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    The Potential of Mobile-based and Pattern-oriented Concordancing for Assisting Upper-intermediate ESL Students in Their Academic Writing

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    This research was an attempt to investigate whether (and how) mobile technology and a pattern-based concordancing method, Patterns in Context (PIC), could enhance ESL students’ positive experience and uptake of DDL (Data-driven Learning). DDL is a self-directed discovery process in which learners are encouraged to study extracts of authentic texts to identify how words are used. In order to partly address the problems with DDL, the concepts of mobile DDL and PIC have been proposed and combined in this thesis. Mobile DDL aims to make DDL more accessible and appealing to students at large by utilising new affordances of mobile technology. PIC is designed to search and retrieve patterns, a multi-word unit which combines lexical choices and grammatical forms, so as to provide more easily observable search results. This adapted DDL was used to assist ESL students in academic writing in this research. This research was cross-disciplinary, involving corpus linguistics, technology-enhanced language education and software engineering. Based on the overarching worldview of pragmatism, it adopted a design of action research with mixed methods. Over the three phases of the research, 58 voluntary participants in total were involved to experience and evaluate the two specifically developed mobile apps, which underwent continuous changes and improvements according to their feedback and requests. The mixed methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data included automatic logging, questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. Triangulated data revealed that PIC, as an alternative concordancing method, was advantageous over KWIC in efficiency, perceived effectiveness and user acceptance. The participants were in general positive about their experience working with the apps, and they seemed to have high requirements involving technical affordances and great expectations for mobile learning. Finally, it can be concluded that upper-intermediate ESL students’ positive experience and uptake of using concordancing to help with academic writing can be enhanced by mobile-based concordancing tools and the pattern-oriented search and retrieval approach of PIC. The benefits of mobile DDL and PIC imply that DDL can be made more accessible and acceptable to students by incorporating emerging technologies and findings of applied linguistics

    Detail Design of Prototype Portable Cordless Reinforcing Steel Combination Cutter and Bender

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    This project was commissioned by Bill Ross, owner of Bay of Plenty Gear Cutters, to design a prototype portable handheld reinforced steel-rod combination bender and cutter for use on construction sites; where access to a power source is limited. This thesis covers the research of current cutters and benders on the market, concept generation, development, materials selection, and detailed design involving the analysis of the components in the device in both first principles and a finite element analysis (FEA) performed on mainly SolidWorks. The proposed new tool will require further development, refinement and optimisation before it can be released for sale

    The Effect of Scan Speed on Lack of Fusion Formation During Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and Crack Growth Behaviour of the Alloy Under Impact and Fatigue Loading

