Biblioteca Digital do IPB

    Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients

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    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (Portugal) for financial support to CIMO (strategic project Pest-OE/AGR/UI0690/2011) and to L. Barros (researcher contract under “Programa Compromisso com Ciência-2008”). The authors also acknowledge the support of Mexican association CoMenTuna for providing the plant materials

    By-product recovery of Opuntia spp. peels: Betalainic and phenolic profiles and bioactive properties

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    Opuntia spp. are a tropical and subtropical plant that provides both edible green steams and fruits; however, the processing of this fruits results in the accumulation of enormous amount of by-products that can be a source of bioactive and pigmented compounds. Herein, three cactus pear from the species Opuntia ficus-indica var. sanguigna (OS) and gialla (OG) and Opuntia engelmannii (OE) were fully characterized regarding their phenolic and betalain composition and correlated with their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The hydroethanolic extracts of OE gave the highest amount of phenolic compounds isorhamentin-O-(deo xyhexosyl-hexoside) and betacianins (betanin); however, no betaxanthins were identified in this sample. This sample also revealed the lowest EC 50 values in all the antioxidant activity assays. Regarding antimicrobial activity, the hydroethanolic extracts of all species revealed to be more active than ampicillin. The pivotal objective of this work was to focus on exploring by-product biocompounds and possible outputs, thus, we could suggest the use of these natural colorants with intrinsic antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, which would grant industries to produce cleaner label products with functional benefits.The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and FEDER under Program PT2020 for financial support to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2013) and L. Barros contract. B. Melgar thanks CONACyT for his grant (No. 329930). The authors would also like to thank Dr. Carlos Aguiar for the botanical identification of these species. The authors are also grateful to the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, grant number 173032 for financial support.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage

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    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3–5 and > 7 cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes.The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and FEDER under Programme PT2020 for financial support to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2013), A. Fernandes (SFRH/BPD/114753/2016) grant and L. Barros contract.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Modern extraction techniques optimized to extract betacyanins from Gomphrena globosa L.

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    Gomphrena globosa L. is a source of betacyanins, molecules with high colorant power. In order to replace conventional extraction techniques, microwave (MAE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) processes were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to maximize the recovery of betacyanins from G. globosa. A five-level full factorial design of 24 combinations and 4 replicates was implemented for MAE and UAE. The optimum processing conditions for MAE (t = 8 min; T = 60 °C; Et = 0%; and S/L = 5 g/L) conducted to an extraction yield of 39.6 ± 1.8 mg/g dry weight, while for UAE (t = 22 min; P = 500%; Et = 0%; and S/L = 5 g/L) a value of 46.9 ± 4.8 mg/g was achieved, validating the UAE more suitable to obtain the target compounds. This technique can provide extracts rich in betacyanins and with high potential to be used as natural colorants.The authors thank the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) and FEDER under Programme PT2020 for financial support to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2013) and L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/107855/2015) and C.L. Roriz (SFRH/BD/117995/2016) grants. This work was also financially supported by: Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006984 – Associate Laboratory LSRE-LCM funded by FEDER through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI) and by national funds through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia. To Xunta de Galicia for financial support for the post-doctoral researcher of M.A. Prieto. The authors also thank Ana Maria Carvalho for the plant donation.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Gomphrena globosa L. as a source of natural pigments: characterization in betacyanins

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    No presente trabalho, descreve -se a composição em betacianidinas (classe das betalaínas com pigmentação vermelha- -roxo) da perpétua roxa (Gomphrena globosa L.), de forma a destacar esta planta como fonte alternativa de corantes naturais. A análise foi feita por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a um detetor de fotodíodos e espetrometria de massa com ionização por dispersão de eletrões (HPLC -PDA -MS/ESI), após extração com diferentes solventes (infusão com água e maceração com água: metanol, 80:20, v/v).In this paper, it is described the betacyanins composition (class of betalain with red -purple pigmentation) of globe amaranth (Gomphrena globosa L.) in order to highlight this plant as an alternative source of natural dyes. The analysis was performed by high -performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry with electron spray ionization (HPLC -PDA -MS/ESI) after extraction with different solvents (infusion with water and maceration with water: methanol, 80:20, v/v).Os autores estão gratos à Ervital pela disponibilização das amostras e à FCT (Portugal) pelo apoio financeiro ao CIMO (CIMO - PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2014) e a L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/107855/2015).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Plants as bioactive ingredients and natural additives in ewe cheese

