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    An exploration of speech and language pathology student and facilitator perspectives on problem-based learning online.

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    This mixed-methods study explored the perspectives of second and third-year Speech Language Pathology (SLP) students and facilitators on Problem-Based Learning (PBL) online. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, PBL was delivered online for the academic year 2020-2021 via a virtual learning environment. Forty-seven students and five facilitators completed an online survey designed to evaluate the quality of individual and collaborative learning in the PBL online context. All participants had experience of pre-COVID-19 face-to-face PBL. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Demonstrated a preference from both students and facilitators to maintain PBL in a face-to-face format. Aspects of functionality offered by the virtual platform assisted in the PBL process, however technical and environmental barriers impeded virtual delivery. Responses suggest that the development of rapport and interactivity levels online are not equivalent to face-to-face PBL, and these factors were perceived by participants to negatively influence the learning process. Perspectives on the role of the facilitator online convey divergent views between second and third years which reflected a change in facilitator style to support more independent learning in line with students' progression through the course. Our findings demonstrate that students and facilitators are open to future implementation of a blended model of PBL. Participants reported benefits such as reduction in indirect education costs and acquisition of a digital skillset. However, our study indicates a preference for enhanced social presence afforded by face-to-face PBL

    Agency and ageing in place in rural Ireland

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    This report explores the experiences and preferences of older adults on ageing in place in rural Ireland. This exploration is undertaken through a participatory mixed-methods approach that seeks to foreground the voices of older adults themselves. The research study involved two phases. Phase one entailed a nationwide online and postal survey co-constructed with Age Action’s Glór advocacy group and University of the Third Age (U3A) membership and distributed to Age Action members living in rural areas across Ireland. 218 people aged 55 and older who live in rural areas took part in the survey and every county was represented, with 45% of respondents from Munster, 36% from Leinster, 12% from Connaught, and 7% from Ulster. Phase two involved a series of four focus groups in which 19 people took part. The focus groups explored the survey themes in more depth. The research highlights the diversity of experience of home and community among the older adults in rural Ireland who took part. Most participants expressed a strong desire to remain in their homes and communities as they age. The sense of attachment to home and place had, for many, strengthened since the pandemic. Some participants, however, highlighted the tenuous nature of their living arrangements and their sense of alienation from place. This was particularly the case for the participants who were renting, who had recently moved locations to be closer to children, or who found the limited facilities and social opportunities in their rural environments restrictive. Whether they were settled in their homes and communities or not, all participants highlighted the uncertainty of their positions and their fears for being able to have their preference for remaining in place realised as they aged. This was related to unpredictable factors such as their future health needs and availability of home care, their ongoing ability to drive, or their capacity to afford to live independently given the ambiguity surrounding future pension provision and the escalating costs associated with utilities, healthcare, home maintenance and expenses related to rural living, such as security, water, and sewerage costs. The general decline of towns and villages was highlighted by participants, as was the poor coverage of public transport in rural areas. These aspects not only heightened the sense of isolation of participants in terms of access to services and social activities; they also served to heighten their sense of marginalisation and perceived loss of agency in terms of policy formation and political representation. Participants also noted the limited options available to them should they consider moving from their rural locations, something that would be particularly challenging for most given their emotional connection to their homes and communities. The lack of affordable and suitable housing for older adults was a particular concern. Most participants were strongly opposed to nursing homes, a view which the experience of the pandemic had often reinforced. While a small number saw their benefit in cases of critical care, most were dissatisfied with the current ‘Fair Deal’ Scheme for funding nursing home care. They argued that, instead of focussing resources on a nursing home option not favoured by older adults, the government should develop an alternative statutory home care scheme that would support older adults to remain in their homes as they age. The supports which were noted as important in relation to allowing adults to age in their homes included a more accessible and fit-for-purpose grant system to fund modifications to the home – the most popular of these being an emergency response system, bathroom modifications, and improved heating. The need for a properly paid and resourced home help service, as well as a home and garden maintenance service, was emphasised. This was especially the case given the changing reality of ageing in Irish society and the fact that many older adults cannot rely on the availability or ability of family members to care for them in their homes. Access to broadband in rural areas was also noted as crucial, not only given the fact that more aspects of daily services are being conducted online but also given the importance of a reliable broadband connection in facilitating isolated rural older adults to connect to others. Participants highlighted their enjoyment of meeting each other and realising their difficulties were shared despite their diverse locations as benefits of the research process in the current study. They argued for the need for training in technology which could be a significant enabler to their remaining in place, as opposed to presenting a barrier to their doing so. They also argued that there was a need to tackle the covert ageism which was seen as endemic in institutions and everyday interactions, and which served to marginalise older adults further. Participants noted their preferences were they to need additional supports which could not be provided in their homes in the future. In this case, their favoured options would be co-operative or sheltered housing and retirement villages. These options were available for very few participants locally, however, meaning that they would be required to move from their communities, as well as their homes. The research, while small in scale resonates with global research on the theme,1 and highlights that the ability of older adults to age in place requires coordination among several different policy areas, not least housing, transport, technology, and healthcare. There is a need to adjust the funding focus from moving people who need help out of their homes to ensuring that the help they need is available to them in their homes for as long as possible. There is also a need to develop housing options, other than nursing homes, to address people’s preferences should staying at home be no longer a feasible option. Finally, and most importantly, there is a requirement to listen to older people in rural areas about where and how they wish to age in ways that support their sense of agency and challenge flawed assumptions about ageing. This research seeks to contribute to that aim both through its focus and its process

