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    2012 research outputs found

    COVID-19; THE NEED FOR INCREASED RECOGNITION OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS

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    It has been over three years since the first case of covid-19 was discovered in Wuhan, China. Since then there have been a lot of discussions around symptoms and sequelae of covid-19 such as respiratory, cardiac, and neurology problems. However, not a lot of attention has been drawn to skin manifestations of this disease despite the fact that the prevalence of covid-19 associated skin lesions could be as high as 20% in some countries

    ASSESSING THE KNOWLEDGE OF SMALLPOX AND MONKEYPOX VIRUS AMONG THE UNIVERSITY OF TLEMCEN MEMBERS IN THE WAKE OF COVID-19: A 2023 CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.: a Cross-sectional Study

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    Background: A recently-surfaced virus called Monkeypox virus (MPXV) has gained widespread attention as it dominates the news, creating a sense of panic among people due to the potential threat it poses to their health. Materials and Methods: To evaluate knowledge about this virus and its disease, and to raise consciousness among the members of the Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences and Earth and Universe Sciences at the University of Tlemcen, we launched an online web-based survey for a twenty days’ period that contained sociodemographic and perceptiveness questions about the emergent virus, its disease, and vaccination. Results: Our findings showed that the majority of the respondents of our study have a satisfactory level of knowledge about this emerging virus and its disease. Moreover, most participants showed a positive attitude towards the vaccine, considering it the best preventive means to fight against Monkeypox disease. Conclusion: Although the MPXV may not become a pandemic, but knowing the various ways that contribute to its spread is essential to avoid any possibility of a new one, especially in Algeria

    AN ESSENTIAL TOOL TO BE OPTIMIZED: SYNDROMIC MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE IN HAITI

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    Background: Haiti, like many low-income countries in crisis, has limited resources for etiologic diagnosis of vaginal discharge. As such, we sought to characterize variability in diagnoses of women presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome, with the goal to improve standardization of syndromic management. Materials and Methods: Participants aged 18 years and older endorsing vaginitis, or dysuria were recruited at Jerusalem Clinic over two, one-week periods in April 2018 and July 2019. We calculated Spearman rank correlations among history, exam findings, and diagnoses based on clinical presentation, to understand presentation groupings and their management. Results: Among 98 women, median age was 33.5 years, and most frequent symptoms were: vaginal discharge (97%), vaginal itch (73%), and/or suprapubic pain (68%). Most common physical exam findings were vaginal discharge (86%), suprapubic/lower quadrant tenderness (29%), cervical motion tenderness (24%), and cervical erythema (20%). Most symptoms and physical exam findings were weakly correlated with each other. Nearly one-third (31%) were diagnosed with normal physiologic vaginal discharge or no diagnosis, followed by Bacterial vaginosis (31%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (15%), cervicitis/PID (13%), and STI (7%). No reported symptoms strongly differentiated diagnostic categories. Diagnoses varied considerably by exam findings. Conclusions: The weak correlations between symptoms, exam findings, and diagnoses could represent variability in assessment. In the absence of reliable and accessible laboratory testing, the importance of standardizing syndromic management becomes increasingly relevant. Results from our study support the utility of speculum examination and more standardized documentation of physical exam findings. Next steps include the development of local algorithms to promote standardization of treatment of vaginal discharge syndrome

    REVISITING THE EBOLA EPIDEMIC IN WEST AFRICA: THE ROLE OF EMOTIONAL DETERMINANTS IN PUBLIC RESPONSES

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    Background: The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic was largely restricted to the three nations of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, yet it tested the world’s ability to address a potential global pandemic. This study provides an in-depth examination of the role of emotions in the response to the outbreak and engagement with public health measures, and the contextual factors which influenced them. Methods: Historical research methods were utilised in the examination of primary and secondary sources. A multi-faceted SPEECH (Society and Politics, Economy, Epidemiology, Culture, Healthcare and Public Health) framework was developed to aid data synthesis and analysis. Results: The outbreak occurred in a region still reeling from years of civil war, where poverty was widespread and healthcare severely underfunded. Internationally, global health security had been politically neglected. After a slow start, the international response to the outbreak was strong, yet the lack of community engagement and inadequate consideration of local culture and traditional beliefs, fueled fear and hindered engagement with professionals and uptake of public health measures. Improved collaboration and communication with rural communities in the latter phases of the response was crucial in effectively addressing the outbreak. Conclusion: This study illustrates the importance of effective collaboration between international crisis responders, in-country public health practitioners and local communities in addressing public emotional responses to the Ebola outbreak. It highlights how community engagement and communications tactics can effectively be utilised to soothe and educate the public, abating counterproductive extreme emotional responses, and in turn improving uptake of public health measures