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    A inovação em alimentos tradicionais Portugueses pode ser um fator de diferenciação e dinamizador da indústria alimentar. Em linha com a tendência de mercado de impulsionar o consumo de alimentos mais saudáveis, foram incorporadas plantas (material seco e extratos aquosos obtidos por decocção) em lotes de queijo de ovelha. As plantas usadas foram flores de castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.), cidreira (Melissa officinalis L.) e manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.). As incorporações no queijo foram efetuadas durante o seu fabrico, maturando durante um mês na empresa Queijos Casa Matias. Ao fim desse tempo foram sujeitos a vários ensaios após chegada ao laboratório e após seis meses de modo a verificar as alterações durante a maturação. Foi analisada a atividade antioxidante, bem como a composição nutricional, ácidos gordos individuais e minerais. Ficou patente que as plantas e os seus extratos funcionalizaram os queijos, conferindo -lhe bioatividade. A nível nutricional, os nutrientes mais abundantes foram as proteínas e a gordura. Em relação aos ácidos gordos individuais, o mais abundante foi o ácido palmítico (C16:0) seguido do ácido oleico (C18:1). Os ácidos gordos saturados prevaleceram, seguidos dos monoinsaturados. Quanto aos minerais, os mais abundantes foram o cálcio e o sódio. Ao nível da conservação, a incorporação das plantas nos queijos resultou numa diminuição de humidade mais rápida, reduzindo o risco de contaminação por microrganismos, ao mesmo tempo que permitiu a conservação de alguns ácidos gordos insaturados. Por outro lado, a funcionalização dos queijos permitiu conferir algumas propriedades benéficas à saúde.The innovation in traditional Portuguese foods can be a differentiating and dynamic factor in the food industry. In line with the market tendencies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, plants (dried material and aqueous decoctions) were incorporated in sheep cheese. The used plants were chestnut flowers (Castanea sativa Mill.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). The incorporations were carried during cheese production, being left at the dairy Queijos Casa Matias, for one month for ripening. After that time, one lot was subject to various assays, while another lot was left for six months to mature, after which, they were also subject to the same assays. The analysed parameters were the antioxidant activity, nutritional composition, fatty acids and minerals. The plants and their extracts functionalized the cheeses. Nutritionally, proteins and fat were the most abundant nutrients. In terms of individual fatty acids, palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were the most abundant. The saturated fatty acids were the most prevalent followed by the monounsaturated. Finally, in terms of minerals, calcium and sodium were the most abundant elements. Conservation wise, the incorporation allowed a faster loss of moisture along the storage time, which reduced the risk of contamination by microorganisms, while also preserving some unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the functionalization of the cheeses allowed conferring beneficial properties to the consumer’s health.Os autores agradecem ao projeto PRODER No. 46577, PlantLact, à Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) pelo apoio financeiro ao CIMO (projeto estratégico PEst -OE/AGR/UI0690/2014). Agradecem também às empresas Queijos Casa Matias, Mais Ervas e Cantinho das Aromáticas pelo fornecimento das amostras.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Suitability of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) extract rich in rosmarinic acid as a potential enhancer of functional properties in cupcakes

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    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and its extracts have been frequently reported as possessing bioactive properties, offering the potential for use in development/enrichment of food products with additional functional capabilities, providing health benefits to consumers. The antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity of lemon balm extract, as well as its potential hepatotoxicity were thoroughly evaluated. The extracts were then incorporated into cupcakes and their preserving effect, chemical composition, colour parameters and antioxidant activity were compared with those provided by potassium sorbate. In general, the variables with the largest differences among different storage times were energy level, sucrose, glucose, palmitic acid (C6:0) and oleic acid (C18:1n9). On the other hand, L ∗ (top), a ∗ (top), b ∗ (top), pH, capric acid (C10:0) and lauric acid (C12:0) showed the greatest variation according to cupcake formulation. The results observed indicate that the lemon balm extract rich in rosmarinic acid can provide advantageous functional properties to bakery products.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Wood smoke exposure of Portuguese wildland firefighters: DNA and oxidative damage evaluation

