Revista Agro Productividad

    Agronomic behavior and fruit quality in habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) as a response to formative pruning

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    Objective: To evaluate the effect of pruning on agronomic variables and fruit quality of habanero pepper. Methodology: Pepper was pruned with two intensities, two shoots and three shoots. The control plants were not pruned. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of 50 plants established in rows of 1.2 m and 0.3 m distance among plants within a row. The evaluated variables were fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter. Data were obtained from 10 harvests. For the analysis of fruit quality, the content of ash, moisture, protein and crude fiber were determined.  Results: Plants with two and three shoots produced fruits of 4 and 3.99 cm length. Plants with two and three shoots produced 42 and 48 % first quality fruits, whereas control plants produced only 10 % fruits of first quality. The highest content of protein in fruits at physiological ripeness (14 %) and at commercial maturity (12 %) was observed in plants with two shoots. Implications: These results show the importance of crop management on the fruit quality of habanero pepper. Other studies are needed to have more information on the effects of crop management on nutritional content of fruits. Conclusion: Pruning of habanero pepper significantly influenced the fruit size, crude fiber and the protein content in fruits,Objective: To evaluate the effect of pruning on the agronomic variables and fruit quality of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Methodology: Habanero peppers were pruned with two intensities, two shoots and three shoots. The control plants were not pruned. The experiment had a randomized block design with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of 50 plants established in rows at a distance of 1.2 m and 0.3 m among plants within a row. The evaluated variables were fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter. Data were obtained from 10 harvests. For the analysis, the fruit quality, ash content, moisture, protein and crude fiber were determined.  Results: Plants with two and three shoots produced fruits of 4 and 3.99 cm in length. Plants with two and three shoots produced 42 and 48 % first quality fruits, whereas control plants produced only 10 % first quality fruits. The highest protein content in fruits at physiological ripeness (14 %) and commercial maturity (12 %) was observed in plants pruned to two shoots. Implications: These results show the importance of crop management on the fruit quality of habanero peppers. Further studies are needed to have more information on the effects of crop management on the nutritional content of fruits. Conclusion: The pruning of habanero pepper plants significantly influenced the fruit size, crude fiber and protein content in their fruit

    Effect of activated carbon on the nitrogen balance in broilers, soil and corn forage fertilized with the excreta of the broilers

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    Abstract Objective: To assess the contribution and retention of nitrogen in broilers supplemented with activated carbon (AcCa), and in soils and corn forage fertilized with the excreta of chickens that consumed AcCa. Design/methodology/approach: Broilers housed individually received diets with four levels of AcCa: 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45% and the nitrogen balance was determined using the total excreta collection. A sample of 200 g of excreta were taken and mixed with 2 kg of soil (S+E) in plastic trays and watered every 15 days; On days 1 and 60, samples were taken to perform the nitrogen balance. The S+E mixtures were added to 17 kg of potted agricultural soil to produce corn forage for 100 days, and forage yield and composition were recorded. The results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression. Findings/conclusions: In broilers, the nitrogen retention showed a quadratic response (P<0.05); in the S+E mixtures, the percentage (P<0.01) and final nitrogen content (P<0.05) had quadratic responses, and in forage, the percentage of nitrogen showed a cubic response (P<0.05) with respect to the increased addition of CaAc in the diet of broilers. The AcCa can be used to improve the efficiency of nitrogen use in broilers and for the recycling of nitrogen through the integration of excreta in agricultural soils and its extraction in corn forage.Objective: To evaluate the contribution and nitrogen retention in broilers supplementedwith activated carbon (CaAc), as well and in soils and corn forage fertilized with the excretaof chickens that consumed CaAc.Design / methodology / approach: Chickens individually housed received diets with fourlevels of CaAc: 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45% and their nitrogen balance was determined usingthe total collection of excreta. 200 g of the chicken excreta were taken and mixed with 2 kgof soil (S + E) in plastic trays and watered every 15 d. On day 1 and 60, samples weretaken to perform the nitrogen balance assessment. The S + E mixtures were added to 17kg of agricultural soil in pots to produce corn forage for 100 d, their yield and compositionwere recorded. The results were analyzed with an ANOVA and linear regression.Findings / conclusion: In chickens, nitrogen retention showed a quadratic response (P<0.05); In the S + E mixtures, the percentage (P <0.01) and final nitrogen content (P <0.05) had also quadratic responses, and in the forage, the nitrogen percentage showed a cubicresponse (P <0.05) respect to the increases in the addition of CaAc in the chicken´s diet. CaAc can be used to improve the nitrogen efficiency in chickens and for nitrogen recycling through the integration of excreta in agricultural soils and its extraction in corn forage

