AUT Scholarly Commons

    Differential Expression of Novel Metabolic and Immunological Biomarkers in Oysters Challenged With a Virulent Strain of OsHV-1

    Get PDF
    Early lifestages of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) are highly susceptible to infection by OsHV-1 μVar, but little information exists regarding metabolic or pathophysiological responses of larval hosts. Using a metabolomics approach, we identified a range of metabolic and immunological responses in oyster larvae exposed to OsHV-1 μVar; some of which have not previously been reported in molluscs. Multivariate analyses of entire metabolite profiles were able to separate infected from non-infected larvae. Correlation analysis revealed the presence of major perturbations in the underlying biochemical networks and secondary pathway analysis of functionally-related metabolites identified a number of prospective pathways differentially regulated in virus-exposed larvae. These results provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of OsHV-1 infection in oyster larvae, which may be applied to develop disease mitigation strategies and/or as new phenotypic information for selective breeding programmes aiming to enhance viral resistance

    Identification and Activation of TLR4-mediated Signalling Pathways by Alginate-derived Guluronate Oligosaccharide in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Get PDF
    Alginate, a natural acidic polysaccharide extracted from marine brown seaweeds, is composed of different blocks of β-(1, 4)-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-(1, 4)-L-guluronate (G). Alginate-derived guluronate oligosaccharide (GOS) readily activates macrophages. However, to understand its role in immune responses, further studies are needed to characterize GOS transport and signalling. Our results show that GOS is recognized by and upregulates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on RAW264.7 macrophages, followed by its endocytosis via TLR4. Increased expression of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) results in Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation of both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Moreover, GOS stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs); notably, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation depends on TLR4 initiation. All these events contribute to the production of inflammatory mediators, either together or separately. Our findings also reveal that GOS induces cytoskeleton remodelling in RAW264.7 cells and promotes macrophage proliferation in mice ascites, both of which improve innate immunity. Conclusively, our investigation demonstrates that GOS, which is dependent on TLR4, is taken up by macrophages and stimulates TLR4/Akt/NF-κB, TLR4/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signalling pathways and exerts impressive immuno-stimulatory activity

    Navigating the Storm of Deteriorating Patients: Seven Scaffolds for Simulation Design

    Get PDF
    Recent trends in simulation use have necessitated a more considered approach in the use of this teaching/learning tool. The aim of this research is to discover ways to improve simulation as a teaching/learning platform. Action research was used to answer the question, “How can I improve pedagogical practices with undergraduate nurses in simulation?” This study was implemented at a University in Auckland, New Zealand between November 2012 and March 2014. A purposive sample was sought from second and third-year nursing students (n = 161) enrolled in the three-year undergraduate bachelor of nursing program. Methods included focus groups, questionnaires, debriefing sessions, pre- and post-tests, and Lasater clinical judgment rubric analysis. Seven instructional scaffolds emerged which maximized student learning and retention. These scaffolds: 1) helped move students from known into unknown knowledge; 2) provided situated coaching; 3) modeled expected performance; 4) gave opportunity for improvement; 5) reduced confusion; 6) taught effective communication; and 7) promoted new learning through debriefing. These strategies resulted in a simulation experience which improved clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing students

    Continuous Transition in Outsourcing: A Case Study

    Get PDF
    Outsourcing is typically considered to occur in three phases: decision, transition and operation. As outsourcing is now well established the switching of vendors and transitioning from one system to another is common. However, most of the research to date on outsourcing has focused on the decision and operation phases, leaving a gap between theory and practice concerning the transition phase. Transition in outsourcing entails the changing of systems, business processes and/or vendors. If a suitable transition approach is not applied pressures for another transition can immediately build. This paper presents results from a case study carried out on the 'Novopay Project' in which the Ministry of Education in New Zealand changed their vendor from an onshore to a near-shore provider. This project resulted in a sequence of three transitions, with each following a different approach as a direct result of the experiences encountered in the previous transition. In this research we made use of the rich 'data dump' of evidence provided by the Ministry of Education (MoE). Our analysis describes how a client organization can become trapped in a continuous transition cycle if a suitable approach is not applied. Transition1 involved the client – MoE – moving from complete outsourcing to selective insourcing. After realizing that they did not have the capabilities to manage insourcing, Transition2 was initiated. In Transition2 the sourcing approach reverted back to complete outsourcing. When it was realized that the new vendor in Transition2 could not in fact deliver a new service model or support end-users in following new business processes, Transition3 was initiated. In Transition3, the client established an internal company to insource service operations to support end-users. Transition can be a sound business strategy initiated for a range of reasons. However, if a flawed sourcing approach is chosen it can result in 'continuous transition'

