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    887 research outputs found

    Making Psychology “Count”: On the Mathematization of Psychology

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    Beginning in the late 18th century and continuing through to the mid-20th century, a movement was undertaken by psychology’s pioneers to establish a mathematical basis for research modeled after the physical sciences. It is argued that this movement arose through sociopolitical pressures to legitimize psychology as an independent discipline; demarcate its disciplinary boundaries within academia; and distinguish psychology from philosophy and spiritualism. It is argued that an ahistorical view of how the quantitative paradigm gained ascendancy leaves it largely unquestioned and unchallenged within mainstream psychology. Because of this, qualitative research has endured a long and continuing struggle to gain disciplinary recognition and epistemological parity. It is proposed that despite being sidelined by decades of quantitative hegemony, qualitative research has a long history in psychology and in the last 40 years has continued to prove itself as a necessary and valuable contributor to research in psychology

    Does Existential Flexibility Associate With Individuals’ Acceptance of Inequality? A Study Relating Existential Questing to Values and to Prejudice

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    This study investigated whether existential quest, a relatively new construct defining individual willingness to reflect on existential issues such as the meaning of life and death, was negatively associated with generalized prejudice through the mediation with personal values of universalism and conservation (conformity, security, and tradition). A structural equation model was performed on a convenience sample of 1136 Italian adults. Results confirmed a negative indirect relationship with generalized prejudice mediated by universalism. Findings support the argument that engagement with existential issues is associated with the value of universalism, which in turn is associated with lower levels of generalized prejudice. The present study contributes to the scholarly literature to explain the concept of existential quest

    The Role of Social Appearance Comparison in Body Dissatisfaction of Adolescent Boys and Girls

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    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the indirect effect of the association between thin-ideal internalisation (1), muscular-ideal internalization (2) and body dissatisfaction (BD) through the general social appearance comparison separately among boys and girls. 154 adolescents (mean age 18.2 years, SD = 0.73; 56.5% girls) provided information on the explored variables. Two hierarchical regression models were carried out for boys and girls separately. The general appearance comparison works as an important explanatory mechanism in the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and BD among girls as well as between muscular-ideal internalization and BD among both boys and girls. The more individuals internalize the societal ideals of appearance, the more they compare their physical appearance to others and thus the greater BD they perceive. The current results contribute to previous research findings by indicating the social appearance comparison as a risk factor which enhances BD among both boys and girls in late adolescence. The findings may facilitate identifying individuals who are vulnerable to body dissatisfaction earlier, before more serious eating problems occur

    Bridging the Gap Between Believing and Memory Functions

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    Believing has recently been recognized as a fundamental brain function linking a person’s experience with his or her attitude, actions and predictions. In general, believing results from the integration of ambient information with emotions and can be reinforced or modulated in a probabilistic fashion by new experiences. Although these processes occur in the subliminal realm, humans can become aware of what they believe and express it verbally. We explain how believing is interwoven with memory functions in a multifaceted fashion. Linking the typically rapid and adequate reactions of a subject to what he/she believes is enabled by working memory. Perceptions are stored in episodic memory as beneficial or aversive events, while the corresponding verbal descriptions of what somebody believes are stored in semantic memory. After recall from memory of what someone believes, personally relevant information can be communicated to other people. Thus, memory is essential for maintaining what people believe

    Self-Exposure on Instagram and BMI: Relations With Body Image Among Both Genders

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    Social media users can actively choose how they portray themselves and review the information they share to form and manage positive impressions on their audience. A high Body Mass Index (BMI) can lead to a bias of attention towards self-reported unattractive personal body areas. This dysfunctional body-related attention can lead to increased body dissatisfaction. Concerning social networks, people who usually post more photos on Instagram more frequently show higher body satisfaction. The main objective of this work was to analyze the relationship between BMI in young people, their own exposition on Instagram, positive body image and certain psychological variables: self-esteem, coping and well-being. The population-based sample consisted of 687 young Instagram users aged between 18 to 35 years old. The results found in this work revealed that BMI had a significant influence on the body exposure on Instagram in both genders, as well as in body image and certain psychological variables, such as coping and well-being. Moreover, we found that there is not a direct relation between BMI and the exposure of the entire body on Instagram. This relationship exists through positive body image, appearance care and management appearance behaviors. These results imply that positive body image affects body’s exposure, so people with obesity or overweight tend to upload less photos with half or full body visible than people with normal weight or underweight. This is not because of their weight, but their valuation and appreciation of their bodies

    Understanding the Relationship Between the Multidimensional Perfectionism and Self-Compassion in Adults: The Effect of Age

