Universitetet i Agder: UiA Journal System
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    291 research outputs found

    Recalibrating the Language Classroom for Deeper Learning: Nurturing Creative, Responsible Global Citizenship Through Pluriliteracies

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    In Beyond CLIL: Pluriliteracies Teaching for Deeper Learning (Coyle & Meyer, 2021), the traditional role of language teaching and learning is brought into question. We propose an alternative paradigm that places the language teacher as a disciplinary specialist who contributes significantly to the development of learners’ pluriliteracies repertoire. In this article, we suggest ways in which language teachers can reconceptualise their "subject" as one that is of central importance and value in our post-truth world. We posit that this requires not only an epistemic repositioning of the language classroom but, crucially, a profound and deliberate recalibration of the component parts of language-as-discipline. This involves connecting languages, cultures and literatures in ways that foster textual and epistemic fluency leading to deeper understanding and empathy. From this perspective, the "language-as-literacies classroom" has the potential to become an inclusive space for deeper learning whilst developing creative, responsible global citizenship.&nbsp

    Students’ content learning in Science in CLIL vs non-CLIL classes in Greece

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    The recent introduction of CLIL instruction in some Greek state schools has given rise to concerns voiced by parents – and sometimes educators as well – regarding students’ ability to learn content in or through an L2. The fear is that students’ low proficiency in L2 will inhibit full understanding of the content and eventually will impact negatively on subject competence. Although there are several studies in the impact of various types of bilingual education programs on students’ L2 development, research in their impact on content learning is scarce (see Murphy et al., 2020). Our study aims to contribute to this research by examining 3rd grade students’ performance in Science when this is taught through English as L2. The main objective is to assess if students learning Science through the L2 (English) will outperform their peers studying the same content in Greek (L1) as regards content acquision. The participants of this study are 90 pupils in grade 3 – 46 CLIL students and 44 non CLIL students. Two Science tests are used to assess students’ performance and the two cohorts are compared on the basis of their scores in those tests. The main finding is quite encouraging for parents and educators alike, as the two cohorts’ performance is very similar in both tests; this indicates that CLIL instruction does not impact negatively on students’ content acquisition and that CLIL programs can support not only L2 instruction but also content knowledge.&nbsp

    Exploring teaching practices to stimulate meaningful language use in the Frisian trilingual primary school

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    In Frisian trilingual primary schools, Dutch, Frisian and English are taught through content and language integrated learning (CLIL). CLIL is often characterized as an umbrella term, which can be carried out in various ways, and including regional and/or minority languages which are used to different extents in the out-of-school context (Cenoz et al., 2014). Through the planning of meaning-focused communicative tasks (Ellis, 2009a), using different formats (Llinares & Dalton-Puffer, 2015), the students’ language use can be stimulated by co-construction of knowledge. However, little is known about how CLIL is implemented in the Frisian trilingual primary schools and how these practices are related to development in the three languages.  This paper addresses the following research question: Which meaning-focused teaching practices to stimulate target language use can be observed in the three target language lessons (Dutch, Frisian and English) at the end of the Frisian trilingual primary school (students aged 10 - 12 years), and how are these related to student language development in these languages? Data were collected by event sampling observations of 51 content-lessons in the three target languages in seven trilingual primary schools (n = 165 students), and for which an observation instrument was developed (Tjepkema, 2021) focusing on the CLIL teaching practices. Student language development in the three target languages was assessed using vocabulary and reading comprehension test. Taking a dynamic systems perspective (De Bot et al. 2007), quantitative analysis included the relation between the teaching practices to stimulate meaningful language use in the three languages and student language development in these languages. Results show that higher occurrences of the stimulation of meaningful language use are significantly related only to Frisian language development in terms of vocabulary and reading comprehension. Furthermore, there is evidence for a relation between the stimulation of meaningful language use in the Dutch lessons and Dutch reading comprehension development. However, no relation was found between meaningful use of English in English CLIL lessons and the students’ development of English.  Implications of our results for CLIL and bilingual education are related to the importance of developing teacher competences to stimulate meaningful language in content-based minority language education. Other implications for future research and policy making in multilingual education systems are discussed.  &nbsp

    Challenges in education – A Study Based in Poland

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    Bilingual education and teachers’ experiences in Poland have, thus far, received little attention from researchers. This paper describes the challenges in bilingual education (CLIL - Content and Language Integrated Learning) in the International Baccalaureate in the Primary Years Programme. The study comprised an online survey with thirty-six teachers working with the youngest pupils in five IB PYP schools in Poland. The primary aim of the study was to find the answers to two research questions: What are the main challenges in bilingual education according to Polish teachers? What can facilitate bilingual education at the level of elementary school? The results showed the variety of challenges in bilingual education among teachers, students and parents, such as: lack of training, limited resources, communication barriers. Additionally, content and language teachers described their best practices and methods in teaching primary students. These results may contribute to the changes in the way of teaching non-native languages to young learners.&nbsp

    Apprendre les langues, apprendre en langues. Retour d’observation de classes finlandaises d’établissements franco-finnois

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    L’observation des classes bilingues franco-finnois des trois grands sites finlandais, de la maternelle au lycée, permet d’observer une quantité d’éléments sur l’interaction existant entre le comportement des élèves et celui des professeurs, mais également la panoplie des modalités immersives d’enseignement. Nous verrons ce que sont ces modalités, au nombre de quatre, et comment les professeurs trouvent bénéfice à les employer en fonction d’objectifs précis et de réponse à des besoins bien identifiés.&nbsp

    Developing democracy and citizenship with literary texts about the First World War