    OBESITY AND OUTCOME AMONG PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED SARS-COV-2: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY IN INDONESIA: Obesity and Outcome among Patients Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2

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    Background: Patients with obesity who have SARS-CoV-2 are at significant risk for developing serious clinical problems that need intensive care and have a bad prognosis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine obesity and outcome among patients hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 at Indonesia's national referral hospital. Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort.  The research sample was SARS-CoV-2 patients who were treated by pulmonary specialists in the intensive room of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. The number of samples in this study was 106 subjects. Data analysis was performed using the Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression. P < 0.05 was significant, and the data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0 program. Results: The results of this study found obesity was associated with the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 patients treated at Indonesia's national referral hospital (p<0.05, OR=3.55 (95% CI 1.44-8.71)). The mortality rate among patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 at Indonesia's national referral hospital with obesity was higher than non-obese, namely 82.7% and 57.4%. The length of stay in patients with obesity was also shorter, namely 12 days compared to 19 days in non-obese. Conclusion: There was an association between obesity with mortality of SARS-CoV-2 patients in a national referral hospital Indonesia. This study can provide input in the therapeutic management of patients with obesity so as to reduce the poor prognosis.

    REACTOGENICITY OF HETEROLOGOUS MRNA-BASED COVID-19 VACCINE BOOSTER IN YOUNG ADULTS IN INDONESIA- A SHORT COMMUNICATION.: COVID-19 vaccine booster reactogenicity in young adults

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    Background: Heterologous priming with the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) and boosting with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine (Moderna or Pfizer) is currently recommended in Indonesia. The reactogenicity data of these heterologous vaccine regimens are not entirely available, particularly in young adults.The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the solicited local and systemic reactions in the first seven days post-vaccination either with Moderna or Pfizer vaccine among previous recipients of two doses of CoronaVac. Materials and Methods: An electronic-based cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at the Pelita Harapan University, Banten, Indonesia, who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine following two doses of CoronaVac. Samples were collected using a cluster sampling technique. Comparison between groups was performed by Fisher’s exact test. Results: A total of 72 participants, with 23 (32%) of which received the Moderna vaccine and 49 (68%) received the Pfizer vaccine, were included in this study. The median age of participants was 21 (IQR 19-22) years old. The most common local and systemic events for mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were injection site pain, fever, headache, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia. Solicited local and systemic reactions were reported more frequently in Moderna recipients than Pfizer recipients. Most local and systemic reactions were graded as mild to moderate and did not lead to hospitalization. Conclusions: The reactogenicity of the heterologous prime-boost with CoronaVac and mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine booster among young adults is reassuring, and no unexpected concerns were identified

    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIP OF THE POLYPHENOLS INHIBITION OF α-AMYLASE AND α-GLUCOSIDASE

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    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious public health challenge, projected by WHO to be one of the 7 leading cause of death by 2030. Medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be useful in DM local management because of polyphenols present in these plants. For an alternative treatment approach especially with polyphenols-rich herbs, knowledge of comparative efficacy of the polyphenols will lead to enhanced therapy especially in postprandial hyperglyceamic control. Materials and Methods:Vegetative parts of Anacardium occidentale, Abelmoschus ecsulentus and Ceiba pentandra, prominent in the local management of DM were identified, collected and subjected to alcoholic extraction. From the crude extracts were isolated agathisflavone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-diglycoside, mangiferin, isomangiferin and pentagalloyl glucose, belonging to flavonoid, xanthones and tannins structural classes. These polyphenols were evaluated for their potentials to inhibit both α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Physicochemical parameters of the polyphenols were evaluated and molecular docking experiments were carried out to gain insight into the observed inhibitory activity. Results: quercetin 3-O-glucosidewas the most potent of the polyphenols against the two enzymes. Increase in the number of phenolic hydroxyl group did not increase the inhibitory activity and neither computation of the binding energies with the enzymes nor physicochemical parameters of the polyphenols could explain the observed inhibitory activity against the enzymes, across the structural classes. Thus, only the bioassay against the enzymes α-glucosidase and α-amylase correlated well with the use of the plants in treating diabetic mellitus Conclusion: Medicinal plants rich in quercetin 3-O-glycoside may have better treatment outcomes in postprandial hyperglycaemia control

    STRYCHNOS SPINOSA LAM: COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ITS MEDICINAL AND NUTRITIONAL USES.

