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    Facile and fast preparation of layered double hydroxide as a nanocarrier for ascorbic acid under ultrasonic irradiation

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    Background and purpose: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as inorganic materials are being used in controlled release and drug delivery systems. These materials are more stable than conventional drug carriers. In this investigation, Mg/Al-ascorbic acid (ASA) LDH nanohybrid was synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted co-deposition techniques. Experimental approach: In this study, Mg/Al-LDH to adsorption of ASA anions from the alkaline solution was assembled by a facile coprecipitation technique. During this process, ultrasonic irradiation was used to increase the rate of ion exchange between LDH and ASA. The intercalated-layered structure was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission SEM, and TEM. ASA releasing from Mg/Al-ASA LDH nanohybrid was carried out in incubation sodium carbonate solution (0.5 M) at 35 °C using UV-Vis absorbance analysis at λ = 265 nm Findings/Results: The used techniques confirmed the structure of Mg/Al-LDH and indicated successful intercalation of ASA into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. The obtained results also have shown that Mg/Al-ASA LDH nanohybrid was generated with an average diameter size of 25 nm and narrow size distribution. Analysis of the release profiles using several kinetic models suggested that the first-order rate model is the most appropriate for describing the release of ASA from Mg/Al-LDH which means the amount of drug released is proportional to the amount of remaining drug in the matrix. Thus, the amount of activity released tends to decrease in function of time. Conclusion and implications: The results showed that LDHs are good host materials to preserve the biomolecule and modify its release rate and bioavailability. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved

    A machine learning model for predicting favorable outcome in severe traumatic brain injury patients after 6 months

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    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which occurs commonly worldwide, is among the more costly of health and socioeconomic problems. Accurate prediction of favorable outcomes in severe TBI patients could assist with optimizing treatment procedures, predicting clinical outcomes, and result in substantial economic savings. Methods: In this study, we examined the capability of a machine learning-based model in predicting �favorable� or �unfavorable� outcomes after 6 months in severe TBI patients using only parameters measured on admission. Three models were developed using logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machines trained on parameters recorded from 2,381 severe TBI patients admitted to the neuro-intensive care unit of Rajaee (Emtiaz) Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) between 2015 and 2017. Model performance was evaluated using three indices: sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. A ten-fold cross-validation method was used to estimate these indices. Results: Overall, the developed models showed excellent performance with the area under the curve around 0.81, sensitivity and specificity of around 0.78. The top-three factors important in predicting 6-month post-trauma survival status in TBI patients are �Glasgow coma scale motor response,� �pupillary reactivity,� and �age.� Conclusions: Machine learning techniques might be used to predict the 6-month outcome in TBI patients using only the parameters measured on admission when the machine learning is trained using a large data set. © 2022 Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine. All right reserved

    Iranian and American Moral Judgments for Everyday Dilemmas Are Mostly Similar

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    Moral judgment is a complex cognitive process that partly depends upon social and individual cultural values. There have been various efforts to categorize different aspects of moral judgment, but most studies depend upon rare dilemmas. We recruited 25 subjects from Tehran, Iran, to rate 150 everyday moral scenarios developed by Knutson et al. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), we observed that the same moral dimensions (except socialness dimension) were driven by the same moral cognitive factors (norm violation, intention, and social affect) in Iranian vs. American studies. However, there were minor differences in the factor loadings between the two cultures. Furthermore, based on the EFA results, we developed a short form of the questionnaire by removing eleven of the fifteen scenarios from each of the ten categories. These results could be used in further studies to better understand the similarities and differences in moral judgment in everyday interactions across different cultures. © Copyright © 2021 Yazdanpanah, Soltani, Mirfazeli, Shariat, Jahanbakhshi, GhaffariHosseini, Alavi, Hosseinpour, Javadnia and Grafman

    The effects of lithium chloride and cathodal/anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on conditional fear memory changes and the level of p-mTOR/mTOR in PFC of male NMRI mice