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    This article reports on an empirical study that explores the interdisciplinary learning potential of literary texts about the First World War in the English classroom. In a 9th grade English class in Norway, learners responded to an illustrated book, two poems, and an excerpt from a novel about the war in learner-led group conversations structured by frameworks. The questions in the frameworks encouraged the learners to move from the particularity of the texts towards issues of the interdisciplinary topic of democracy and citizenship in the Norwegian national curriculum LK20. The theoretical position in this article builds on historical literacy, understood as historical awareness, critical historical thinking, and affective responses to texts about history. The texts offer opportunities for historical and interdisciplinary engagement, thus providing possibilities for developing aspects of historical literacy. Emphasising historical content through scaffolding may be beneficial for developing learners’ critical historical thinking and a deeper historical awareness. Encountering learners’ affective dimensions of historical literacy, individual responses might provide further insight.&nbsp

    CLIL og bæredygtighed i sprogfagene: En Cyklus-Task-Chunks tilgang

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    Denne artikel præsenterer en Cyklus-Task-Chunks tilgang til integration af interkulturel og sproglig læring i engelsk-, tysk- og franskundervisningen. Tilgangen kan betragtes som en CLIL-orienteret tilgang, da den viser, hvordan elever kan stilladseres til at kunne kommunikere, reflektere og forholde sig kritisk til kultur, samfund og verden. Den bygger på en synergi imellem Cyklusmodel for interkulturel læring (Risager & Svarstad, 2020) og en stilladsering af elevernes sproglige udvikling baseret på en task- og chunks-orienteret kommunikativ sprogundervisning. Den er udviklet i forbindelse med et større aktionsforskningsprojekt i Danmark i skoleåret 2021/2022, hvor det bærende spørgsmål var, hvordan undervisning i sprogfagene kan bidrage til undervisning i de store globale samfundsfordringer, som de fx kommer til udtryk i FN’s Verdensmål for bæredygtig udvikling. Lektorteamet udviklede seks undervisningsforløb til 8. og 9. klasse baseret på en Cyklus-Task-Chunks tilgang, som de deltagende lærere afprøvede og udviklede i en aktionslæringsspiral i form af workshops, didaktiske samtaler og fokusgruppeinterview. Elevernes stemmer blev også inddraget i form af afsluttende fokusgruppeinterviews. Projektets fund viser, at det er muligt at arbejde med komplekse emner som fx bæredygtighedsproblematikker og at kommunikere om disse problemstillinger på engelsk, tysk og fransk. I denne artikel er der fokus på fund fra engelsk- og tyskundervisningen. This article presents a Cycle-Task-Chunks approach to the integration of intercultural and language learning in English, German and French education. The approach can be considered a CLIL-oriented approach, as it shows how students can be scaffolded to be able to communicate, reflect and relate critically to culture, society, and the world. It is based on a synergy between the Cycle model for intercultural learning (Risager & Svarstad, 2020) and a scaffolding of the students' language development based on task- and chunk-oriented communicative language teaching. It has been developed in connection with a large action research project in Denmark in the 2021/2022 school year, where the main question was how teaching in language subjects can contribute to teaching the major global social demands, as expressed, for example, in the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. The lecturer team developed six teaching plans for 8th and 9th grade based on a Cyclus-Task-Chunks approach, which the participating teachers tested and developed in an action learning spiral in the form of workshops, didactic conversations and focus group interviews. The students' voices were also included in the form of final focus group interviews. The project's findings show that it is possible to work with complex topics such as sustainability issues and to communicate about these issues in English, German and French. In this article, the focus is on findings from English and German teaching.&nbsp

    Cross-curricular CLIL projects in Swedish middle school

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    In this article, we report and discuss findings from a case-study of cross-curricular CLIL implementation involving English and home economics at a Swedish middle school. The objective was to study teaching strategies for supporting students’ integrated development of content and language knowledge in practical school subjects and to explore the role of the majority language in the CLIL classroom. The study is theoretically grounded in the perspective of languages as being socially constructed (Lantolf, 2000; Lantolf & Thorne, 2006). The focus of the analysis is the role of scaffolding (Walqui, 2006) in CLIL. Data consist of field notes and teaching materials from lesson observations as well as teachers’ plans and evaluations of the CLIL theme. Findings show that practical subjects, such as home economics, offer ample opportunities for visual scaffolding, and that the content is concrete and often close to students’ everyday life. Further, the content of the English lessons becomes highly relevant for the students as it will be used in an authentic situation, i.e. in home economics class. With careful planning, including strategies for scaffolding, and cooperation among teachers, cross-curricular CLIL themesinvolving a practical subject seem highly suitable for CLIL among young learners.&nbsp

    ‘Me Siento Pequeña’ – A Visual Approach Towards Students’ Experiences with the Transition from Elementary to Secondary School in Spanish-German bilingual Education

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    As the education system is organised around horizontal and vertical transitions and because bilingual education (BE) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in languages other than English (LOTE) are quite rare, it is difficult to guarantee the continuity of CLIL in LOTE (Harbon & Fielding, 2022). Additionally, little is known about the possible causes and effects of such language and content learning disruptions on students’ learning pathways (Chambers, 2020). Through visual narratives and open-ended questionnaires, this paper examines how 37 young learners in two Spanish-German bilingual classrooms either experienced or envisioned their bilingual and CLIL classes and how they perceive the transition from elementary (4th grade) to secondary school (5th grade). The aim of the research is to better understand CLIL and BE transitions in LOTE from an emic perspective, by gaining some insights into students’ past and current experiences and expectations, thereby collecting ideas for successful transitions that incorporate their perceptions. Our results show that pupils' perspectives through their drawings and answers can be assigned to four main categories: difficulty and workload, self-perception, image of the school and teachers, and social environment at school or in BE. We discuss the implications of our findings for BE and CLIL LOTE, in general, and for dealing with educational transitions more effectively, in particular.&nbsp


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