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      Background: Most of the people living in developing countries rely on local remedies from traditional medicines to take care of their healthcare needs. In recent years, the use of medicinal plants increased considerably. Consequently, studies on medicinal plants are necessary to produce more effective drugs with fewer side-effects. This work aims to compile the dispersal data on Strychnos spinosa Lam., a medicinal plant with great therapeutic potential in traditional medicine, on its ethnobotanical uses, chemical compounds, as well as its pharmacological and nutritional effects. Material and Methods: To achieve the aforementioned aim, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Google scholar, Scopus and SciFinder were scanned. Results:  Literature survey revealed that S. spinosa is used in the treatment of microbial infections, malaria, trypanosomiasis, intestinal worms, tuberculosis, infertility, gastrointestinal disorders, snake bite, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus among other ailments. The plant is also used as food material. S. spinosa contains many chemical compounds, such as alkaloids, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, flavonoids, saponin, and others. The fruits are a source of important nutrients such as carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, vitamins and fibres. Experimental studies have shown numerous pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, anti-trypanosomal, anti-leishmanial, anti-nematicidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic and other activities. Conclusion: This review article provides comprehensive information on S. spinosa and its various extracts. Due to the promising effects of the plant extracts on various diseases and its nutritional values, there is a need for toxicity studies and clinical trials to assess the effects of its identified bioactive compounds

    BACKSLIDING ON CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATIONS DUE TO ONGOING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN BANADIR REGION, SOMALIA

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    Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global public health crisis. During the pandemic, considerable delay was observed making it impossible for some children to receive their due vaccines on time. Like most resource-poor countries, COVID-19 pandemic is thought to have a negative impact on Somalia’s immunization coverage. Materials and methods: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood immunization coverage in Somalia. A retrospective comparative cross-sectional approach was employed to investigate the number of under-5-year children who got their immunization from the two major mother and child hospital, (Banadir and SOS in Mogadishu, Somalia from October 2019 to December 2020. To do this, a total of 112, 060 data relating to the routine childhood immunization (measles, polio, whooping cough, hepatitis B, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) were collected from the monthly immunization report-data from the two hospitals. Results: The results showed that all the vaccines except birth vaccines have remarkably dropped with Penta-3 (27%), Penta-2 (11%), measles (10%) and Penta-1 (8%) respectively. However, the birth vaccines (BCG and Polio 0) were not affected as observed in this study. The reduction in children immunization rate in Somalia may be a combination of many other factors, we however recognize that the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed significantly to this outcome. Conclusion: The government needed to take proactive measures to encourage parents to present their children for immunizations, including increasing community concerning the importance of these routine childhood immunizations despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemics

    BIOMOLECULAR ACTIVITY OF CRYPTOCOCCUS DURING CRYPTOCOCCOSIS: FOCUS ON REVIEW OF MOLECULAR INTERACTION CRYPTOCOCCUS WITH HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM AND BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER

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    Global mycosis is still a problem. One of these is the cryptococcal disease. A systemic mycosis brought on by Cryptococcus is called cryptococcosis. Host immunological conditions influence infection with Cryptococcosis. When environmental spores are inhaled by the host, the spores get to the lungs, an infection is created. Alveolar macrophages and other immune cells recognize Cryptococcus in the lung. The initial line of defense against pathogens in the phagolysosome is provided by alveolar macrophages found in the lungs. When the immune system is weak, Cryptococcus uses the evasion system as a molecular interaction with the immune system and persists in the lungs without causing any symptoms such as Factor Transcription, Cell masking, N-glycan structure, Extracellular molecule, and Antioxidant system. The evasion mechanism protects and makes Cryptococcus disseminate throughout the other organs, especially CNS. If Cryptococcus escapes against the host immune system, it will disseminate to other organs, especially Cerebrospinal System by Three mechanisms. There are Trojan Horse, Paracellular, and Transcellular interactions with Blood-Brain Barrier. Disease severity is determined by the Interaction between the host’s immune system and the fungu

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