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    Lithium chloride clinically used to treat mental diseases but it has some side effects like cognitive impairment, memory deficit. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is able to change neural activity and gene transcription in the brain. The aim of the study is to provide a conceptual theoretical framework based on behavioral and molecular effects of tDCS on memory changes induced by lithium in male mice. we applied Anodal-tDCS and Cathodal-tDCS over the left PFC for 3 consecutive days tDCS for 20 min with 2 mA after injection of different doses of lithium/saline.Trained in fear condition and finally the day after that tested their memory persistency factors (freezing-latency) and other behavior such as grooming and rearing percentage time in the fear conditioning. P-mTOR/mTOR was analyzed using western blotting. The results obtained from the preliminary analysis of behavioral fear memory showed that lithium had destructive effect in higher doses and decreased freezing percentage time. However, both cathodal and anodal tDCS significantly improved memory and increased P-mTOR/mTOR level in the PFC. The results of this study indicate that cathodal and anodal tDCS upon the left prefrontal increased memory and reduced lithium side effects on memory consolidation and altered expression of plasticity-associated genes in the prefrontal cortex. © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

    The effect of barberry (Berberis vulgaris) consumption on flow-mediated dilation and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial

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    Hypertension is considered as an important cardiovascular risk factor and evidence suggests that hypertension and endothelial dysfunction reinforce each other. Polyphenol-rich foods, such as barberry can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate the effects of barberry consumption on vascular function and inflammatory markers in hypertensive subject. In this randomized controlled parallel trial, 84 hypertensive subjects of both genders (aged 54.06 ± 10.19 years; body mass index 28.02 ± 2.18 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to consume barberry (10 g/day dried barberry) or placebo for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, changes in brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma macrophage/monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Compared to placebo (n = 42), barberry consumption (n = 42) improved FMD (B 95% CI was 6.54% 4.39, 8.70; p <.001) and decreased plasma ICAM-1 (B 95% CI was �1.61 ng/ml �2.74, �0.48; p =.006). MCP-1 was significantly lower in the barberry group compared with the placebo group (B 95% CI was �37.62 pg/ml �72.07, �3.17; p =.033). Our results indicate that barberry consumption improves FMD and has a beneficial effect on plasma ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in hypertensive patients. This trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT) with number IRCT20160702028742N8. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Combination of Antibiotics-Nisin Reduces the Formation of Persister Cell in Listeria monocytogenes

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    Persister cells are a subpopulation of bacteria with the ability of survival when exposed to lethal doses of antibiotics, and are responsible for antibiotic therapy failure and infection recurrences. In this study, we investigated persister cell formation and the role of nisin in combination with antibiotics in reducing persistence in Listeria monocytogenes. We also examined the expression of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in persister cells of L. monocytogenes to gain a better understanding of the effect of TA systems on persister cell formation. To induce persistence, L. monocytogenes were exposed to high doses of different antibiotics over a period of 24 hr, and the expression levels of TA system was genes were measured 5 hr after the addition of antibiotics by the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. To investigate the effect of nisin, L. monocytogenes was exposed to a combination of nisin and antibiotics. According to our results, L. monocytogenes was highly capable of persister cell formation, and the combination of nisin and antibiotics resulted in reduced persistence. qRT-PCR results showed a significant increase in GNAT/RHH expression among the studied systems. Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of the combination of nisin and antibiotics in reducing persister cell formation, and emphasized the role of the GNAT/RHH system in bacterial persistence. © 2021, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers

    A diagnostic prediction model for chronic kidney disease in internet of things platform

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    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is being typically observed as a health threatening issue, especially in developing countries, where receiving proper treatments are very expensive. Therefore, early prediction of CKD that protects the kidney and breaks the gradual progress of CKD has become an important issue for physicians and scientists. Internet of Things (IoT) as a useful paradigm in which, low cost body sensor and smart multimedia medical devices are applied to provide remote monitoring of kidney function, plays an important role, especially where the medical care centers are hardly available for most of people. To gain this objective, in this paper, a diagnostic prediction model for CKD and its severity is proposed that applies IoT multimedia data. Since the influencing features on CKD are enormous and also the volume of the IoT multimedia data is usually very huge, selecting different features based on physicians� clinical observations and experiences and also previous studies for CKD in different groups of multimedia datasets is carried out to assess the performance measures of CKD prediction and its level determination via different classification techniques. The experimental results reveal that the applied dataset with the proposed selected features produces 97 accuracy, 99 sensitivity and 95 specificity via applying decision tree (J48) classifier in comparison to Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multi-Layer Perception (MLP) and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Also, the proposed feature set can improve the execution time in comparison to other datasets with different features. © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