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    Electron beam melting (EBM) is a powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing process suitable for fabricating metallic parts with a high degree of shape complexity, opening EBM’s application potential with the Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical and aerospace components. Due to the additive nature of part building track-by-track (TbT) and layer-by-layer (LbL), track size and track spacing coordination is required to coalesce tracks via overlapping and to prevent the formation of lack of fusion (LOF) for EBM to be efficient. To date, how Scan Speed (v) affects the morphology (size and shape) of the melt pool during EBM of Ti-6Al-4V has been insufficiently understood hence, this thesis opens with the expansion of knowledge on this. Heat flow direction during EBM of Ti-6Al-4V contributes to the columnar growth of β (bcc) phase predominantly along the build direction (BD) during solidification. Subsequently, upon cooling, β → α (hcp) + β in colony form takes place with α phase lining along the prior solidified β grain boundaries. Heat cycles imparted from TbT and LbL consolidation means transformation takes place multiple times. Thus, the microstructure formed during EBM is complex, with its influence on crack propagation under impact and fatigue loading yet to be sufficiently understood. This knowledge is important for microstructure control during EBM and for producing parts of satisfactory mechanical properties. Hence, understanding how EBM build orientation affects crack propagation under impact and fatigue loading are covered in the second and third part of this thesis respectively. In the first series of EBM experiments, the speed function was decoupled so that v could vary from 5 to 18 m/s for constant beam current of 28 mA. Samples were then examined metallographically with defect levels measured and quantified. In the second part of experimental/testing work, impact test samples were built applying EBM conditions common for Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were made with notches orientated in 0, 45 and 90° to the EBM BD. After impact testing, the fracture surface and cross sections of test samples were analysed, and defect measurements were made. In the third part of experimental/testing/analytical work, fatigue crack growth (FCG) samples were built and machined with notch orientations also at 0, 45 and 90° to EBM BD. After FCG testing and obtaining the fatigue curves of crack increment per cycle (da/dN) versus the change of stress intensity factor (ΔK), fracture surface cross-sections were examined in detail with an emphasis on colony dependent crack growth. ii A direct relationship between the LOF frequency and v has been established and will be explained in detail. It has been found that increasing v not only reduced the size of melt pool but also the stability of the shape of pool and that the reduction of melt pool size and shape stability resulted in insufficient overlapping, increasing the amount of LOF. Varying v is also found to impart a shape change of the melt pool, as well as influencing the height of the crown and depth of the melt pool. Explanation of the change of melt pool shape and size instability as a function of v is discussed in detail, including consideration of the Marangoni flow’s effect on the melt pool through varying v. Impact energy (IM) values of a range of samples have been found to vary widely from 26 J to 49J. The variation has been identified to be caused from two sources: BD dependent microstructure and batch dependent fraction of LOF. The dependence of IM on BD appears to originate from the mode of solidification during EBM. Cracks have been found to propagate through α + β colonies in vertically built samples with propagation barely affected by the α phase lining normal to the crack growth, along the prior β phase grain boundaries during columnar solidification. The effect of the α phase lining in samples built with other orientations on lowering IM will be shown and explained. The batch effect will be explained by LOF size variation in different batch and by LOF orientation which aids crack growth. FCG tests showed similar behaviour in region II for all notch orientations, with exponential constants determined to be m = 3.1 and C = 1×10-8mm/cycle. It will be shown that LOF in favourable orientation may affect crack growth but the low level of LOF at up to 1% has not contributed to an overall faster growth rate. The low level of porosity at 0.1% has affected crack growth little. It is also found that locally crack advancing in a specific orientation in a α+β colony and thus the striation orientation in one colony is different from another. The combined growth direction is then the same as the direction that the global crack front moves during crack growth. This crack growth feature is suggested to be the reason for the lack of the dependence of Paris law constants on notch/BD relationship. In summary, the effect of v on LOF formation and on fraction of LOF area have been quantified, along with introducing Type 4 LOF. Two major factors that affect IM the most, which are BD and maximum LOF area, have been identified. Furthermore, it has been found that the fatigue crack growth region II is independent of LOF, porosity and BD. In addition, a significant role of β phase in α+β colonies has been revealed

    Beyond Filling the Skill Gaps - The Entrepreneurial Drivers, Challenges, and Contribution Channels of Skilled Indian Migrants in the New Zealand Economy