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    Literature suggests that perfectionism is associated to self-compassion. However, the multiple relationships between the types of perfectionism (adaptive, maladaptive and non-perfectionists) and the multidimensional construct of self-compassion have not been thoroughly examined. To this end, the present study aimed (a) to examine the relationships between the types of perfectionism and the self-compassion components in an adult sample and (b) to check the effect of age on the relationship between the perfectionistic types and the self-compassion components. Participants were 509 adults aged 18 to 65 years. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect the data. Results indicated that High Standards positively predicted all self-compassion components while Discrepancy positively predicted Self-judgment and Isolation and overidentification and negatively predicted Self-Kindness and mindfulness and Common humanity. In addition, it was found that adaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists reported higher levels on the positive components of self-compassion and lower levels on its negative components, compared to maladaptive perfectionists. With respect to age, participants in established (30–45 years) and middle (46–65 years) adulthood reported higher levels on the positive self-compassion components and lower levels on its negative components compared to young adults (18–29 years), while participants in emerging adulthood scored higher on both the dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive) compared to participants in established and middle adulthood. Finally, age moderated only the relationship between adaptive perfectionism and Isolation and overidentification. Future directions and implications are being discussed

    Who Were We? Exploring French Past Group Prototypes

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    Groups have cognitive existence through the prototype of the group (Haslam et al., 1995; Past group prototypes then refer to the most representative characteristics that define the group in these previous states. We suppose, as collective events might have different versions associated with different valences (Zaromb et al., 2014;, this might also be the case for prototypes also held in the collective memory (Halbwachs, 1950; After highlighting different facets of the past (Study 1) or not (Study 2), we used the “free association method” (Lo Monaco et al., 2017;; Vergès, [1992], L’évocation de l’argent. Bulletin de Psychologie, 45(4–7), 203–209). Yet, this research explored the content of past prototypes associated with different elements of French collective memory: the French during the Second World War (Study 1, N = 301), and French people in 18th century (Study 2, N = 354). Results suggest the existence for each of these periods of a “two-sided” prototype, i.e., a positive vs. negative-valence prototype. The implications of the existence of these “two-sided” prototypes, the implication of collective continuity perceived for each of them and avenues for future research will be discussed

    Peace-Oriented Mindset and How to Measure it

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    This article presents the concept of a Peace-Oriented Mindset (POM), based on peace psychology and the significance of conflict-related context. It highlights the role of preventing conflicts through creating an enabling and peace-supportive milieu, facilitated by individuals with specific peace-oriented capabilities. The phenomenon of POM is analyzed, as well as delineated in the context of the current knowledge in this field. Next, the method used to construct a questionnaire measuring the POM is presented. The POM scale is verified on an N = 1074 representative sample, documenting high reliability. Factor analysis confirms the conjecture that there are three dimensions of the POM: Cognitive, performative, and doability conviction. Moreover, social norms are documented. A cross-segment comparison delivers several insights, e.g., that women have a higher POM level than men and that those who consider themselves leaders or innovators and those who are involved in social activities have a higher POM level than those who do not. The POM concept and scale are valuable resources for identifying future peacebuilders, especially from conflicted communities, as well as for training future youth leaders in the field of peacebuilding. Finally, indications for future studies are discussed, e.g., for verifying the hypothesis that individuals who score high in POM also have higher levels of empathy and compassion

    Self-Objectification and its Biological, Psychological and Social Predictors: A Cross-Cultural Study in Four European Countries and Iran

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    Although scholars started investigating self-objectification more than twenty years ago, only a few studies focused on men and even fewer have taken into account the cross-cultural dimension. Our study focused on the antecedents of self-objectification paying attention to the role of biological and sociodemographic variables (gender, BMI), psychological characteristics (self-esteem, perfectionism) together with social and cultural factors (internalization of media standards, influence of family and friends). Self-objectification was operationalized as Body Shame and Body Surveillance. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to 2165 adults living in four European countries (UK, Italy, Poland and Romania) and Iran. Ten regression models were performed (2 per country) to analyse the correlates of self-objectification. Overall, self-objectification emerged as a process affected by factors entrenched in psychological, biological, social and cultural domains, partially different for Body Shame and Body Surveillance. Findings showed the key role of self-esteem as a protective factor against Body Shame across countries. On the other hand, the internalization of media standards emerged as risk factor for both Body Shame and Body Surveillance in the five countries. Taken together, these results underline the complexity of self-objectification and the need to deepen research on this topic among non-Western countries

    “Liberty Can Be for You One Thing, and for Me Something Different”: Muslim Women's Experiences of Identity and Belonging in Switzerland

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    Belonging and identity are fundamental human needs, with positive experiences closely correlated with affirmative mental health. This paper investigates how these concepts are experienced by Muslim women in Switzerland, a minority group targeted in the political campaign nicknamed the “burka ban.” There were two research questions: How do Muslim women construct their identity in Switzerland? How do Muslim women experience a sense of belonging in Switzerland? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Six themes were identified: religion as a public versus private identity, Islam and dressing modestly as expressions of gendered liberation, sharing a sense of Swiss identity through sameness, challenging dominant representations, impression management, and religious and cultural identity as psychological strengths. Participants used several strategies to construct a positive identity and experience belonging in response to negative representation. Findings are summarized in the form of recommendations for counselors working in Switzerland


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