International Food Policy Research Institute

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    Burkina Faso’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation

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    Burkina Faso experienced strong annual economic growth of 6.0 percent between 2009 and 2019 (NISD 2021). However, the global COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant slowdown in economic growth in 2020, while an increase in armed insurgencies by domestic terrorist groups also had an adverse effect on the economy. Burkina Faso’s GDP growth is projected to reach 5.0 percent in 2023 and 5.3 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023), suggesting the economy is unlikely to return to its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Agriculture remains an important sector, accounting for one-fifth of GDP and nearly half of employment in Burkina Faso. The agriculture sector also performed well, growing at around 5 percent annually in the 2009 to 2019 period (NISD 2021). In this brief, we look beyond primary agriculture to understand how Burkina Faso’s broader agrifood system (AFS) is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.Non-PRIFPRI1; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; Capacity Strengthening; AFSdiagnosticsDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Foresight and Policy Modeling (FPM); Innovation Policy and Scaling (IPS); Transformation Strategie

    Niger’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation

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    Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa, and most of the population relies on subsistence farming. The country faces considerable food security challenges due to a combination of recurring droughts, desertification, population growth, and political instability. The World Food Program estimates that around 1.5 million people in Niger—roughly 6 percent of the population—are food insecure (WFP 2020). Agriculture plays a pivotal role in Niger’s economy, employing more than 80 percent of workers and contributing around 40 percent of GDP. The agricultural system is largely rainfed and productive activities are concentrated in the southern part of the country, particularly in the regions along the Niger River. Only 15 percent of the country’s land is arable, and rainfall is seasonal and highly variable. Millet, sorghum, cowpeas, and groundnuts are the major food crops, while pastoralism is a key component of the agricultural system, particularly in the arid regions in the north of the country. Despite the dominance of agriculture, Niger is a net food importer as agricultural production falls short of domestic food needs (FAO 2018). The government implemented the 3N Initiative (Nigeriens Nourishing Nigeriens) to address the root causes of food insecurity. This initiative aims to promote sustainable agricultural practices, enhance the resilience of farmers to climate change, and improve access to food (IFAD 2020). While rural households produce a significant amount of their own food, the importance of market purchases as a determinant of food security cannot be overstated. Market purchases are the primary food access strategy for Nigeriens for 8–9 months of the year. This highlights the importance not only of primary agricultural production, but also the broader agrifood system (AFS) in ensuring year-round access and availability of nutritious foods. Hence, in this brief we look beyond primary agriculture to understand the performance of Niger’s broader AFS and how it is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.Non-PRIFPRI1; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; Capacity Strengthening; AFSdiagnosticsDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Foresight and Policy Modeling (FPM); Innovation Policy and Scaling (IPS); Transformation Strategie

    Kenyan diets: Quality, affordability, and preferences

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    Dysfunctions in food systems in developing countries prevent many people from consuming a healthy diet (FAO et al. 2021), and Kenya is no exception. Globally, poor-quality diets are the leading cause of all forms of malnutrition (Afshin et al. 2019; Willet et al. 2019). In Kenya in 2020, an estimated 19 percent of children under five years of age were stunted (UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank 2021); in 2014, 33 percent of women aged 15–49 years were overweight or obese (KNBS et al. 2015), while recent regional trends in adults’ body mass index suggest a rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (Abarca-Gomez et al. 2017). The number of deaths resulting from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as coronary disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, is projected to surpass malaria and tuberculosis by 2030 (Mkuu et al. 2021). Malnutrition and NCDs can have lifelong health consequences and high social and economic costs for individuals and societies alike, including from impaired human capital formation, reduced labor productivity, and high healthcare costs (Popkin et al. 2006; Shekar, Heaver, and Lee 2006; Victora et al. 2008; Black et al. 2013)PRIFPRI4; 2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for allDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Transformation Strategies; Foresight and Policy Modeling (FPM); Transformation Strategie

    Men can cook: Effectiveness of a light-touch men’s engagement intervention to change attitudes and behaviors in rural Ethiopia

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    Graduation model interventions seek to address multiple barriers constraining households’ exit from poverty, however, few explicitly target unequal gender norms. Using a randomized control trial design, combined with three rounds of data, we investigate the impacts on gender equitable attitudes and behaviors of a graduation program that seeks to simultaneously “push” households out of poverty and improve unequal gender norms in Ethiopia. We find that at midline all treatment arms lead to improvements in men’s gender equitable attitudes and their engagement in household domestic tasks as reported by both men and women; but at endline, impacts are only sustained in the treatment arms that introduced men’s engagement groups after the midline survey to further promote improvements in equitable gender norms.Non-PRIFPRI1; G Cross-cutting gender theme; SPIRPoverty, Gender, and Inclusion (PGI); Food and Nutrition Polic

    Climate insurance: Opportunities for improving agricultural risk management in Kenya

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    Climate change represents a major challenge to food systems. It is associated not only with rising average temperatures but also with less predictable weather and changes in humidity, with severe consequences for agricul tural production, input markets, aggregation, processing, distribution, and consumption. Negative impacts on food production can raise consumer prices, potentially leading to social unrest and conflict; increased temperatures and changes in humidity require stronger cold chains and improved storage facilities to avoid postharvest damage (de Brauw and Pacillo 2022). This chapter highlights several innovations in climate insurance that were developed and tested in Kenya with the aim of improving smallholder farmers’ ability to manage the production risks associated with climate change.PRIFPRI4; 1 Fostering Climate-Resilient and Sustainable Food SupplyDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Transformation Strategie