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    Skilled migrants are an essential component of global migration flows to developed countries. This includes New Zealand, which is highly dependent on skilled migrant labour to fill its labour market shortages (DOL, 2009; MBIE, 2017b, 2018). However, New Zealand lacks context-specific research on the motivations and contributions of skilled migrants, particularly skilled migrant entrepreneurs, who are an asset to the host country (Nathan, 2014). Therefore, this study looks at skilled migrants beyond their basic role of filling labour market shortages, to explore their entrepreneurial drivers, challenges, and contribution channels in the New Zealand economy. Specifically, this thesis uses the case of skilled migrants from India, as India has been New Zealand’s top source of skilled labour since 2012 (MBIE, 2018). In fact, it is the only country for which the New Zealand government has established a strategic goal to attract and retain skilled migrants under the NZ Inc India Strategy (MFAT, n.d.). Being exploratory in nature, this study employed a case study design (Yin, 2014). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 first-generation skilled Indian migrant employees turned entrepreneurs from across New Zealand, in the short skilled sectors of health, hospitality, and ICT. These participants were selected through purposive sampling and data was manually analysed using thematic content analysis (Miles & Huberman, 2014). The study concluded that skilled Indian migrants in skilled employment in New Zealand are more likely to be pulled than pushed into entrepreneurship. They are also likely to use more contribution channels in the role of an entrepreneur than an employee. This conclusion is reflective of the fact that over 80 percent of skilled migrants in New Zealand have high levels of jobs satisfaction (MBIE, 2012a; 2015d) and are valued in the labour market for filling skill shortages (North, 2007; MBIE, 2015d), hence less likely to be forced into entrepreneurship. In reference to the New Zealand business environment, this study found that the regulatory setting in New Zealand encourages entrepreneurship, but its complex and costly compliance procedures, lack of clear administrative processes, and incoherent information sources present entrepreneurial barriers and challenges for skilled Indian migrants. This is in line with the existing academic literature and documentation on migrant businesses in New Zealand. For instance, studies by North and Trlin (2004) and Cleland and Davey (2014) have identified compliance costs as a key entrepreneurial challenge for migrant businesses in New Zealand. This research also found that regulatory policies, such as the immigration policy appear to be incognizant of some context-specific differences in industry sectors. For instance, Immigration NZ’s policy changes restricting the level of immigration for hospitality occupations are often criticised because these policies ignore business-specific differences and the extensive skill shortages in this sector (Guy, 2017; Harris, 2017). A key limitation of this study is its sample size. At the design stage, this study proposed a range of 10-20 in-depth interviews, but could only engage ten participants. This was despite extensive attempts to advertise and (snowball) sample potential participants through personal acquaintances and business organisations, such as the India New Zealand Business Council (INZBC), Asia NZ Foundation and the Office of Ethnic Communities. The key areas identified for future research include a comparative study of the key skill source countries for New Zealand, such as China, the Philippines, South Africa and the UK. Future research can also focus on cross-country comparisons with countries that have similar immigration policies and skill needs to New Zealand, such as Australia and Canada. The entrepreneurial drivers, barriers, and contribution channels frameworks used in this thesis may be adopted for future context-specific research on skilled migrants

    Validation of the Chinese Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (C-MFPDI) Among Patients With Inflammatory Arthritis

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    Background: The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a patient-reported outcome tool used to measure foot pain and foot-related disability. The English version of the MFPDI has been successfully translated into other European languages, but there was no Chinese version to use in Chinese-speaking communities. The cross-sectional correlational study aimed to translate the MFPDI from English into simplified Chinese (C-MFPDI) and to test its psychometric properties among people with inflammatory arthritis in Singapore. Methods: The MFPDI was translated from English into Chinese using a forward-backward translation framework and was administered to 100 Chinese-speaking people with inflammatory arthritis. From the original 100 participants, 30 participants re-evaluated the C-MFPDI after 2 weeks. A Visual Analogue Scale and the Taiwan Chinese Foot Function Index in simplified Chinese were used to evaluate concurrent validity with the C-MFPDI. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Chinese version of the European Quality of Life-5 Dimension to test construct validity. Results: The C-MFPDI had a high translation equivalent rate (96.3%) and content validity index (0.92), good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.90) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87). The concurrent validity of the C-MFPDI was demonstrated to be acceptable through its significantly moderate to strong positive correlations with the Taiwan Chinese Foot Function Index (r= 0.62–0.72,p< 0.01) and Visual Analogue Scale foot pain (r= 0.65,p< 0.01). The C-MFPDI total scores were moderately negatively associated with Chinese European Quality of Life-5 Dimension utility scores (r=−0.40,p< 0.01). Conclusion: The C-MFPDI had good psychometric properties. The C-MFPDI can be used to assess disabling foot pain, impairment and disability in Chinese-speaking people with inflammatory arthritis

    Assessing the Engineering Properties and Performance of Limestone Compared to Contract Specifications As Road Construction Aggregate in the Kingdom of Tonga

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    Flexible unbound aggregate pavement failure can be caused by a number of factors due to the nature and duration of repetitive loading being applied. These pavements are considered to be elastic multilayered system made up of a bound layer at the surface and unbound layers below. Modulus of elasticity, resilient modulus and Poisson ration properties of these layers are indicative of their capabilities to absorb and dissipate the compressive and tensional stress being subjected to minimize the load impact on the supporting subgrade material. Design objectives are therefore driven by ensuring the resultant strains are below the value of those that would cause deformation or damage to the pavements. Aggregate material properties play a significant role in delivering the design objectives. More durable aggregate with less inclination to disintegrate under loading pressure are preferred to weaker material. This can be tested using a number of standard aggregate testing procedures. The specific aggregate tests are usually included as part of the contract specifications so that the pavements are constructed with sound material reflecting the design requirements. In this research, limestone aggregate samples were obtained from Tonga to be tested and assessed together with three historical case studies of project carried out in Tonga. Test results previously conducted by others were also reviewed. Based on the analysis carried out, it was found that the contract specifications for unbound aggregate and chipseal projects in Tonga did not meet the minimum requirements for this type of work. Further research is required to assess the possible use of reinforcement material such as fibres or stabilisation using cement and/or lime to strengthen the weak limestone aggregate. This could help alleviate further environmental degradation currently being caused by excessive limestone mining in Tonga