    Undoing gendered expressions of grief: Dora Kallmus' post-war 'slaughterhouse' photographs (1949-1958)

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    In 1907, the Jewish Austrian photographer Dora Kallmus, also known as Madame d'Ora, established what was to become one of the most important photography studios in Vienna. In the 1920s, Kallmus opened a studio in Paris, where she excelled as an innovative fashion photographer, creating portraits of the leading cultural figures of her time. This article centres on the dramatic shift in the images Kallmus created in the aftermath of the Second World War, when she photographed people in refugee camps in Austria and dying and dead animals in the abattoirs of Paris where she spent the final decade of her life. In order to understand these photographs and their powerful affective charge, it is necessary to consider them not only in relation to her pre-war works, but to read them in the context of the Holocaust, an event that effectively destroyed both her life and her social world. I read these images as an expression of Kallmus' views on society and the practice and meaning of photography in the aftermath of the death camps, and compare them to Hannah Arendt's post-war thought. Kallmus' 'slaughterhouse' series not only reveals the photographer's own psychic pain but also insists on a confrontation with the painful truth of the Shoah. Society's desire to avoid this painful reckoning, I argue, provides a reason for why this series has been largely ignored for the last six decades

    The impact of the Celtic Tiger and Great Recession on drug consumption

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    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how the Celtic Tiger economic boom and Great Recession influenced drug and alcohol use in one Irish city. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people, living in Cork City, who had previously used drugs and/or alcohol problematically. All participants had engaged with services for their problematic use and had at least one year of abstinence at time of interview. Findings: Some participants reported that their drug and/or alcohol consumption increased during the economic boom; others, who were already in (self-defined) active addiction, reported how full employment lessened some of the harms of their problematic use. For others, problematic use struck once the economy entered a downturn and, heavy drink and drug use became a means of soothing the strains of economic recession. Originality/value: The paper provides two key contributions. Methodologically, it demonstrates how large-scale national quantitative data can mask local idiosyncratic tendencies, suggesting the need for mixed-method approaches for understanding drug market trends. The paper also provides insights into the impact of global and local economic conditions on drug and alcohol consumption in Ireland

    Comparative genomics analysis of Lactobacillus ruminis from different niches

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    Lactobacillus ruminis is a commensal motile lactic acid bacterium living in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Although a few genomes of L. ruminis were published, most of them were animal derived. To explore the genetic diversity and potential niche-specific adaptation changes of L. ruminis, in the current work, draft genomes of 81 L. ruminis strains isolated from human, bovine, piglet, and other animals were sequenced, and comparative genomic analysis was performed. The genome size and GC content of L. ruminis on average were 2.16 Mb and 43.65%, respectively. Both the origin and the sampling distance of these strains had a great influence on the phylogenetic relationship. For carbohydrate utilization, the human-derived L. ruminis strains had a higher consistency in the utilization of carbon source compared to the animal-derived strains. L. ruminis mainly increased the competitiveness of niches by producing class II bacteriocins. The type of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system presented in L. ruminis was mainly subtype IIA. The diversity of CRISPR/Cas locus depended on the high denaturation of spacer number and sequence, although cas1 protein was relatively conservative. The genetic differences in those newly sequenced L. ruminis strains highlighted the gene gains and losses attributed to niche adaptations

    A randomized phase 2 study of neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without atezolizumab in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) - NCI 10013

