Horizon e-Publishing Group (HePG): E-Journals
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    958 research outputs found

    Extract and fraction of cashew nut testa ameliorate the hyperglycemic mice induced by Streptozotocin and high-fat diet

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    Drug strategy is a standard method for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), a non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence, which may cause side effects. Therefore, natural compounds with limited adverse effects have come back into vogue for treating T2D. This study aims to evaluate the effects on rehabilitating hyperglycemic mice of cashew nut testa (husk) extract and fraction known as potential bio-substances for improvement in T2D. First, the hyperglycemic mice were induced with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and then were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, dozen for injection was 40 mg/kg/week) for 2 weeks. Next, the confirmed hyperglycemic mice were treated with pioglitazone (HG+PG group), total extract (HG+TE group), and saponin-rich fraction (HG+SRF group) for 3 weeks. Then, the evaluation was based on body mass; blood glucose (BG) level; BG tolerance, lipid profile, pancreatic histology and the expression IRS-1 in the pancreas. The results showed that body mass and BG level significantly increased in hyperglycemic mice. After substance treatment, there was no change in body mass in TE and SRF groups. However, BG level of HG+TE group mice significantly decreased compared to hyperglycemic mice and only BG tolerance of HG+SRF group was improved. Besides, HG+TE and HG+SRF groups modulated the triglyceride, HDL and LDL close to those expressed in normal mice. In addition, histological images of the pancreas revealed the restoration in both HG+TE and HG+SRF groups. Simultaneously, the IRS-1 expression in HG+TE group pancreas was restored to its expression in normal mice. These results demonstrate that the TE and SRF of cashew nut testa could ameliorate BG, lipid profile and pancreatic IRS-1 expression and restore the damaged pancreas and islets in hyperglycemic mice

    Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia khinjuk

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    Medicinal plants are renowned for their various therapeutic properties, including antibacterial and antifungal activities. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of P. atlantica and P. khinjuk. Hydroalcoholic extracts of P. atlantica and P. khinjuk were prepared to assess their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aspergillus flavus were utilized for the evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on the growth of bacterial and fungal strains were evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) through a 96-well microplate analysis following CLSI guidelines. Our findings revealed that the MICs and MBCs of P. atlantica and P. khinjuk for bacterial strains ranged from 0 to 64 mg/mL. Additionally, the MIC and MFC values for fungal strains ranged from 16 to 64 mg/mL. The results indicated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia were the most sensitive bacterial strains to P. atlantica. Furthermore, Aspergillus flavus was identified as the most sensitive fungal strain to P. atlantica. In conclusion, these findings suggest that P. atlantica and P. khinjuk possess antibacterial and antifungal effects. The paper argues that these plant extracts could be used as a supplementary treatment alongside conventional antibacterial and antifungal drugs

    Effects of hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifier concentrations on the characteristics of Germander essential oil nanoemulsions prepared using the nanoprecipitation technique

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    The Germanders (Teucrium polium L.) essential oil exhibits antioxidant and bactericidal activities against a wide range of microorganisms; however, its water insolubility, susceptibility to environmental stresses, and intense flavors limit its uses in food formulations. As a solution, in the present study, nanoemulsions of Germanders (Mentha pulegium) essential oil were prepared using a bottom-up nanoprecipitation technique. A central composite design based on the response surface methodology was implemented to investigate the effects of selected lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifier concentrations. The proposed second-order polynomial models, with relatively high coefficients of determination, could efficiently predict alterations in response parameters due to emulsifier concentrations. The results revealed that both lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifiers had significantly affected all characteristics of the synthesized essential oil nanoemulsions. Multi-goal optimization analysis suggested that 7.8% and 4.8% concentrations of Span 80 and Tween 80, respectively, could yield the most desirable Germanders essential oil nanoemulsions, with a mean particle size of 78.56 nm, PDI of 0.1722, DPPH radical scavenging of 83.69%, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica growth inhibition zones of 10.5 mm and 12.7 mm, respectively. The validity of the models was confirmed by the absence of substantial variations between experimental data and modeling results. While the prepared Germander essential oil nanoemulsions demonstrated acceptable physical properties, they exhibited relatively limited chemical stability during storage at 5°C for 30 days