    A Nationwide, Population-based Prevalence Study of Genetic Muscle Disorders

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    Background: Previous epidemiological studies of genetic muscle disorders have relied on medical records to identify cases and may be at risk of selection biases or have focused on selective population groups. Objectives: This study aimed to determine age-standardised prevalence of genetic muscle disorders through a nationwide, epidemiological study across the lifespan using the capture-recapture method. Methods: Adults and children with a confirmed clinical or molecular diagnosis of a genetic muscle disorder, resident in New Zealand on April 1, 2015 were identified using multiple overlapping sources. Genetic muscle disorders included the muscular dystrophies, congenital myopathies, ion channel myopathies, GNE myopathy, and Pompe disease. Prevalence per 100,000 persons by age, sex, disorder, ethnicity and geographical region with 95% CIs was calculated using Poisson distribution. Direct standardisation was applied to age-standardise prevalence to the world population. Completeness of case ascertainment was determined using capture-recapture modelling. Results: Age standardised minimal point prevalence of all genetic muscle disorders was 22.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 19.5–25.6). Prevalence in Europeans of 24.4 per 100,000, (95% CI 21.1–28.3) was twice that observed in NZ’s other 3 main ethnic groups; Māori (12.6 per 100,000, 95% CI 7.8–20.5), Pasifika (11.0 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.4–23.3), and Asian (9.13 per 100,000, 95% CI 5.0–17.8). Crude prevalence of myotonic dystrophy was 3 times higher in Europeans (10.5 per 100,000, 9.4–11.8) than Māori and Pasifika (2.5 per 100,000, 95% CI 1.5–4.2 and 0.7 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.1–2.7 respectively). There were considerable regional variations in prevalence, although there was no significant association with social deprivation. The final capture-recapture model, with the least deviance, estimated the study ascertained 99.2% of diagnosed cases. Conclusions: Ethnic and regional differences in the prevalence of genetic muscle disorders need to be considered in service delivery planning, evaluation, and decision making

    Lived Experiences of Secondary School Technology Leaders With Flexible Learning Environments

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    Flexible Learning Environments (FLEs) are a highly topical aspect of New Zealand education due to the work of the OECD (2015) and the prioritisation of the flexible spaces by the New Zealand Ministry of Education. Much of the literature focuses generically on the characteristics of and potential for space. In addition, much of the literature is centred on primary contexts due to the integrated nature of the curriculum within these types of school. It is only in very recent times that any sort of post occupancy evaluation has occurred and it was the intention of this study to contribute towards that through the lived experiences of secondary school Technology leaders. The study describes the impact of the introduction of Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1995). This is portrayed against a backdrop of curriculum design theory whereby socially constructed learning is posited against the concept of powerful knowledge as portrayed by Young and Muller (2014). The third element of the space and educational futures triangle is that of pedagogy and its relationship to space. This is addressed initially from the perspective of the failed open plan movement of the 1970s, before reframing the environment as an enabler of particular pedagogical types. The research centred on the premise that within Technology, space has been used flexibly for some time. This was due to the natural alignment between the subject and the 7+3 Framework (OECD, 2015). This allowed for the subject area to be better placed in engaging with FLEs effectively. In understanding the effects of this leadership behaviours, actions and support mechanisms afforded to and provided by Technology leaders in these spaces was explored. This phenomenological study focussed on the lived realities of four Technology leaders and through semi-structured interviews, provided their experience of the flexible use of space within their context. Attention was paid to the way in which external influences impacted on practise and also the ways in which Technology Leaders had acted on these influences. Whilst Technology leaders use space in flexible ways this tends to be through the use of multiple fixed space rather than single agile spaces. This occurred due to the shift from a finite skills approach to a practical problem solving one centred on an authentic problem which is often student defined. This spatial use resulted in cultural shifts whereby teachers entered into the physical and social space of others, thus creating a deprivatised environment whereby staff also interacted with students not formally designated to them. This freedom of approach for students, afforded by teacher agency in working with and being accountable for all students created opportunities and challenges with success being determined by staff ‘buy in’ and the framing of these conditions by the leader. Recommendations derived from the research centred on the interplay of space and the actors within it. Simply using space to drive pedagogical change is ineffective and learns nothing from the failed open plan movement. Likewise, inherently linking pedagogy to curriculum type is limiting and has contributed to the negative rhetoric towards FLEs centred on an open plan typology when the potential is much more than that. The challenge now is to understand how the agility of space can be fostered within Technology alongside the learnings for other subject areas from the experiences within Technology