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    Atezolizumab with chemotherapy has shown improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic PD-L1 positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Atezolizumab with anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has also shown increased pathological complete response (pCR) rates in early TNBC. This trial evaluated neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without atezolizumab in patients with clinical stages II-III TNBC. The co-primary objectives were to evaluate if chemotherapy and atezolizumab increase pCR rate and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) percentage compared to chemotherapy alone in the mITT population. Sixty-seven patients (ages 25–78 years; median, 52 years) were randomly assigned – 22 patients to Arm A, and 45 to Arm B. Median follow up was 6.6 months. In the modified intent to treat population (all patients evaluable for the primary endpoints who received at least one dose of combination therapy), the pCR rate was 18.8% (95% CI 4.0–45.6%) in Arm A, and 55.6% (95% CI 40.0–70.4%) in Arm B (estimated treatment difference: 36.8%, 95% CI 8.5–56.6%; p = 0.018). Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events occurred in 62.5% of patients in Arm A, and 57.8% of patients in Arm B. One patient in Arm B died from recurrent disease during the follow-up period. TIL percentage increased slightly from baseline to cycle 1 in both Arm A (mean ± SD: 0.6% ± 21.0%) and Arm B (5.7% ± 15.8%) (p = 0.36). Patients with pCR had higher median TIL percentages (24.8%) than those with non-pCR (14.2%) (p = 0.02). Although subgroup analyses were limited by the small sample size, PD-L1-positive patients treated with chemotherapy and atezolizumab had a pCR rate of 75% (12/16). The addition of atezolizumab to neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel resulted in a statistically significant and clinically relevant increased pCR rate in patients with clinical stages II and III TNBC

    Detection of voice conversion spoofing attacks using voiced speech

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    Speech consists of voiced and unvoiced segments that differ in their production process and exhibit different characteristics. In this paper, we investigate the spectral differences between bonafide and spoofed speech for voiced and unvoiced speech segments. We observe that the largest spectral differences lie in the 0–4 kHz band of voiced speech. Based on this observation, we propose a low-complexity, pre-processing stage which subsamples voiced frames prior to spoofing detection. The proposed pre-processing stage is applied to two systems, LFCC+GMM and IA/IF+KNN that differ entirely on the features and classifier used for spoofing detection. Our results show improvement with both systems in detection of the ASVspoof 2019 A17 voice conversion attack, which is recognized to have one of the highest spoofing capabilities. We also show improvements in the A18 and A19 voice conversion attacks for the IA/IF+KNN system. The resulting A17 EERs are lower than all reported systems where the A17 spoofing attack is the worst attack except the Capsule Network. Finally, we note that the proposed pre-processing stage reduces the speech date by more than 4× due to subsampling and using only voiced frames but at the same time maintaining similar pooled EER as that for the baseline systems, which may be advantageous for resource constrained spoofing detectors

    Bacchius Iudaeus: a tamed Hyrcanian tiger

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    The kneeling figure with camel on the reverse of the denarius of A. Plautius has generally been identified as Aristobulus ii. it is argued here that he is identifiable as his brother Hyrcanus ii instead. in addition to the argument of Hollstein in support of this identification, it is noted that the legend BAccHiVS facilitates a pun upon the name of Hyrcanus, literally meaning ‘Hyrcanian’. As a ‘Bacchic Hyrcanian’, Hyrcanus is implicitly compared to the tamed Hyrcanian tigers used by Bacchus to draw his triumphal chariot, a fitting comparison because of his submission to roman authority

    Multilingual Digital Humanities

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    This chapter explores how multilingual approaches to Digital Humanities challenge the Anglocentric methodologies, paradigms and assumptions that have historically permeated the field. It argues that fostering multilingual practices broadens the scope of the discipline, encourages the incorporation of non-English-speaking voices into the debate, rethinks the design of infrastructures in digital scholarship and addresses many of the questions – regarding theory and praxis – faced by Digital Humanities at large. Building on extant work by scholars such as Domenico Fiormonte and drawing also on further theoretical and practical work by multilingual DH practitioners, this chapter lays out a set of recommendations for Anglophone scholars to expand their engagement with DH beyond the Anglophone world. The structure of this chapter divides these recommendations in subsections that respond to problems observed in different aspects of Digital Scholarship. The first section looks at the challenges faced by non-English-speaking scholars when publishing in international DH Journals; the second explores how the language divide observed within the DH community can be tackled with more positive attitudes towards multilingualism; a third section is dedicated to multilingual approaches to the design of DH tutorials and tools; a final section offers pedagogical advice to DH scholars teaching in multilingual contexts


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