    Agricultural credit use in papaya agroecosystems in the central region of Veracruz, Mexico

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    Objective: To analyze the use of agricultural credit and the profitability of their papaya agroecosystem. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was applied using a questionnaire to 114 producers in seven municipalities in the central area of Veracruz, Mexico. Results: 75% of papaya growers do not know about formal sources of credit that support their productive activity. Only 22.8% have used some type of financing, and only 2.6% came from formal credit sources, even though, 97.4% used semi-formal and informal financing options. 77.2 % of growers use their own economic resources for papaya production. This generates a great heterogeneity on production costs and crop management (level of technology) that reflects the final yield. Even under these conditions the crop is profitable. Limitations of the study/implications: Information from public or private credit institutions, does not reach potential users. The few farmers who have accessed a formal credit, have had bad experiences, such as embargoes and legal actions due to special situations that made them not paying on time, that discourage growers from using this type of credit. Findings/Conclusions: Lack of knowledge of the growers about financing sources. Low use of agricultural or other formal private credits, as 77.2% of growers used their own economic resources, which generates great heterogeneity in production costs associated with the level of technology, that is reflected in the crop yield, even so the papaya crop still is profitable

    Comparative study of different drying methods regard to the phenols and flavonoids content of dried Citrus aurantium L. leaves

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    Citrus Aurantium leaves contain compounds such as phenols and flavonoids that give it antioxidant properties. These properties can be affected by using any conservation method, such as drying. This study was carried out to determine the effects of different technologies of thermal drying on total phenols content (TPC) and the total flavonoids content (TFC) from the leaves of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.).  Solar drying was carried out under the open-air sun conditions and using two direct solar dryers; one with natural convection and the other with forced convection. TFC and TPC in equivalents of gallic acid (EGA) and quercetin (Q), respectively, of the ethanolic extracts of C. Aurantium were determined by using spectrophotometric techniques. The results showed maximum values of phenols for direct natural convection solar dryer (161.4 mg EGA/g MS) and minimum for shade drying (61.43 mg EAG/g MS). Regarding flavonoids, the highest values were obtained in the direct forced convection solar dryer (32.22 ± 1.6 mg QE/g MS), while in the open-air sun the lowest values were observed (11.72 mg QE/g MS). It is concluded, that the direct solar dryers are effective technologies to maintain the TPC and the TFC in the dry leaves of C. aurantium.Objective: To determine the effects of different thermal drying technologies on the total phenol and flavonoid contents (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) leaves. Design/methodology/approach: Solar drying was carried out in outdoor sunny conditions using two direct solar dryers; one with natural convection, the other with forced convection. The total phenol and flavonoid contents in gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and quercetin (Q), respectively, of ethanolic extracts of C. aurantium were assessed with spectrophotometric techniques. Results: The results demonstrated maximum phenol values for the direct natural convection solar dryer (161.4 mg EAG/g MS) and minimum values for shade drying (61.43 mg EAG/g MS). As for flavonoids, the highest values were obtained in the direct forced convection solar dryer (32.22 ± 1.6 mg EQ/g MS), while the lowest was registered in the open air sun (11.72 mg EQ/g MS). Conclusions: Direct solar dryers are technologies effective for maintaining the phenols and total flavonoids content in dried leaves of C. aurantium.

    Mexican demand for rice imports (Oryza sativa L.) during NAFTA: evidence from a NARDL model with structural change and outliers

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    ABSTRACT  Objective: This study aimed to determine which model best captures the behaviour of rice imports during the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) regime (1994–2018). Methodology Mexican demand for rice imports is estimated with Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) and Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (NARDL), both with and without structural change and outliers. Results It starts with the ARDL and NARDL models, obtaining non-cointegration, as well as diagnosis and specification problems. Subsequently an ARDL model is proposed with structural change and outliers, which represents an improvement but still has specification problems. Finally, the best model is obtained incorporating non-linearity. Limitations/Implications It is a study for a specific grain, so the results obtained are only valid for rice imports. Nevertheless, it must be considered that it is a basic grain. Moreover, a new methodology is used to estimate the import demand function. Findings There is evidence of an asymmetric response of rice imports to fluctuations in economic activity and the exchange rate in the short run, and only in the long run for the latter. An increase in rice imports with NAFTA is also confirmed, as well as two extraordinary variations of rice imports during the study period. Keywords Rice imports; ARDL; NARDL; structural change; outliers   Objective: This study aimed to determine which model best captures the behaviour of rice imports during the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) regime (1994–2018). Methodology: Mexican demand for rice imports is estimated with Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) and Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (NARDL), both with and without structural change and outliers. Results: It starts with the ARDL and NARDL models, obtaining non-cointegration, as well as diagnosis and specification problems. Subsequently an ARDL model is proposed with structural change and outliers, which represents an improvement but still has specification problems. Finally, the best model is obtained incorporating non-linearity. Limitations/Implications: It is a study for a specific grain, so the results obtained are only valid for rice imports. Nevertheless, it must be considered that it is a basic grain. Moreover, a new methodology is used to estimate the import demand function. Findings: There is evidence of an asymmetric response of rice imports to fluctuations in economic activity and the exchange rate in the short run, and only in the long run for the latter. An increase in rice imports with NAFTA is also confirmed, as well as two extraordinary variations of rice imports during the study period