    A Review on the diagnostic approaches of COVID-19 infection; Features and limitations

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    Detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early stage is indispensible for outcome improvement and interruption of transmission chain. Clear understanding of the nature of the diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and their challenges, collecting the most diagnostically valuable specimen at the right time from the right anatomic site, and interpretation of their findings is important. This review scrutinizes current challenges and interpretation of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as the reference method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), antibody and antigen detection, typical lung imaging characteristics and prominent abnormal changes in laboratory findings of patients with proven COVID-19, and describes how the results may vary over time. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum specimens demonstrate the highest positive rates (93 and 72 , respectively) in molecular diagnosis of COVID-19. Alternatively, repeated RT-PCR assays can be performed; as over time, it is an increase in the likelihood of the SARS-CoV-2 being present in the nasopharynx. Combining clinical evidence with results of chest computed tomography (CT) and RT-PCR can minimize the risk of diagnostic errors. Elevated levels of interleukin 6 (IL�6) and D-dimer are thought to be closely associated with the occurrence of severe COVID�19 in adults, and their combined detection can serve as early factors predicting the severity of COVID�19. Moreover, elevated acute phase proteins are associated with a poor outcome in COVID-19. Serological diagnosis also is an important tool to understand the extent of COVID-19 in the community, and to identify individuals, who are immune. Antibodies begin to increase from the second week of symptom onset. © 2021 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS). All rights reserved

    Mapping the cancer-specific FACT-B onto the generic SF-6Dv2

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    Introduction: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data extracted from cancer-specific questionnaires are often non-preference based, while patient preference-based utility data are required for health economic evaluation. This study aimed to map Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) subscales onto the Short Form six Dimension as an independent instrument (SF-6Dv2ind-6) using the data gathered from patients with breast cancer. Methods: Data for 420 inpatient and outpatient patients with breast cancer were gathered from the largest academic center for cancer patients in Iran. The OLS and Tobit models were used to predict the values of the SF-6Dv2ind-6 with regard to the FACT-B subscales. Prediction accuracy of the models was determined by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). The relationship between the fitted and observed SF-6Dv2ind-6 values was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). Goodness of fit of models was assessed using the predicted R2 (Pred R2) and adjusted R2 (Adj R2). A tenfold cross-validation method was used for validation of models. Results: Data of 416 patients with breast cancer were entered into final analysis. The model included main effects of FACT-B subscales, and statistically significant clinical and demographic variables were the best predictor for SF-6Dv2ind-6 (Model S3 of OLS with Adj R2 = 61.02, Pred R2 = 59.25, MAE = 0.0465, RMSE = 0.0621, ICC = 0.678, AIC = -831.324, BIC = -815.871). Conclusion: The best algorithm developed for SF-6Dv2ind-6 enables researchers to convert cancer-specific instruments scores into preference-based scores when the data are gathered using cancer-specific instruments. © 2020, The Japanese Breast Cancer Society

    Gallic Acid Exerts Nephroprotective, Anti-Oxidative Stress, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects Against Diclofenac-Induced Renal Injury in Malerats

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    Background/Aim: Diclofenac (DIC) is a Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and consumption of this drug creates side effects such as renal injury. The purpose of this work was to assess the influences of gallic acid (GA) on DIC-induced renal injury in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were segregated into five groups. Group 1, control group; Group 2 received DIC-only (50 mg/kg bw, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days; Groups 3, received GA-only (100 mg/kg bw, po) for 7 consecutive days; group 4 received DIC (50 mg/kg bw, i.p.) plus GA (50 mg/kg, po) for 7 consecutive days and group 5 received DIC (50 mg/kg bw, i.p.) plus GA (100 mg/kg, po) for 7 consecutive days. Results: The data indicated that the levels of the serum protein carbonyl, sGOT, sGPT, urea, creatinine, uric acid, nitrite content, MDA, serum IL-1β, and the renal IL-1β gene expression were remarkably increased in DIC-only treated animals compared to control group. In the other hand, treatment with gallic acid led to significant improvements in abnormalities of DIC-induced oxidative stress and serum biochemical parameters. Histological changes were also ameliorated by GA oral administration. Conclusion: The results indicated that oral injection of GA could alleviate the noxious effects of DIC on the antioxidant defense system and renal tissue. © 2020 IMS


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