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    Portugal is among the European Union countries most devastated by forest fires each year. In the last three decades, more than 3.8 million hectares of forest were burned. Wildland firefighters are exposed to a variety of hazards, including many toxic combustion products that may lead to deleterious health effects. Epidemiological studies showed a positive association between firefighting and several chronic diseases, including cancer. Results from biomonitoring studies in firefighters, particularly concerning genotoxicity evaluation, constitute a valuable tool for investigating important occupational hazards. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess genotoxicity in a group of wildland firefighters using the comet assay for DNA damage and oxidative stress. Both parameters were increased in firefighters compared to controls, but significance was only found for basal DNA damage. No significant influence was found regarding major confounding variables on the genotoxic endpoints studied, with the exception of age. Data obtained provide preliminary information on human health effects of wildland firefighting exposure at genetic and molecular levels. These findings may also provide new important data to serve as public awareness to the potential adverse health risks involving wildland firefighting. Implementation of security and hygiene measures in this sector as well as good practices campaigns may be crucial to decrease risk.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Preparação de blends tendo por base azeites virgem extra monovarietais das Cvs Cobrançosa e Arbequina

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    O azeite é a principal fonte de gordura vegetal na dieta Mediterrânea. Os seus atributos sensoriais e composição química fazem com que seja muito apreciado. Após extração do azeite, a constituição de lotes/blends com características sensoriais, que sejam apreciadas pelos consumidores, e que simultaneamente apresentem boas características químicas e que sejam estáveis no tempo é um dos grandes desafios com que se deparam as indústrias. Este trabalho teve como objetivo, estudar a preparação de lotes/blends para entrada imediata no mercado, a partir de azeites monovarietais das Cvs. Cobrançosa e Arbequina. Foram preparados lotes, com percentagens crescentes de 10%, dos 0% aos 100%, de mistura de azeite de ambas as cultivares. Ao fim de 45 dias de armazenamento, procedeu-se à determinação dos parâmetros de qualidade, teor em fenóis totais, inibição do radical DPPH, estabilidade oxidativa e avaliação sensorial. Nos diferentes lotes preparados, verificou-se que os que tinham maiores proporções de Arbequina, eram mais doces, menos amargos e picantes, o que permitia uma entrada mais rápida no mercado, enquanto os que tinham maiores quantidades de Cobrançosa apresentavam-se mais verdes, amargos e picantes persistentes o que indica não serem aceites tão facilmente pelos consumidores. O loteamento dos azeites apresenta alterações ao nível do K232 e K270 com valores inferiores para os lotes constituídos maioritariamente pela Cv. Arbequina, não havendo alterações no ΔK. Também ao nível da acidez e índice de peróxidos se registaram algumas alterações, devidas sobretudo aos lotes usados como base. Foi observado um aumento gradual da extensão da degradação oxidativa com o aumento da Cv. Arbequina, verificado através do aumento do índice de peróxido na mesma. No que respeita à resistência à oxidação verificou-se diferenças estatísticas significativas (P < 0,001), com efeito protetor superior nos azeites com maior presença da Cv. Cobraçosa. Para a atividade antioxidante, com o aumento da presença da Cv. Arbequina na mistura, uma redução gradual de até 22% na capacidade em sequestrar o radical DPPH foi observada.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Agent-based strategic planner for the production of samll lots of complex products: theoretical and practical perspectives

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    This paper presents a strategic planner that assists the decision-makers to take strategic decisions on short term to respond faster and efficiently to unexpected events in the ramp-up production of complex and highly customized products, namely in situations of peak of demand, late change requests and immature technology. This tool combines the flexibility of multi-agent systems with the optimization capability of mathematical optimization solvers. The application of the strategic planner is illustrated by playing iterative what-if games supporting implementation of mitigation strategies addressing a real use case of a peak demand of a specific product.The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Frame-work Programme FP7 ARUM project, under grant agreement n° 314056info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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