    Toxicity of Ocimum basilicum L. leaf extract against Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most significant shallot pests worldwide, which affects agricultural production by approximately 100% in Indonesia. The growing awareness of sustainable agriculture encourages the search for natural alternatives to synthetic pesticides that promote resistance and contaminate the environment. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of basil (Ocimum basilicum L) leaf extract against the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of S. exigua. The extracts were prepared using maceration and hydrodistillation and the pathogenicity was carried out against the 2nd and 3rd instar of S. exigua using three replicates with several doses of extract ranging from 0- 2.0%. The extracts were applied to the larvae using contact and topical methods. The results showed that maceration extraction yields a greater extract with different types compared to those of the hydrodistillation method. Maceration extract of basil leaves with the contact application method to 2nd instar showed better results than the topical application with the highest mortality rate of 75% (F=24.464; P< 0.001) and LC50 of 0.007%. This indicated that basil leaf extract with the contact application method has great potential to be developed as a botanical insecticide to control S. exigua in the field as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Chemical and functional properties of nutrient-dense beverages developed from underutilised crops

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    Beverages are typically seen as wholesome snacks that can be included in a daily diet. Despite being part of the regular diet, the majority of these beverages are low in nutrients and high in calories. Worldwide, a variety of industrial processes, raw ingredients and microorganisms are used to manufacture fermented food. Many indigenous or traditional fermented foods and beverages are still prepared today as a form of domestic art. They are created in small businesses, communities and homes. Among the fermented foods that are important to people's diets worldwide are beverages that might have a non-dairy origin. In this study, Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder (MoLP) was used to fortify two beverages, including Amasi (Bambara groundnut) and Mageu (sorghum), at 0% (control), 1% and 5%. After fortifying the fermented and unfermented variations, the beverages' biochemical, chemical and functional properties were analysed. The effects of MoLP (1% and 5%) on the stress, viscosity and torque characteristics of Amasi were significant (p ?0.05). For all of the samples, Amasi and Mageu's values for protein, ash and moisture increased significantly (p ?0.05) due to the inclusion of MoLP. These findings indicate that MoLP-fortified beverages can act as a source of nutrients to address micronutrient deficiencies in children and adults.

    Evaluation of zinc application methods and integrated nutrient management on variation in growth, yield and yield contributing factors in wheat

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    Zinc is an important micro nutrient and plays an important role in improving the crop growth and productivity. Intensive agricultural practices due to rise in population have accelerated the use of chemical fertilizers which resulted in depletion of soil fertility. In this regard, a 2 year field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of Lovely Professional University during rabi season in 2021-2022 and 2022-23 to examine the effect of different zinc application methods and integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and yield contributing factors on wheat. Three types of zinc application methods along with various levels of integrated nutrient management approaches were used for the study. The results revealed that a significant interaction between zinc application methods and integrated nutrient management practices was observed with dry matter accumulation (g/m2), Leaf area index, spikes/m2, spike length (cm), number of grains per spike and grain yield of wheat crop. Maximum improvement in grain yield (5.5 t/ha) was obtained when soil+foliar application of zinc was combined with 75% recommended dose of fertilizer + 2.5 t/ha farm yard manure + Zinc solubilizing bacteria. Additionally, these studies need to be repeated at many locations with various agro-climatic circumstances

    Advanced strategies for optimization of primary nutrients requirement in rice-A review

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    The Green Revolution led to India's food independence mostly through the inclusion of supply-driven technologies, such as the introduction of high-yielding cultivars, improved access to water, agrochemicals, and mechanization. The present and future needs target agricultural sustainability without endangering the ecosystem. In this regard, the adoption of precision agriculture is required to meet this expected objective. In developed nations, precision farming has already experienced tremendous growth. However, precision farming methods have taken a while for emerging nations in Asia to comprehend, create, and embrace. Moreover, precision farming is frequently misunderstood as a sophisticated technological intervention intended for extensive agricultural fields. However, it is essentially a science that involves using the "right input" in the "right quantity," at the "right time," and in the "right place," to improve input use efficiency. In the case of primary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, so-called recommendations for nutrient management based on soil tests have improved food grain output which increased the nutrient use efficiency up to a certain extent. Moreover, the recommendations are made for a given agroclimatic region and crops irrespective of site-specific soil fertility, cultivars, and agronomic management levels resulting in excess or scanty use to crop needs. At this juncture, assessing the nutritional requirements of plants proves to be a superior method, as it takes into account the cumulative impact of nutrient availability from various sources on plant growth at any specific stage, making it a reliable indicator of nutrient accessibility. Rice, the most important food crop, is grown in diverse agroclimatic regions at different management levels. Hence, there is an urgent need to adopt a precision nutrient management strategy to optimize the yield output. The article offers an overview of several precision instruments available for managing nutrients at specific sites and aids in choosing the most appropriate one for each circumstance

