50750 research outputs found

    L'éconarration: des ateliers d'écriture pour transformer notre relation au vivant

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    International audienceAlors que le feu des histoires engageant l’entièreté de l’être demande aujourd’hui à être alimenté aussi bien dans les établissements scolaires et universitaires (l’école, les collèges et lycée, l’université) que dans d’autres lieux (l’hôpital, les EPHAD, les entreprises, les associations, les espaces publics de la cité, entre autres), cet ouvrage entend inspirer et accompagner les enseignants et formateurs pour faire jaillir l’écriture éconarrative, de son éclosion à sa maturation. Nous sommes convaincus que l’éconarration peut jouer un rôle vital car elle nous permet d’agir et de prendre soin de nous à travers nos récits lorsque les événements nous dépassent : ce geste – faire émerger des récits en lien avec les crises écologiques et sanitaires – réalisé dans un cadre non jugeant et accueillant, permet de retrouver la stabilité, de faire émerger les émotions liées à un vécu qui est enfoui mais qui continue d’agir sur nous. La recherche-action Econarrative nous confirme – comme l’écrivait déjà le psychologue Keith Oatley – que les émotions produites par la lecture et l’écriture ne sont pas de la « fiction », mais s’inscrivent profondément en nous, dans nos corps et nos esprits, agissant directement dans la chair du monde

    Nematodes associated with saffron II: Bioindication for soil health assessment and impact of agricultural practices

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    International audienceHighlights: • High diversity of nematodes communities is detected in the Moroccan saffron field. • Saffron soils health are degraded in Taliouine-Taznakht regions. • Plant parasitic index (PPI) is strongly influenced by the high frequency of Traditional irrigation. • Agricultural practices are significantly impacted (MI) and (SI) indices and saffron nematodes trophic groups.Abstract: Background: Saffron cultivation is vital in the Taliouine-Taznakht regions, but the influence of agricultural practices on soil nematode communities, critical for soil health and plant productivity, is not well understood. This study characterizes nematode communities in saffron fields of the Taliouine-Taznakht regions, assessing the impact of various agricultural practices on these communities, with a focus on their diversity, functional roles, and potential as bio-indicators of soil health. A total of 163 soil samples were collected from saffron fields in Taliouine-Taznakht. Nematode communities were identified, quantified, and their functional diversity analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to visualize relationships between nematode communities and sampling sites. Co-inertia analysis assessed the impact of agricultural practices on nematode diversity. The nematode communities were diverse and varied across regions. PCA identified unique nematode community compositions in different saffron fields. Omnivorous nematodes were strongly linked with Taouyalte (TA), and herbivorous ones were prevalent at Agadir Melloul (AM) and Sidi Hssaine (SH). Modern crop types, high-frequency irrigation, and alfalfa-barley rotation were positively correlated with predator nematode abundance, potentially controlling plant parasitic nematodes and encouraging nutrient cycling. Conversely, monocropping, traditional irrigation, and long plantation age correlated with reduced structure and maturity indices, suggesting a less stable ecosystem. This study unveils the intricate relationships between nematode communities in Taliouine-Taznakht saffron fields and agricultural practices. Findings indicate that specific practices, such as crop rotation and modern irrigation techniques, can foster beneficial nematode groups that improve soil health and potentially regulate harmful plant parasitic nematodes. This knowledge is crucial for crafting sustainable and effective saffron cultivation strategies

    China reshaping green value chain initiatives: between global and Southern standards

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    International audienceThe paper contributes to the growing debate about how China drives change in institutions and norms of global governance. It analyses the case study of China’s approach to transnational voluntary sustainability standards as concrete tools of Western-sponsored green value chain initiatives, between integration and contestation. Engaging international political economy scholarship, the paper shows that China participates in such initiatives by reshaping their focus away from contested market-based approaches to more internationally consensual state-led ones. This stance indicates that China’s reshaping of international norms and institutions conveys claims made by Global South alliances. These alliances are increasingly important for China, not only politically and militarily but also economically and for the success of key initiatives, like the Belt and Road Initiative

    The potential of floating macrophytes as feed and phytoremediation resources to improve the environmental performance of giant gourami production in Indonesia: A life cycle assessment