    Forage yield of Urochloa brizantha [(Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) R.D.] cv. Insurgente at different cutting heights

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    Objective: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cutting height on the forage yield of Urochloa brizantha cv. Insurgente. Design/methodology/approach: the experiment was carried in the Universidad del Papaloapan, Loma Bonita, Oaxaca Mexico. Four cutting heights (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm) in the rainy, north winds, and dry seasons were evaluated. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with four replicates. Plant height (PH), fresh matter yield (FMY), dry matter yield (DMY), growth rate (GR), and morphological components: lamina, sheath, and stem were evaluated. Results: the interaction of the cutting intensity and season on all variables evaluated were significant (P<0.01). The greater value of PH (42 cm) was found with the cutting at 20 cm, during the rainy season. The higher values FMY and DMY (2,484 and 606 kg ha-1, respectively) were obtained at 15 cm, during the rainy season, values that are similar (P>0.05) to those obtained with 20 cm, with 2,410 and 582 kg ha-1, respectively. The higher values of lamina, sheath and stem yield were obtained with cutting at 15 and 20 cm of height, during the rainy season. The highest value of GR (31 kg DM ha-1 d-1) was found during the rainy season regardless of the cutting height. Findings/conclusions: the highest forage yield was achieved when harvesting at 15 and 20 cm, irrespective of the year season.Objective: Evaluate the forage yield of Urochloa brizantha cv. Insurgente at differentcutting heights.Design/ methodology/ approach: the experiment was carried out at the Universidaddel Papaloapan, Loma Bonita, Oaxaca, Mexico. Four cutting heights were evaluated (5,10, 15, and 20 cm) during the rainy, norther, and dry seasons. The experiment followeda randomized block design with four replicates. We evaluated plant height (PH), greenmatter yield (GMY), dry matter yield (DMY), growth rate (GR), and morphologicalcomponents, such as leaf yield (LY), sheath yield (SY), and stem yield (StY).Results: the cutting height and season interaction was significant for all the evaluatedvariables (P?0.01). The highest PH (42 cm) was obtained with a cutting height of 20 cmduring the rainy season. The highest GMY and DMY (2,484 and 606 kg ha -1 ,respectively) were obtained with cutting heights of 15 cm during the rainy season. Thesevalues were similar (P>0.05) to those obtained at 20 cm (2,410 and 582 kg ha -1 ,respectively). The highest LY, SY, and StY values were obtained with cutting heights of15 and 20 cm during the rainy season. The highest GR (31 kg MS ha -1 day -1 ) wasobserved during the rainy season, regardless of cutting height.Findings/ conclusions: for each of the evaluated seasons, cutting heights of 15 and 20cm resulted in the highest forage yields of U. brizantha cv. Insurgente

    Plastic colored paddings and its effect on the foliar micromorphology of husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)