    ICTforAg 2023: Cultivating inclusion

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    ICTforAg is an annual convening where agricultural stakeholders and technology experts come together to share knowledge, find solutions, and form partnerships to address challenges in agri-food systems across low- and middle-income countries. The main goal of ICTforAg is to grow communities and catalyze meaningful conversations, insights, and collaborations, increase participation of participants from the developing world, promote knowledge sharing and learning, and inspire practitioners to develop inclusive and sustainable ICT solutions. ICTforAg has a strong history since 2015 and owes its success to the contributions made by various organizations to build this community. In 2023, CGIAR and DevGlobal, in partnership with USAID Feed the Future and DAI Digital Frontiers, jointly implemented ICTforAg 2023 as a global online conference on November 7-9 with 145 speakers across 40 sessions. Out of the 2,608 individuals who registered for the event, a total of 1,778 attendees (constituting 68% of registrants) participated over the three days. In addition to the main sessions, the conference also featured the Expo, virtual exhibition space that allowed various organizations from academia, research, and the private sector to showcase their innovations interactively, the Inspire Challenge, a new Pay-for-Results program intended to increase women’s participation in digital agri-food advisory services and programs, the ICTforAg+ Satellite Events, a series of locally-led satellite events in four countries (Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, and India), and the ICTforAg Learning Network, an online platform designed to support the collaboration amongst the global ICTforAg community of practice.Non-PRIFPRI1Natural Resources and Resilience (NRR); Transformation Strategie

    Challenges for private sector job matching in rural Egypt: Results from a survey of forsa employers

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    Increasing formal employment for youth and women is a key goal of the Forsa pilot graduation intervention and Egyptian government policy in general. As detailed in Forsa evaluation reports, matching Takaful beneficiaries with jobs in the private sector is a major challenge from the perspective of households. In this policy note, we examine the challenges from the perspective of potential employers. We review literature of the market failures that may contribute to difficulties with job matching in rural Egypt and present results from a small telephone survey of Forsa employers.Non-PRIFPRI1; EgyptSSP; Evaluating Impact and Building Capacity (EIBC); 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; 5 Strengthening Institutions and GovernanceDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Transformation Strategie

    Can gender- and nutrition-sensitive agricultural programs improve resilience? Medium-term impacts of an intervention in Bangladesh

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    There are few studies that rigorously assess how agricultural and nutrition related interventions enhance resilience and even fewer that incorporate a gendered dimension in their analysis. Mindful of this, we address three knowledge gaps: (1) Whether agricultural interventions aimed at diversifying income sources and improving nutrition have sustainable impacts (on asset bases, consumption, gender-specific outcomes and women’s empowerment, and on diets) that persist after the intervention ends; (2) whether such interventions are protective when shocks occur? and (3) whether these interventions promote gender-sensitive resilience. We answer these questions using unique data, a four-year post-endline follow up survey of households from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a nutrition-and-gender-sensitive agricultural intervention in Bangladesh. We find that treatment arms that included both agriculture and nutrition training had sustainable effects on real per capita consumption, women’s empowerment (as measured by the pro-WEAI), and asset holdings measured four years after the original intervention ended. Treatment arms that included both agriculture and nutrition training (with or without gender sensitization) reduced the likelihood that households undertook more severe forms of coping strategies and reduced the likelihood that household per capita consumption fell, in real terms, by more than five percent between in the four years following the end of the intervention. The treatment arm that only provided training in agriculture had positive impacts at endline but these had largely faded away four years later. Our results suggest that bundling nutrition and agriculture training may contribute to resilience as well as to sustained impacts on consumption, women’s empowerment, and asset holdings in the medium term. These have implications for the design of future gender- and nutrition-sensitive agricultural programs.Non-PRIFPRI1; 2 Promoting Healthy Diets and Nutrition for all; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; G Cross-cutting gender theme; GAAP; CRP2; CRP4Poverty, Gender, and Inclusion (PGI); Food and Nutrition Polic

    Nigeria’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation

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    Nigeria experienced a rise and fall in economic growth over the past two decades. The economy experienced strong growth, averaging 7 percent per year, from 2000 to 2014. Then falling world oil prices caused an abrupt decline in Nigeria’s GDP in 2015 and 2016 and the country entered its first recession in nearly 20 years. Since then, the economic growth rate has remained below the population growth rate, complicating efforts to reduce poverty in a country with the world’s second-largest number of poor people (80 million) (World Bank 2022a). Various other factors contributed to sluggish economic growth, including the spread of insecurity and conflict across almost all areas of the country; policies related to COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021 (Andam et al. 2020); the effects of the Russia-Ukraine war (Diao and Thurlow 2023); and general macroeconomic instability (World Bank 2022b). Nigeria’s GDP growth is projected to remain low at 2.9 percent in 2023 and 2024, barely exceeding the population growth rate (World Bank 2022c). First quarter growth in 2023 was only 2.3 percent, reflecting the impact of cash restrictions imposed by monetary authorities during the election campaign period (NBS 2023).Non-PRIFPRI1; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; Capacity Strengthening; AFSdiagnosticsDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Foresight and Policy Modeling (FPM); Innovation Policy and Scaling (IPS); Transformation Strategie

    Agricultural inputs in Kenya: Demand, supply, and the policy environment

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    Agricultural inputs, including fertilizers, seeds, breeding stock, crop protection chemicals, machinery, irrigation, and knowledge, are key to innovation and productivity improvement, and are the backbone of any agricultural revolution. They are an integral part of the food supply chain, which comprises the production and distribution of food, and as such a key component of the food system (HLPE 2017). The food supply chain involves various actors at different stages of the chain but this chapter focuses only on agricultural inputs, including both farm inputs and agricultural advisory services.PRIFPRI4; 3 Building Inclusive and Efficient Markets, Trade Systems, and Food IndustryDevelopment Strategies and Governance (DSG); Transformation Strategie

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