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    International audienceOver the past few decades, Indonesian freshwater aquaculture has intensified, raising many issues on theassociated environmental impacts. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the environ-mental performance of Indonesian giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) aquaculture. We compared two con-trasting fish production systems: a traditional monoculture (MoC) or a co-culture with the macrophyte Azollafiliculoides used as feed alternative to compounded pellets (CoC). Seven impact categories were considered:climate change, eutrophication, cumulative energy demand, land occupation, acidification, net primary pro-duction use (NPPU) and water dependence. The potential impacts were calculated in terms of 1 kg of fishproduced by the systems and were also expressed in terms of surface area (m2 of the farm). Monte Carlo analysiswas carried out to evaluate uncertainties in the assessed impacts based on data uncertainties for the systems.Results highlighted notable differences between the two production systems. CoC led to less impact relative toclimate change, eutrophication and NPPU per kg of fish produced. These differences were even greater whenreporting the impacts per surface area. Nonetheless, the main contributors of the seven impact categoriesremained constant between the two production systems (CoC and MoC). Overall, our findings suggested thatusing floating macrophytes as alternative feed resources, even in relatively low proportions, can improve theenvironmental performance of giant gourami production

    LIPTAKOR, a participatory approach for increasing risk awareness and facilitating operational changes at artisanal gold mines

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    International audienceThe literature highlights the importance of engaging local communities when attempting to raise awareness of environmental and human health-related risks at artisanal gold mines. There are, however, few reliable and tested methodologies available to achieve this or which can be adapted for use in a number of contexts. To help bridge this gap, we developed a tangible tool that takes the form of a game, which provides a space for participatory exploration of risk perceptions associated with artisanal gold mining. We present the results of this study, which was conducted in 2021 in the Nigerien Liptako–Gourma Region, and compare them to findings shared in the literature on risk perceptions related to artisanal gold mining

    Dynamics of quasi-steady ponded infiltration under contrasting plant cover and management strategies

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    International audienceThe runoff infiltration partitioning has direct consequences on preservation of water resources in rural territories, both in agricultural plots and uncultivated areas (e.g. ditches, channels, grass strips), and requires a better understanding of the variability of soil infiltration capacity by disentangling the complex links between soil, vegetation and management. The general objective of the study was to investigate the temporal variation in quasi-steady ponded infiltration rates of a fluvisol soil under bare and different cover crop type (a Malvaceae with a tap-root system and a Poaceae with a fibrous root system) and management conditions (burning, mowing, and chemical weeding) that are commonly found in the Mediterranean vineyards. A modified double-ring infiltration method was used to repeat measurement of the quasi-steady ponded infiltration, fcp, on the same location over time. Placed on a 64 m2 plot area with minimal distances between individual measurements of 30 cm, the setup allowed evaluation of variability among measurements that were conducted within the plot. The results showed a significantly lower fcp for bare soil than covered soil, and a two-fold higher fcp for soil covered by Malvaceae than Poaceae. A seasonal effect in fcp was observed, with the highest fcp in summer and the lowest in winter. The study revealed a strong spatial variability in fcp along a transect of a few tens of centimeter, and showed no significant effect of management strategies compared to the vegetated control. The results revealed the importance of considering both plant traits and season rather than vegetation management strategies to explain quasi-steady ponded infiltration rates

    Forest exploitation in the plains of early medieval northern Catalonia: Anthracological review

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    In the northwestern Mediterranean (Mediterranean France, Catalonia), the Early Middle Ages were a period of major change with a restructuration of rural settlements, that impacted both landscape management and how animal and plant resources were exploited. Recent bioarchaeological research has enabled us to understand the agropastoral changes associated with these new dynamics at a local scale, but their impact on the evolution of forest cover remains unevenly documented. The anthracological study of 8 rural archaeological sites located in the plains of early medieval northern Catalonia has made it possible to qualify the composition and state of the forests exploited by the local populations. The vegetation on the lower plains appears to be more open than in the hinterland, where human pressure on the environment appears to have been more moderate. Among the sites, Pujals seems to have drawn some of its fuel from the Pyrenees Mountain, raising the question of wood trading networks between the mountain and the plains at the time


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