    Second-generation Chinese New Zealanders’ Experience of Negotiating Between Two Cultures: a Qualitative Study

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    This practice research project examines the lived experiences of second-generation Chinese New Zealanders by focusing on their experiences of navigating between two cultural worlds. It is the first in New Zealand to examine the experiences of people with dual cultural identities and to provide an insight into their worldview. The research project employs the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework and draws on data collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with four second-generation Chinese Kiwi living in Auckland. The practice research project found that second-generation Chinese Kiwis identify as bicultural. Additionally, second-generation Chinese Kiwis can struggle with a sense of not belonging when interacting with Chinese peers, but they are able to navigate the feelings adaptively due to their strong bicultural identity. Finally, second-generation Chinese Kiwis experience the most difficulty while trying to navigate and negotiate differences between Kiwi and Chinese values and traditions, but they are able to adapt their behaviour to fit the environmental context

    Case Study Research Exploring the Impact of Material Poverty on a Child’s Patterns of Occupation

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    Poverty breaches tamariki/children’s rights and is socially unjust, as it has negative effects on their health and well-being that could be prevented. Growing up in poverty is associated with a sense of loss, feelings of shame, and restricted participation in occupations that may amount to occupational deprivation. However, despite the wealth of literature about the ways poverty impacts children’s health and well-being, an occupational perspective is lacking. In particular, little consideration has been given to its effects on a child’s patterns of occupation (i.e., habits, roles, family routines), which is important as habits learned in childhood may carry through to adult life, helping to explain the long-term health and socio-economic implications. To address this gap, this thesis attempts to answer the question: How does material poverty affect a child’s patterns of occupation? To gain an in-depth and contextualised understanding of the phenomenon, the study utilised case study research methodology guided by Stake, with a single case design. The case comprised a child and her parents, living in material poverty in a city in New Zealand, who were recruited through an organisation providing support services. Two additional adults who supported the child’s occupations were recruited by the family. A range of data gathering methods were used (i.e., interviews, observations, document review), including child friendly approaches such as photo elicitation, a weekly activity diary and physically mapping the location, frequency and transport options used to access regular occupations. Interpretive data analysis strategies developed by Stake (1995) and Merriam (1998) included direct interpretation (i.e., deriving meaning from a specific instance in the case) and categorical aggregation (i.e., creating categories or codes that develop from a case). Through this process meanings emerged, which lead to naturalistic generalisations that helped to answer the research question. The results of the study show the way in which the whānau/family’s limited and insecure income, lack of material resources to support occupational choices, cramped housing, the father’s shift work, and reliance on school breakfasts disrupted and impoverished the child’s patterns of occupation. These included habits and routines that created an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g., a predominance of sedentary occupations, impeded study habits). Parental safety concerns and lack of space in the home restricted participation in social occupations (e.g., time spent with friends). Despite considerable support from community agencies (school, church, social services), constraints on choices of and opportunities for participation in tamariki/children’s occupations also involved limitations in free play, school trips, clubs, competitive sports teams, shopping and organised entertainment, time spent together as a whānau/family, and access to digital technology. Whilst the study has limitations (e.g., a single case study), the results provide emerging evidence that child poverty is occupationally unjust and creates occupational deprivation. The findings contribute clarity to the potential for occupational therapy practice in this field (i.e., help focus interventions) and brings an occupational perspective to the discourse about child poverty that has implications for policy to address the issue


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