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    Objective: To determine the effect of colored plastic mulches on the foliar micromorphology of husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot). Design / methodology / approach: A completely randomized statistical model was used with five treatments (black, white, blue, red and green padding) with three repetitions each, 95% reliability and Tukey's mean test ?0.05. To quantify the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) a portable GreenSeeker® sensor was used, for the measurement of total soluble solids an Atago® brand Digital refractometer, the density and stomatal index, length and width of stomata were determined with a microscope Carl Zeeis with integrated camera and AxionVisionRel measurement software 4.8. Results: The results did not show significant differences in NDVI and total soluble solids. The micromorphological variables of adaxial stomatal density and adaxial stomatal index, were superior in the blue padding and exceeded the black padding in 95 % and 50 % respectively, the rest of the micromorphological variables were statistically similar, the yield per plant was statistically similar in the black, white, red and green padding, while blue was less yield. Study limitations / implications: The blue padding improves micromorphological characteristics, but not the yield of the husk tomato crop. Findings / conclusions: With colored plastic padding, some of the foliar micromorphological characteristics of the husk tomato crop are modified, however, an improvement in these variables does not necessarily improve the crop yield, which is probably due to the radiation absorbed and reflected by colored plastic padding. Keywords: Physalis ixocarpa, stomatic density, stomatic index, epidermal cells.  Objective: To assess the effect of colored plastic paddings on the foliar micromorphology of husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). Design / methodology / approach: A completely randomized statistical model was used with five treatments (black, white, blue, red and green paddings) with three repetitions each, 95% reliability and Tukey's mean test (P ? 0.05). To quantify the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) a portable GreenSeeker® sensor was used. To measurement of total soluble solids a Atago® Digital refractometer, the density and stomatal index, length and width of stomata were determined with a Carl Zeiss microscope with an integrated camera and the AxionVisionRel measurement software 4.8. Results: The results show no significant differences in the NDVI and total soluble solids. The micromorphological variables of adaxial stomatal density and adaxial stomatal index were superior in the blue paddings and exceeded black paddings in 95 % and 50 % respectively. The rest of the micromorphological variables were statistically similar, the yield per plant was statistically similar in the black, white, red and green, while blue paddings yield less. Study limitations / implications: blue paddings improve micromorphological characteristics, but not the yield of husk tomato crops. Findings / conclusions: Some of the foliar micromorphological characteristics of the husk tomato crop are modified by colored plastic paddings; however, the improvement in these variables does not necessarily improve the crop yield, probably due to the absorbed and reflected radiation by the colored plastic paddings

    Technological gap in allspice (Pimenta dioica L. Merr) production

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    Abstrac Objective: The objective of the research was to study the technological features of allspice production, to show potential areas of intervention in the crop. Methodology: The study was carried out in five of 22 producing municipalities in the state of Veracruz selected by non-probabilistic sampling; 50 surveys were applied to producers selected by the snowball method. Were data collected on the profile of the production unit and knowledge - practice of innovations. Were applied descriptive statistics; besides were calculated rates of knowledge and practice and indexes of knowledge and practice; it was made a classification of opportunity areas based on innovation diffusion theory. Results: Allspice occupies small areas and continues in a complementary role; the rates of knowledge and practice show that the categories of marketing, organization, and nutrition are the lowest; in the opposite direction are the categories of harvest, sustainable management, and agronomic management. The categories show areas of opportunity for intervention in less known and practiced innovations; as well as an opportunity for reinvention in the best-known and most practiced categories. Limitations of the study: Due to the difficult access to producer databases, it was decided to carry out a snowball sampling. Conclusion: The increase in knowledge and practice rates are determined by areas of opportunity and the rethinking of the best-known innovations. The role played by allspice, the surface area occupied, and the presence of other commercial crops may be the explanation of the productive state.Objective: To study the technological features of allspice pepper (Pimenta dioica L. Merr) production and to show potential areas of social intervention in the crop. Methodology: The study took place in five of 22 producing municipalities in Veracruz state, Mexico, selected by non-probabilistic sampling; n = 50 surveys were applied to producers selected following the snowball method. Data were collected on profile of the production unit and knowledge-practice for innovations. Descriptive statistics were applied; knowledge-practice rates and knowledge-practice indices were calculated. A classification of areas of opportunity was made based on the diffusion of innovations theory. Results: Allspice occupies small areas, its a complementary crop; knowledge and practice rates show that the categories for marketing, organization and nutrition are the lowest; in the opposite direction are the categories for harvesting, sustainable management and agronomic management. The categories show areas of opportunity for intervention, for the less known and practiced innovations; as well as opportunity for reinvention of known and practiced categories. Study limitations: Due to difficult access to producer databases, it was decided to conduct a snowball sampling method. Conclusions: The increase in knowledge and practice rates are determined by the areas of opportunity and the restructuring of the known innovations. The role played by allspice pepper, the occupied surface and the presence of other commercial crops can explain the state of production

    Climate and soil effect on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) yield

