IFPRI Knowledge Repsitory

    POSHAN’s abstract digest on maternal and child nutrition research – Issue 19

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    In this new year issue of Abstract Digest, we bring to you the much-awaited birth cohort MAL-ED study, two systematic reviews, as well as feature an article which mapped state-level disease burden and risk factors for the states in India, and several other interesting articles. In our non-peer reviewed section, we feature several papers from a book on ‘Nutritional Adequacy, Diversity and Choice Among Primary School Children: Policy and Practice in India.’Non-PRIFPRI1; POSHAN; CRP4PHND; SAO; A4NHCGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH

    Understanding the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s agricultural paradox: Based on the eAtlas data platform

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    The huge agricultural potential of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is well Documented. The country is endowed with well over two million square kilometers (km2) of land, 800 thousand of which is arable, yet only 10 percent is currently under cultivation. DRC also has favorable climatic and ecological conditions, allowing several harvests of numerous crops per year. Nevertheless, few studies have looked at the country’s spatial heterogeneity in terms of economic activity, public goods, or the livelihood strategies of smallholder farmers. As a result, policymakers have little evidence to guide their decisions in planning and implementing interventions to improve the nation’s food and nutrition security status. To fill in this knowledge deficit, the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS), which is facilitated by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), provides knowledge products and analytical tools in support of African countries. Among the tools developed, country eAtlas—which is freely available online (http://eatlas. resakss.org/)—is a highly interactive, geographic information systems–based mapping tool designed to provide policymakers and analysts with access to high-quality, highly disaggregated data on agricultural, socioeconomic, and biophysical indicators.Non-PRIFPRI1; Capacity Strengthening; ReSAKSSWCA

    Agronomic performance of open pollinated and hybrid maize varieties: Results from on-farm trials in northern Ghana

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    Maize is an important staple crop in Ghana, but maize productivity is low. Other countries with similar agroecological conditions have increased maize productivity by increasing the use of maize hybrids. This paper presents the results of maize trials in northern Ghana, in which hybrids were tested to see if they performed significantly better than the varieties planted by farmers. This paper details the procedures of the maize trials and presents descriptive statistics of the trial results. The trials demonstrated that two foreign hybrids performed consistently better than Obaatanpa, the most widely used variety in the north. The foreign hybrids performed consistently well in all districts and appear to be well-suited for planting in northern Ghana.Non-PRIFPRI1; GSSP; CRP2DSGD; PIMCGIAR Research Programs on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM

    2014 Social Accounting Matrix for Malawi

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    This data study includes social accounting matrix (SAM) for Malawi for the year 2014. The SAM is an extension of the Standard Nexus structure. It consists of 63 activity sectors, 65 commodity sectors, three types of factors of production: labor (rural and urban disaggregated by level of education), land, and capital (disaggregated by crops, livestock, mining and other sectors). The household sector is divided spatially into urban and rural households. Rural households are further disaggregated into households that earn crop and/or livestock incomes (i.e., farm households) and those that do no earn incomes from either source (i.e., nonfarm households). Households are further disaggregated into per capita expenditure quintiles. This SAM allows analyzing issues at the detailed level and to better understand the potential impacts of policy changes for both better off and more vulnerable households.CRP2; IFPRI1DSGD; PIMCGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM

    Measuring trade integration in Africa

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    PRIFPRI3; CRP2; C Improving markets and tradeMTID; PIMCGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM

    Do as they did: Peer effects explain adoption of conservation agriculture in Malawi

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    Adoption of the trinity of practices known commonly today as conservation agriculture (CA)—maintaining soil cover, reducing tillage, and enhancing soil nitrogen through legumes—is a critical process to the management of erosion in rural landscapes, and maintenance of aquatic habitats and hydropower potential. However, the large literature on the benefits and risks of CA fails to find any universal determinants of adoption, with competing uses for crop residues, availability of labor, and access to physical inputs common constraints appearing in different contexts. We conduct a study in the specific context of Malawi, using ethnographic interviewing to draw out possible decision criteria and machine learning to identify their explanatory power. This study is structured to inform the question: “How do farmers decide to adopt the specific activities of CA in Malawi?” We find that more than any other factor, adoption by neighbors (i.e., peer effects) matters, with possible implications for the overall cost of encouraging CA (e.g., through subsidies) as it is taken up across a landscape.PRIFPRI3; DCA; ISI; CRP2; A Ensuring Sustainable food production; D Transforming AgricultureEPTD; PIMCGIAR Research Programs on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM

    Applying the best-fit framework to assess and strengthen national extension and advisory services

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    Non-PRIFPRI3DSGD; EPT

    Economic growth, convergence, and world food demand and supply

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    The objective of this paper is to explore the evolution of world food demand and supply to 2050, extending a simple econometric model developed by Fukase and Martin (2016). In Fukase and Martin (2016), this model allowed us to assess the prospects for net import demand for food in China. Here, we extend our approach to the global level and focus on the implications of income convergence on long-term food demand and supply. On the demand side, per capita consumption of the aggregate food is modeled as a function of real income only, with a functional form developed to allow for consumption that asymptotically approaches a ceiling level (Rask and Rask 2004, 2011). On the supply side, we specify a production equation as a function of real income and agricultural land endowment per capita. This enables us to estimate a simple relationship between the productivity-driven growth of income per capita, declining per capita availability of agricultural land, and the growth of food output for each country.Non-PRIFPRI5; CRP2MTID; PIM47 pagesCGIAR Research Programs on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM

    The Philippines energy future and low-carbon development strategies

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    This paper presents an assessment of alternative, long-term energy supply and low-carbon strategies for the Philippine power sector from 2014 to 2040 using TIMES model. It examines the potential contribution of renewable energy to diversify the Philippine energy supply-mix to meet future electricity demands. The reference scenario compares the impact of four alternative policy goals: (1) carbon tax, (2) targeted renewable-based power generation, (3) limited coal share in supply-mix, and (4) renewables subsidy.PRIFPRI3; ISI; CRP2; CRP5; CRP7; 1 Fostering Climate-Resilient and Sustainable Food Supply; Phil-EWFEPTD; DSGD; PIMCGIAR Research Programs on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM); CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE); CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS

    South Africa milestones to achieving the sustainable development goals on poverty and hunger

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    South Africa has signed the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and placed poverty and inequality reduction at the forefront of its National Development Plan. This study links a nonparametric income distribution (micro) simulation model and an economywide general equilibrium (macro) model to define the milestones South Africa must meet to halve poverty and end hunger by 2030 as targeted by the SDGs. The current economic growth of 2.0 percent on average annually must be accelerated to 4.5 percent between 2015 and 2030 to achieve the SDGs on poverty and hunger. Although an income growth strategy is important to reduce hunger, an income redistribution strategy of expanding social assistance to cover 10 percent of the population—that is, nearly 7 million persons—appears to be a key to ending hunger by 2030. Rural areas should be targeted for intervention to reduce income inequality. Skilled and high-skilled labor markets offer better employment and earning opportunities in these geographic areas than do the markets for other skill levels. Thus, skill development programs in these areas are likely to contribute to meeting the SDGs on poverty and hunger by 2030.Non-PR1 Fostering Climate-Resilient and Sustainable Food Supply; 2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for all; 3 Building Inclusive and Efficient Markets, Trade Systems, and Food Industry; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; 5 Strengthening Institutions and Governance;AF
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