the lowest number was present in the cultivars ‘Leskovacka’ and ‘Vranjska’. The appearance of incompatibility affected the degree of fertilization in quince. The results showed that only ‘Leskovacka’ and ‘Vranjska’ are selfcompatible, while other studied cultivars (‘Morava’, ‘Pazardzijska’, ‘Hemus’, ‘Asenica’, ‘Portugal’ and ‘Triumph’) are self-incompatible. The results provide a good background for the future research of reproductive biology and also for adequate management of the quince orchards

    Understanding the effect of synthesis and sintering temperature on the functional properties of barium titanate/cobalt ferrite composites

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    To investigate the effect of synthesis procedure and sintering temperature on the functional properties of perovskite/spinel ceramics, BaTiO3/CoFe2O4 composites were prepared by thermal decomposition, coprecipitation, and microemulsion method, and sintered at 1150°C and 1300°C. The phase composition and morphology of as-prepared powders as well as sintered ceramics were thoroughly examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The dielectric and ferroelectric measurements were performed in detail. Generally, the samples sintered at 1300°C had better performances than those sintered at 1150°C. The composite synthesized by thermal decomposition and sintered at 1300°C stands out among other prepared BaTiO3/CoFe2O4 ceramics, owing to high stability in the wide frequency range and low leakage currents. The obtained results indicate that such composite might be successfully applied as a functional multiferroic

    Analysis of the use of certified seeds оn family farms in the republic of Serbia

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    Seed quality, which is the basis of crop production, is one of the main factors that determines yield, product quality and production stability as a whole. According to various estimates, the use of certified seeds in the Republic of Serbia has been declining in recent years, which brings with it numerous risks in production. The aim of this paper was to analyze the state of use of certified wheat, soybean and alfalfa seeds on family agricultural farms, but also to assess that the use of certified seeds in production is related to the physical size of the farm. For the purposes of this research, data from a survey conducted in 2021 and 2022 were used, and included 2101 agricultural farms engaged in the production of wheat, soybeans and alfalfa. Farm surveys were conducted according to a specially created questionnaire, which enabled a methodical way of collecting data from respondents selected in the sampling process. Descriptive statistics methods were used for data processing, and the obtained results were presented tabularly and graphically. The results of the research showed that 62.5% of surveyed farms engaged in the production of wheat on their production areas use certified seeds of this crop and that these are mostly farms with a size of 50 to 100 ha. Certified soybean seeds are used by 52.3%, while certified alfalfa seeds are used by 75.6% of farms producing these crops, which have up to 50 ha or more than 50 ha of used agricultural land. On the other hand, only 4.4% of farms declared that they do not use certified seeds in wheat production, 11.2% of the total number of surveyed soybean producers do not use certified seeds, while 13.4% of surveyed farms base their alfalfa production on non-certified seeds. In terms of farm size, these are mainly farms with up to 10 ha, or less than 5 ha of used agricultural land. At the same time, the survey analyzed the reasons for using uncertified seeds. The high price of certified seed is a limiting factor for 61.8% of farms that produce wheat, 60.3% of soybean producers and 43.3% of surveyed farms that grow alfalfa. The second most significant limiting factor is the belief that seeds from own production of wheat (19.7%), soybeans (13.6%) and alfalfa (33.0%) are of better quality than certified seeds. From the obtained research results, it can be concluded that there is a need to educate agricultural producers about the importance of using certified seeds, which is reflected in long-term business, and not only through the analysis of one-year results, which in some seasons indicate greater savings by avoiding investments in certified seeds

    Efficiency of Biological Typing Methods in Maize Hybrid Genetic Purity Estimation

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    A high level of genetic purity in crop varieties must be achieved and maintained for agronomic performance, encouraging investment and innovation in plant breeding and ensuring that the improvements in productivity and quality imparted by breeders are delivered to the consumer. Since the success of hybrid seed production is dependent upon the genetic purity of the parental lines, in this study, the experimental F1exp maize hybrid and its parental inbreeds were used as a model system to examine the discriminative power of morphological, biochemical and SSR markers for seed purity assay. The highest number of off-type plants was estimated by morphological markers. According to the comparison of prolamins and albumins banding patterns of parental and derived F1exp seeds, genetic impurities could not be detected. Molecular analysis detected two types of genetic profile irregularity. Beside its use for verifying varieties of maize, report on umc1545 primer pair ability to detect non-specific bands (i.e., off-types), in both the maternal component and F1exp, which is the first report on this issue yet, strongly supports the recommendation of this SSR marker use for more accurate and time-efficient maize hybrids and parental lines genetic pyrity testing

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