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    Objective: To determine the potential yield and the water-limited yield in oil palm producing areas in the state of Tabasco. Design/Methodology/Approach: The ERIC III v. 3.2 database (IMTA, 2009) was used to select climatological stations with daily records of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, reaching over 20 years. To estimate the potential yield, the methodology proposed by the FAO and improved by Fischer et al. (2012) was used. The estimation of the annual water deficit was done from the climatic water balance, using the equation reported by Ruiz-Álvarez et al. (2012). Results: The average potential yield of oil palm with a high level of inputs varies between 35.8 and 40.6 t ha-1 of fresh fruit bunches. The water-limited yield can vary on average between 15.6 and 23.5 t ha-1 in plantations of at least 8 years of age, under rainfed conditions. The decrease in the maximum average achievable yield due to soil moisture deficits ranges from 19.2% to 49.5%. Study limitations/implications: It is necessary to include climate change horizons in future studies to determine their impact on potential and water-limited yields, to know the future theoretical economic profitability of the crop. Findings/conclusions: The analysis between the yields indicates that, if the gap between the current yields and water-limited yields is closed, there would be increases between 6.5 and 14.4 t ha-1 and between 72.8% and 129% more, with respect to the potential yield. Key words: yield gap, annual water deficit, water balance, potential yield.Objective: To determine potential and water-limited yields in oil palm producing areas in the State of Tabasco, México. Design/Methodology/Approach: The ERIC III v. 3.2 database (IMTA, 2009) was used to select climatological stations with daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature records, going back to more than 20 years. The methodology proposed by the FAO and improved by Fischer et al. (2012) was used to estimate the potential yield. The equation reported by Ruiz-Álvarez et al. (2012) was used to estimate the annual water deficit from the climatic water balance. Results: The average potential yield of oil palm with a high level of inputs varies from 35.8 to 40.6 t ha-1 of fresh fruit bunches. The average water-limited yield can vary from 15.6 to 23.5 t ha-1 in plantations of at least 8 years of age, under rainfed conditions. The reduction in the maximum average attainable yield was the result of 19.2-49.5% soil moisture deficits. Study limitations/Implications: In order to determine their impact on potential and water-limited yields, climate change horizons must be included in future studies; this would enable researchers to establish the future theoretical economic profitability of the crop. Findings/Conclusions: The analysis between the yields indicates that —if the gap between the current yields and water-limited yields is closed— output and percentage would be 6.5-14.4 t ha-1 and 72.8-129% higher than the potential yield.

    Genetic Uniformity of the MSXJ papaya hybrid (Carica papaya L.) during Micropropagation

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    Objective. To analyze the genetic uniformity of the MSXJ papaya hybrid vitroplants, obtained via direct organogenesis. Design/methodology/approach. The MSXJ papaya hybrid presents quality characteristics for national and export markets. The in vitro plant tissue culture represents a tool for its multiplication and conservation, but somaclonal variation can decrease its genetic and agronomic uniformity. In order to analyze the genetic uniformity of this hybrid vitroplants, 10 ISSR primers were used in micropropagated vitroplants during nine subcultures. DNA extraction was carried out with the CTAB method. The data analysis was performed with the PopGene v 1.3.1 program. Results. Eighty five loci of 200 to 2000 bp were generated, with 37 polymorphic loci. In the cluster analysis, three groups were observed that separated subculture one, subcultures two through eight, and subculture nine; the Gst value of 0.87 indicated genetic uniformity up to subculture eight. Limitations/implications. Papaya is one of the most important tropical fruits worldwide; however it is necessary to have healthy and genetically uniform plants that guarantee their quality. In vitro propagation allows to produce healthy and uniform plants, but it is necessary to study their genetic uniformity during their micropropagation. Findings/conclusions. The in vitro multiplication of the MSXJ papaya hybrid allowed to regenerate vigorous plants in 30 days. Molecular profiles indicated that up to subculture eight plantlets were genetically uniform, so it is recommended not to carry out more than eight subcultures during micropropagation.Objective: To analyze the genetic uniformity of MSXJ hybrid papaya in vitro plants, obtained by direct organogenesis.Design/Methodology/Approach: The MSXJ papaya hybrid demonstrates quality characteristics for the national and exports market. In vitro culture of plant tissues represents a useful tool for their multiplication and conservation, but somaclonal variation can diminish their genetic and agronomic uniformity. In order to analyze the genetic uniformity of in vitro plants of this hybrid, ten ISSR primers were used for in vitro plants micropropagated during nine subcultures. DNA was extracted using the CTAB method. Data were analyzed using the program PopGene v 1.3.1.Results: Eighty-five loci of 200 to up to 2000 pb were generated, with 37 polymorphic loci. In the cluster analysis, three groups were observed which separate subculture one, subcultures two to eight, and subculture nine; the Gst value of 0.87 indicated genetic uniformity as far as subculture eight.Study Limitations/Implications: Papaya is one of the most important tropical fruits worldwide; however, these plants need to be healthy and genetically uniform to guarantee commercial success. In vitro propagation allows obtaining healthy and uniform plants, but it is necessary to study genetic uniformity during their micropropagation.Findings/Conclusions: The in vitro multiplication of the MSXJ papaya hybrid permitted the regeneration of vigorous plants in 30 d. Molecular profiles indicate that as far as subculture eight, there is genetic uniformity. As such, no more thaneight subcultures are recommended during micropropagation
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