    The Analogy Between Heat and Mass Transfer in Low Temperature Crossflow Evaporation

    Get PDF
    This study experimentally determines the relationship between the heat and mass transfer, in a crossflow configuration in which a ducted airflow passes through a planar water jet. An initial exploration using the Chilton-Colburn analogy resulted in a coefficient of determination of 0.72. On this basis, a re-examination of the heat and mass transfer processes by Buckingham's-π theorem and a least square analysis led to the proposal of a new dimensionless number referred to as the Lewis Number of Evaporation. A modified version of the Chilton-Colburn analogy incorporating the Lewis Number of Evaporation was developed leading to a coefficient of determination of 0.96

    Analysis of Data Collected From Right and Left Limbs: Accounting for Dependence and Improving Statistical Efficiency in Musculoskeletal Research

    Get PDF
    Objectives Statistical techniques currently used in musculoskeletal research often inefficiently account for paired-limb measurements or the relationship between measurements taken from multiple regions within limbs. This study compared three commonly used analysis methods with a mixed-models approach that appropriately accounted for the association between limbs, regions, and trials and that utilised all information available from repeated trials. Method Four analysis were applied to an existing data set containing plantar pressure data, which was collected for seven masked regions on right and left feet, over three trials, across three participant groups. Methods 1–3 averaged data over trials and analysed right foot data (Method 1), data from a randomly selected foot (Method 2), and averaged right and left foot data (Method 3). Method 4 used all available data in a mixed-effects regression that accounted for repeated measures taken for each foot, foot region and trial. Confidence interval widths for the mean differences between groups for each foot region were used as a criterion for comparison of statistical efficiency. Results Mean differences in pressure between groups were similar across methods for each foot region, while the confidence interval widths were consistently smaller for Method 4. Method 4 also revealed significant between-group differences that were not detected by Methods 1–3. Conclusion A mixed effects linear model approach generates improved efficiency and power by producing more precise estimates compared to alternative approaches that discard information in the process of accounting for paired-limb measurements. This approach is recommended in generating more clinically sound and statistically efficient research outputs

    Meeting Employers Expectations of DevOps Roles: Can Dispositions Be Taught?

    Get PDF
    An abstract is not available

    Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Soil and Hypolithic Microbial Communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Get PDF
    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention, relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions

    Application of the Repetitions in Reserve-based Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Training

    Get PDF
    Ratings of perceived exertion are a valid method of estimating the intensity of a resistance training exercise or session. Scores are given after completion of an exercise or training session for the purposes of athlete monitoring. However, a newly developed scale based on how many repetitions are remaining at the completion of a set may be a more precise tool. This approach adjusts loads automatically to match athlete capabilities on a set-to-set basis and may more accurately gauge intensity at near-limit loads. This article outlines how to incorporate this novel scale into a training plan

    Persistent Asymmetric Structure of Sagittarius A* on Event Horizon Scales

    Get PDF
    The Galactic Center black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime observing target for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), which can resolve the 1.3 mm emission from this source on angular scales comparable to that of the general relativistic shadow. Previous EHT observations have used visibility amplitudes to infer the morphology of the millimeter-wavelength emission. Potentially much richer source information is contained in the phases. We report on 1.3 mm phase information on Sgr A* obtained with the EHT on a total of 13 observing nights over 4 years. Closure phases, the sum of visibility phases along a closed triangle of interferometer baselines, are used because they are robust against phase corruptions introduced by instrumentation and the rapidly variable atmosphere. The median closure phase on a triangle including telescopes in California, Hawaii, and Arizona is nonzero. This result conclusively demonstrates that the millimeter emission is asymmetric on scales of a few Schwarzschild radii and can be used to break 180-degree rotational ambiguities inherent from amplitude data alone. The stability of the sign of the closure phase over most observing nights indicates persistent asymmetry in the image of Sgr A* that is not obscured by refraction due to interstellar electrons along the line of sight
    AUT Scholarly Commonsis based in NZ
    Access Repository Dashboard
    Do you manage AUT Scholarly Commons? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Repository Dashboard! CORE Repository Dashboard!