    Notes on the status of Limnophila micrantha (Benth.) Benth. and L. glandulifera Philcox (Plantaginaceae)

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    The taxonomic status of 3 species of the genus Limnophila viz., L. micrantha (Benth.) Benth., L. glandulifera Philcox and L. repens (Benth.) Benth. were examined. L. micrantha and L. glandulifera is found to be conspecific with L. repens. Hence, these 2 names are reduced here into the synonymy of the earlier name, L. repens (Benth.) Benth.

    Actinomycete inoculant improves the growth and yield of rainfed lowland and upland rice under field conditions

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    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of actinomycete inoculant in enhancing the growth and yield of rainfed lowland and upland rice across wet and dry seasons in real field conditions. This field assessment took place at four sites, comprising two rainfed lowland and two rainfed upland ecosystems, over two cropping seasons (dry and wet seasons). The experiments involved testing both soil-based and carbonized rice hull (CRH) inoculants. Actinomycetes were found to be effectively carried by CRH and soil, and evidence from field studies in rainfed lowland and upland conditions showed that the actinomycete inoculant significantly improved rice production even under stressful environmental conditions. Regarding plant height, root depth, and tiller number, the inoculated treatments outperformed both the control and the full fertilization rates. Rice yield significantly increased with the application of actinomycete inoculum in both lowland and upland experiments. Inoculation alone led to substantial improvements, with yield increases of up to 48% in Lowland Site 1, 50% in Lowland Site 2, 78% in Upland Site 1, and 43% in Upland Site 2. Similarly, growth was enhanced by inoculation alone, reaching up to 50% in Lowland Site 1, 75% in Lowland Site 2, 24% in Upland Site 1, and 26% in Upland Site 2. When added to the full rate of fertilization, the inoculant significantly boosted yield by up to 16% in Lowland Site 1, 82% in Upland Site 1, and 40% in Upland Site 2. Additionally, growth substantially improved with inoculation in conjunction with the full rate of fertilization, reaching as much as 50% in lowland site 1, and 24% in upland site 1. Actinomycete inoculant proves to be a valuable alternative and addition to agricultural fertilizer management, as it was found to significantly increase growth and yield even in adverse weather conditions

    Enhancing resilience to climate change through prospective strategies for climate-resilient agriculture to improve crop yield and food security

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    It is important to highlight that agriculture is one of the sectors that will be directly affected by climate change scenarios in recent years. There are a number of processes such as drought, floods, temperature, salinity etc along with other forms of biotic factors posing significant impacts on crop yields of various crops due to their fluctuating scenario in the environment. Espousal of smart technologies and practices like smart crop and variety selection, efficient climate-based cropping system, agricultural water management (AWM), balanced fertilization, contingency planning, recarbonization of soils, no-till system, integrated farming system, site specific nutrient management etc are being advised to exercise in many regions for climate-resistant agriculture. These approaches minimize soil disruption and energy usages, enhance soil health and alleviate greenhouse gas discharges, minimize unproductive losses and improve efficiency of land and water use result in greater crop production with reduced fertilizer usage. As a part of this strategy, weather stations and mini-weather lookouts are set up at the village stage to register relevant weather observations like temperature, rainfall, wind speed and relative humidity etc to furnish customized agro-advisories to farmers, which reduce detrimental consequences attributed to the climate. A climate smart approach integrates farmer’s practices with related technologies, plans, institutes, policies and financial packages. So, initiating the choice of site-specific crops, development of customized technologies and tools, diversification of crops, improvement of climate-resistant crop varieties, syndication of forecasting tools and proper management of resources at the community level can effectively enhance climate resilience in agriculture

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